Jackie Bosch

Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Are you Jackie Bosch?

Claim your profile

Publications (64)889.84 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce the impact of FTO variation and obesity genetic risk scores (GRS) on BMI. We examined this interaction using a quantitative measure of PA and two adiposity indexes in a longitudinal multi-ethnic study. We analyzed the impact of PA on the association between 14 obesity predisposing variants (analyzed independently and as a GRS) and baseline/follow-up obesity measures in the multi-ethnic prospective cohort EpiDREAM (17423 participants from six ethnic groups). PA was analyzed using basic (low-moderate-high) and quantitative measures (metabolic equivalents (METS)), while BMI and the body adiposity index (BAI) were used to measure obesity. Increased PA was associated with decreased BMI/BAI at baseline/follow-up. FTO rs1421085, CDKAL1 rs2206734, TNNl3K rs1514176, GIPR rs11671664 and the GRS were associated with obesity measures at baseline and/or follow-up. Risk alleles of three SNPs displayed nominal associations with increased (NTRK2 rs1211166, BDNF rs1401635) or decreased (NPC1 rs1805081) basic PA score independently of BMI/BAI. Both basic and quantitative PA measures attenuated the association between FTO rs1421085 risk allele and BMI/BAI at baseline and follow-up. Our results show that physical activity can blunt the genetic effect of FTO rs1421085 on adiposity by 36-75% in a longitudinal multi-ethnic cohort.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Scientific Reports
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Observational studies have shown a positive association between obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and depression. Around 120 obesity-associated loci have been identified, but genetic variants associated with depression remain elusive. Recently, our team reported that the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 obesity-risk variant is paradoxically inversely associated with the risk of depression. This finding raises the question as to whether other obesity-associated genetic variants are also associated with depression. Method: Twenty-one obesity gene variants other than FTO were selected from a custom ∼50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe array). Associations of these 21 SNPs and an unweighted genotype score with BMI and major depressive disorder (determined using the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) were tested in 3,209 cases and 14,195 noncases, using baseline data collected from July 2001 to August 2003 from the multiethnic EpiDREAM study. Results: Body mass index was positively associated with depression status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.02-1.03 per BMI unit; P = 2.9 × 10(-12), adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity). Six of 21 genetic variants (rs1514176 [TNN13K], rs2206734 [CDKAL1], rs11671664 [GIPR], rs2984618 [TAL1], rs3824755 [NT5C2], and rs7903146 [TCF7L2]) and the genotype score were significantly associated with BMI (1.47 × 10(-14) ≤ P ≤ .04). Of the 21 SNPs, TAL1 rs2984618 obesity-risk allele was associated with a higher risk of major depressive disorder (P = 1.79 × 10(-4), adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and ethnicity), and BDNF rs1401635 demonstrated significant ethnic-dependent association with major depressive disorder (OR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.97; P = .01 in non-Europeans and OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.02-1.20; P = .02 in Europeans; Pinteraction = 2.73 × 10(-4)). The genotype score, calculated with or without FTO rs9939609, and adjusted for the same covariates, was not associated with depression status. Conclusions: Our data support the view that the association between obesity and major depressive disorder at the observational level may be explained, at least in part, by shared genetic factors.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure, but the safety of these drugs in patients receiving dialysis is unclear. This study evaluated whether hyperkalemia and/or hypotension limited the use of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, in hemodialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a randomized controlled trial of prevalent patients receiving hemodialysis at five Canadian centers. Participants were randomly allocated to 13 weeks of eplerenone titrated to 50 mg daily (n=77) or a matching placebo (n=77). The primary outcome was permanent discontinuation of the drug because of hyperkalemia or hypotension. Secondary outcomes included hyperkalemia, hypotension, and cardiovascular events. RESULTS: Seventy-five eplerenone-treated patients and 71 placebo-treated patients were included in the per protocol population. The primary outcome occurred in three patients (4.0%) in the eplerenone group and two (2.8%) in the placebo group, for an absolute risk difference of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval, -4.7 to 7.1 percentage points). Eplerenone was interpreted as noninferior to placebo with respect to the primary outcome (i.e., a discontinuation rate for these reasons >10% was excluded). In the eplerenone group, nine patients (11.7%) developed hyperkalemia (potassium level >6.5 mEq/L), compared with two patients (2.6%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 20.2). There was no significant effect on predialysis or postdialysis BP. CONCLUSION: Eplerenone increased the risk of hyperkalemia but did not result in an excess need to permanently discontinue the drug. Further trials are required to determine whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients receiving long-term dialysis.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) can be effectively and safely lowered with statin drugs and BP-lowering drugs, reducing major cardiovascular (CV) events by 20%-30% within 5 years in high-risk individuals. However, there are limited data in lower-risk populations. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation-3 (HOPE-3) trial is evaluating whether cholesterol lowering with a statin drug, BP lowering with low doses of 2 antihypertensive agents, and their combination safely reduce major CV events in individuals at intermediate risk who have had no previous vascular events and have average cholesterol and BP levels. Methods: A total of 12,705 women 65 years or older and men 55 years or older with at least 1 CV risk factor, no known CV disease, and without any clear indication or contraindication to the study drugs were randomized to rosuvastatin 10 mg/d or placebo and to candesartan/hydrochlorothiazide 16/12.5 mg/d or placebo (2 × 2 factorial design) and will be followed for a mean of 5.8 years. The coprimary study outcomes are the composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and nonfatal stroke and the composite of CV death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest, heart failure, and arterial revascularization. Results: Participants were recruited from 21 countries in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Mean age at randomization was 66 years and 46% were women. Conclusions: The HOPE-3 trial will provide new information on cholesterol and BP lowering in intermediate-risk populations with average cholesterol and BP levels and is expected to inform approaches to primary prevention worldwide (HOPE-3 ClinicalTrials.govNCT00468923).
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Canadian journal of cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Journal of Diabetes
