Glenn M Cannon

Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (49)130.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective-: To review twenty years of a prospectively maintained trauma database to identify changing trends in mechanisms of renal injury, demographics, and management outcomes. Materials and methods-: Following IRB approval, a prospectively maintained trauma database was reviewed for renal trauma patient demographics, management, and mechanisms of injury. Data was reviewed first for the entire cohort and then incrementally to identify mechanisms of injury associated with increasing frequency or grade of injury. Results-: A total of 228 graded renal injuries were identified from 1993-2013. The majority of renal injuries occurred in males (77.2%) greater than 6 years of age (85.1%). Low grade (I-III) injuries were more common (70.6%). The most frequent mechanisms of injury identified were: falls, recreational motor vehicle (RMV) accidents, bike accidents, motor vehicle collisions, and sports accidents, in descending order of frequency. RMV-related injuries have become frequent with time despite recommendations against use in the pediatric age population. Surgical intervention was rarely necessary. Over the 20 year study period, five nephrectomies (1.4%) were required while 10 endoscopic interventions or percutaneous drainage procedures were needed (2.4%). Conclusions-: The majority of blunt pediatric renal injuries are low grade and can be managed nonoperatively. Nephrectomy is rarely required but is indicated for hemodynamic instability refractory to resuscitation. Pediatric blunt renal trauma secondary to RMV use is increasing despite recommendations against their use in the pediatric population.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether children discharged with prophylactic antibiotics following laparoscopic pyeloplasty with indwelling ureteral stent have a decrease risk of postoperative urinary tract infections compared to those discharged without antibiotics. Methods: A retrospective review of all minimally invasive pyeloplasties performed at our institution from January 2009 - March 2015 was conducted. Patients were discharged home with or without daily prophylactic-dose antibiotics continued until three days after ureteral stent removal per surgeon preference. The primary outcome was incidence of culture positive urinary tract infection. Secondary outcomes included bacteriuria at time of stent removal and adverse events associated with extended antibiotic therapy. Results: Of 163 pyeloplasties (106 robotic and 57 pure laparoscopic) performed over the study period, 126 patients were discharged on prophylactic antibiotics while 37 patients were discharged without prophylaxis. Groups were different with respect to median age (7.1 vs. 12.0 years, p = 0.03) and median duration of ureteral stent (35 days vs. 28 days, p = 0.02). The incidence of culture positive urinary tract infection between the time of discharge and stent removal was comparably low between groups, 2/126 (1.6%) in the prophylaxis group and 1/37 (2.7%) in the group not on prophylaxis. At time of stent removal, perioperative urine culture was positive in 2/20 (10.0 %) patients who received prophylactic antibiotics and in 1/25 (4.0%) patients who did not (p=0.54). Conclusion: The administration of extended prophylactic antibiotics showed no significant impact on the rate of urinary tract infection following minimally invasive pyeloplasty.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the outcomes of ureteroscopic intervention in terms of both the stone free rate and complications in both prepubertal and adolescent patients. Safety of pediatric ureteroscopic intervention though is well established, a comparative outcome of prepubertal and adolescent patients is lacking. Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent ureteroscopic treatment of a renal or ureteral stone at our institution from July 2005 - August 2014 were retrospectively identified. Patients were classified by age either as prepubertal (≤ 11 years) or adolescent (> 11 years) for purposes of comparison. Demographic and intraoperative variables as well as 30-day postoperative complication rates were compared between groups. Data were analyzed using χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. Results: A total of 104 patients were identified, of whom 64 (62%) were prepubertal and 40 (38%) were adolescent. Ureteroscopic failure occurred in a minority of patients (5% vs 4.7%, p > 0.9). Complication rates including ureteral perforation (0% vs 1.6%, p > 0.9), postoperative UTI (2.5% vs 4.7%, p > 0.9), hematuria with clot passage (0% vs 7.8%, p = 0.15) and persistent flank pain (15% vs 17%, p = 0.85) were not significantly different between adolescent and prepubertal patients respectively. Conclusions: In spite of small size and small body habitus the ureteroscopic management of pediatric urolithiasis can be performed successfully in both the prepubertal and adolescent patients with acceptable and equivalent morbidity as well as successful clearance of stone.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Although the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications was evaluated using a cohort of adult surgery patients, it is being applied to pediatric populations. We hypothesized that this instrument is not well-suited to children and sought to determine the reliability of the tool in a pediatric urologic population. Materials & methods: We replaced the adult surgical cases in the "Survey to Assess Acceptability and Reproducibility of the Classification" from the original study with pediatric urology cases and mimicked original study methods. The survey was distributed with REDCap electronic data capture tool and Krippendorff's alpha coefficients of reliability (α) were calculated from the responses. Results: There were 51 respondents and 40 complete responses. Krippendorff's alpha coefficient of reliability for the Clavien-Dindo Classification (0.487) did not achieve the minimum level of acceptable agreement (α=0.667) with the pediatric urologic cases, even when the disability suffix (α=0.266) was excluded from the analysis (α=0.632). The accuracy of the grading system with the pediatric urologic surgical cases when excluding the disability suffix (75%, 410/550) was significantly less than the accuracy had been with the original adult cases (90%, 1816/2016; p<0.0001). While 89% (32/36) of respondents thought the system was appropriate for adults, only 49% (17/35) found it appropriate for pediatrics (p<0.001). Conclusions: The Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications is not a reliable tool for use in pediatric urology, where its accuracy is significantly decreased from its accuracy with adult surgical cases. Further study is needed to determine if findings are similar across all pediatric surgical groups.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the increasing incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis, there is little data quantifying the radiation exposure associated with treatment of this disease. In this study, pediatric patients with nephrolithiasis who were managed at a single institution were identified, and the average fluoroscopy time and estimated radiation exposure associated with their procedures were reported. Methods: Stone procedures performed on pediatric patients between 2005 and 2012 were retrospectively identified. Procedures were classified as primary ureteroscopy (URS), stent placement prior to ureteroscopy (SURS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and bilateral ureteroscopy (BLURS). Patient demographic information, stone size, stone location, number of radiographic images, and fluoroscopy times were analyzed. Results: A total of 152 stone procedures were included in the final analysis (92 URS, 38 SURS, eight BLURS and 14 PCNL). Mean patient age at time of stone treatment was 15.94 ± 4.1 years. Median fluoroscopy times were 1.6 (IQR 0.8-2.4), 2.1 (IQR 1.6-3.0), 2.5 (IQR 2.0-2.9), and 11.7 (IQR 5.0-18.5) minutes for URS, SURS, BLURS and PCNL, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between stone size and fluoroscopy time (r = 0.33). When compared with ureteroscopic procedures, PCNL was associated with a significantly higher fluoroscopy time (11.7 vs 2.1 min, P < 0.001). The estimated median effective dose was 3 mSv for ureteroscopic procedures and 16.8 mSv for PCNL. In addition to radiation exposure during treatment, patients in this cohort were exposed to an average of one (IQR1-3) CT scan and three (IQR 1-8) abdominal X-rays. No new malignancies were identified during the limited follow-up period. Conclusions: Radiation exposure during treatment of pediatric stone disease is not trivial, and is significantly greater when PCNL is performed. Given the recommended maximum effective dose of 50 mSv in any one year, urologists should closely monitor the amount of fluoroscopy used, and consider the potential for radiation exposure when choosing the operative approach. Prospective studies are currently underway to elucidate precise dose measurements and localize sites of radiation exposure in children during stone treatment.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of pediatric urology
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    ABSTRACT: A 1-day old boy born at 37 weeks gestation presented with hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable irregular right flank mass. Renal ultrasound demonstrated large clot within the