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. Methods: Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400 adults with definite or probable tuberculous pericarditis to either prednisolone or placebo for 6 weeks and to either M. indicus pranii or placebo, administered in five injections over the course of 3 months. Two thirds of the participants had concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. Results: There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between patients who received prednisolone and those who received placebo (23.8% and 24.5%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 1.18; P=0.66) or between those who received M. indicus pranii immunotherapy and those who received placebo (25.0% and 24.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.29; P=0.81). Prednisolone therapy, as compared with placebo, was associated with significant reductions in the incidence of constrictive pericarditis (4.4% vs. 7.8%; hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; P=0.009) and hospitalization (20.7% vs. 25.2%; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.99; P=0.04). Both prednisolone and M. indicus pranii, each as compared with placebo, were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of cancer (1.8% vs. 0.6%; hazard ratio, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 10.03; P=0.03, and 1.8% vs. 0.5%; hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.03 to 13.24; P=0.03, respectively), owing mainly to an increase in HIV-associated cancer. Conclusions: In patients with tuberculous pericarditis, neither prednisolone nor M. indicus pranii had a significant effect on the composite of death, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, or constrictive pericarditis. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; IMPI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00810849.).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · New England Journal of Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Hypertension is a major risk factor for functional impairment. Dependence is an important related outcome for older adults, but outcomes in hypertension trials appear to focus primarily on major vascular events. This systematic review had 2 objectives: (i) to determine the proportion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating antihypertensive therapies that reported a measure of a person’s ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) and (ii) to evaluate the effect of blood pressure (BP)–lowering therapies on ability to carry out ADL compared with control therapy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Hypertension
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To examine the association between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and motor vehicle crash (MVC) risk in a large cohort of community-dwelling participants with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes mellitus.DesignProspective observational study.SettingParticipants enrolled in the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global End Point Trial and Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease clinical trial, which included individuals aged 55 and older with CVD or diabetes mellitus.ParticipantsTotally 17,538 frequent drivers (defined as driving at least once per week) who had completed a baseline MMSE.MeasurementsInvolvement in a MVC as the driver.ResultsBaseline MMSE score was divided into four categories: 30, 27–29, 24–26, and < 24. The median MMSE score was 29 (interquartile range 27–30), and 726 (4.1%) has a MMSE score of less than 24 at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.5 years, 1,068 (6.1%) participants were drivers in a MVC. Lower scores were not associated with future MVCs (MMSE score 29–27, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93–1.22); MMSE score 26–24, HR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.78–1.19; MMSE score <24, HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.50–1.05) on multivariable analysis. A MVC within the previous 2 years (HR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.29–3.13) was the strongest predictor of future MVCs. Other clinical factors associated with greater MVC risk were depression, falls within the previous year, sleep apnea, and lower baseline systolic blood pressure.Conclusion In a population of frequent drivers, the MMSE does not predict MVCs. Other clinical factors have a stronger association with MVC risk.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Diabetes and non-diabetic dysglycaemia are risk factors for accelerated cognitive decline. In this planned substudy of the Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial, we assessed whether normalising glucose with insulin glargine or administering omega-3 fatty acids in this population may slow this process or affect the development of cognitive impairment. Methods The ORIGIN trial recruited participants older than 50 years with dysglycaemia who were taking either no or one oral glucose-lowering drug, who had additional risk factors for cardiovascular events, whose HbA1c was less than 9%, and who were not taking insulin. Participants were recruited from 573 sites in 40 countries. Participants were randomly assigned to either titrated basal insulin glargine targeting a fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5·3 mmol/L or lower or standard care and to either omega-3 fatty acid (1 g) or placebo by a factorial design. Outcome adjudicators and data analysts were masked to treatment allocation. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMS) and Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS). The effect of insulin glargine or omega-3 fatty * acid on cognitive function over time, the annualised change in test scores, and the development of probable cognitive impairment were measured. All analyses were restricted to those participants who had a cognitive measurement at both baseline and at least one follow-up visit. The ORIGIN trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00069784. Findings Participants were randomly assigned between Sept 1, 2003, and Dec 15, 2005. MMSE and DSS were assessed in 11 685 and 3392 ORIGIN participants (mean age 63·4 years [SD 7·7]), who were followed up for a median of 6·2 years (IQR 5·8–6·7). There was no difference in the rate of change of cognitive test scores between the insulin glargine and standard care groups (for the MMSE 0·0046, 95% CI −0·0132 to 0·0224, p=0·39; and for the DSS −0·0362, −0·2180 to 0·1455, p=0·34) or between the omega-3 fatty acid and placebo groups (for the MMSE 0·0013, 95% CI −0·0165 to 0·0191, p=0·21; and for the DSS −0·0605, −0·2422 to 0·1212, p=0·72). Similarly, the incidence of probable cognitive impairment did not differ between the insulin glargine and standard care groups (p=0·065) or the omega-3 fatty acid and placebo groups (p=0·070). In a subgroup analysis, allocation to insulin glargine versus standard care seemed to reduce the decline in the MMSE (but not the DSS) in participants with dysglycaemia but without evidence of diabetes (pinteraction=0·024). Interpretation In this relatively young cohort of people with dysglycaemia, insulin mediated normoglycaemia and omega-3 fatty acid for over 6 years had a neutral effect on the rate of cognitive decline and on incident cognitive impairment. Future studies should assess the effect of these interventions in an older cohort or the effect of other glucometabolic interventions on cognitive decline. Funding Sanofi.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As glycaemia and the incidence of microvascular diabetes complications follow a log-linear relationship, it becomes increasingly difficult to demonstrate a microvascular benefit of glucose-lowering when the HbA1c level is close to normal. The Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial randomised 12,537 people with diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose to receive standard glycaemic care or standard care with the addition of basal insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin), targeting a fasting plasma glucose level ≤5.3 mmol/l. Microvascular outcomes during a median follow-up of 6.2 years were examined in participants whose baseline HbA1c was above or below the median of 6.4% (46.4 mmol/mol). Allocation to the insulin glargine group reduced the incidence of the primary microvascular composite outcome of kidney and eye disease in participants whose baseline HbA1c level was ≥6.4% (46.4 mmol/mol; HR 0.90 [95% CI 0.81, 0.99]) but not in participants with a lower baseline HbA1c (HR 1.07 [95% CI 0.95, 1.20]; p value for interaction 0.031). In people whose baseline HbA1c level was ≥6.4% (46.4 mmol/mol), the median post-randomisation change in HbA1c was -0.65% (interquartile range -0.16, -0.91%) after allocation to insulin glargine and -0.33% (-0.83, 0.13%) after allocation to standard care (median HbA1c difference 0.33%; p < 0.0001). A smaller median difference of 0.22% was noted in people whose baseline HbA1c was <6.4% (p < 0.0001). In patients with dysglycaemia, intervention targeting normal fasting glucose levels reduced HbA1c and attenuated the risk of microvascular outcomes in participants with a baseline HbA1c level ≥6.4% (46.4 mmol/mol). A neutral effect was seen in those with a lower baseline HbA1c level. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00069784.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Diabetologia
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · International journal of cardiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the unclear question whether blood pressure (BP) lowering reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly individuals with systolic BP <160 mm Hg. We initiated a randomized placebo-controlled stratified 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial evaluating the effects of BP lowering in 11 000 elderly individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 130 and 159 mm Hg, for 5 years. Following 5-week active run-in, participants were randomized to aliskiren (300 mg) or placebo, and to an additional antihypertensive [hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg) or amlodipine (5 mg)], or their respective placeboes. Study was terminated by sponsor after 1759 subjects (age 72.1 ± 5.2 years, 88% receiving at least one antihypertensive) were randomized and followed for 0.6 year. Study drugs were well tolerated with few serious adverse events during run-in and after randomization, with no significant differences between treatment groups. By design, three levels of BP reductions were achieved, adjusted mean BP reductions of 3.5/1.7 mm Hg (P < 0.001) by aliskiren, 6.8/3.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001) by hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipine, and 10.3/5.0 mm Hg (P < 0.001) by double therapy compared with placebo. Twenty-five major CVD events occurred. Non-significant trends towards fewer CVD events with greater BP reductions are evident: hazard ratios (HR) 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-1.81] for 3.5 mm Hg SBP reduction; HR 0.45 (95% CI: 0.19-1.04) for 6.8 mm Hg; and HR 0.25 (0.05-1.18) for 10.3 mm Hg reduction for primary composite of CV death, MI, stroke, or significant heart failure. Sizeable reductions in BP, with potential for substantial CVD reduction, can be safely achieved using combinations of BP drugs in the elderly with normal high and Stage 1 hypertension. NCT01259297.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · European Heart Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. METHODS: In this international, prospective cohort study of 15,065 patients aged 45 yr or older who underwent in-patient noncardiac surgery, troponin T was measured during the first 3 postoperative days. Patients with a troponin T level of 0.04 ng/ml or greater (elevated "abnormal" laboratory threshold) were assessed for ischemic features (i.e., ischemic symptoms and electrocardiography findings). Patients adjudicated as having a nonischemic troponin elevation (e.g., sepsis) were excluded. To establish diagnostic criteria for MINS, the authors used Cox regression analyses in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality (260 deaths) and independent variables included preoperative variables, perioperative complications, and potential MINS diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: An elevated troponin after noncardiac surgery, irrespective of the presence of an ischemic feature, independently predicted 30-day mortality. Therefore, the authors' diagnostic criterion for MINS was a peak troponin T level of 0.03 ng/ml or greater judged due to myocardial ischemia. MINS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.96-5.08) and had the highest population-attributable risk (34.0%, 95% CI, 26.6-41.5) of the perioperative complications. Twelve hundred patients (8.0%) suffered MINS, and 58.2% of these patients would not have fulfilled the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Only 15.8% of patients with MINS experienced an ischemic symptom. CONCLUSION: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, MINS is common and associated with substantial mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Anesthesiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. Methods: In this international, prospective cohort study of 15,065 patients aged 45 yr or older who underwent in-patient noncardiac surgery, troponin T was measured during the first 3 postoperative days. Patients with a troponin T level of 0.04 ng/ml or greater (elevated "abnormal" laboratory threshold) were assessed for ischemic features (i.e., ischemic symptoms and electrocardiography findings). Patients adjudicated as having a nonischemic troponin elevation (e.g., sepsis) were excluded. To establish diagnostic criteria for MINS, the authors used Cox regression analyses in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality (260 deaths) and independent variables included preoperative variables, perioperative complications, and potential MINS diagnostic criteria. Results: An elevated troponin after noncardiac surgery, irrespective of the presence of an ischemic feature, independently predicted 30-day mortality. Therefore, the authors' diagnostic criterion for MINS was a peak troponin T level of 0.03 ng/ml or greater judged due to myocardial ischemia. MINS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.96-5.08) and had the highest population-attributable risk (34.0%, 95% CI, 26.6-41.5) of the perioperative complications. Twelve hundred patients (8.0%) suffered MINS, and 58.2% of these patients would not have fulfilled the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Only 15.8% of patients with MINS experienced an ischemic symptom. Conclusion: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, MINS is common and associated with substantial mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Anesthesiology
  • Source

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
  • Source

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
  • Source

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
  • Source

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Epidemiologic studies linking insulin glargine and glucose-lowering therapies to cancers and n-3 fatty acids to cancer prevention have not been confirmed. We aim to assess the effect of insulin glargine and n-3 fatty acids on incident cancers within the context of the ORIGIN (Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention) trial.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ORIGIN trial is an international, long-term, randomized two-by-two factorial study comparing insulin glargine with standard care and n-3 fatty acids with placebo (double blind) in people with dysglycemia at high risk for cardiovascular events. The primary outcome measure (cancer substudy) was the occurrence of any new or recurrent adjudicated cancer. Cancer mortality and cancer subtypes were also analyzed.RESULTSAmong 12,537 people (mean age 63.5 years, SD 7.8; 4,388 females), 953 developed a cancer event during the median follow-up of 6.2 years. In the glargine and standard care groups, the incidence of cancers was 1.32 and 1.32 per 100 person-years, respectively (P = 0.97), and in the n-3 fatty acid and placebo group, it was 1.28 and 1.36 per 100 person-years, respectively (P = 0.39). No difference in the effect of either intervention was noted within predefined subgroups (P for all interactions ≥ 0.17). Cancer-related mortality and cancer-specific outcomes also did not differ between groups. Postrandomization HbA1c levels, glucose-lowering therapies (including metformin), and BMI did not affect cancer outcomes.CONCLUSIONS Insulin glargine and n-3 fatty acids have a neutral association with overall and cancer-specific outcomes, including cancer-specific mortality. Exposure to glucose-lowering therapies, including metformin, and HbA1c level during study did not alter cancer risk.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Diabetes care
  • Source

    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2014

Publication Stats

4k Citations
889.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2015
    • Population Health Research Institute
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002-2015
    • McMaster University
      • • Population Health Research Institute (PHRI)
      • • Department of Medicine
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006
    • Hamilton Health Sciences
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • London Health Sciences Centre
      London, Ontario, Canada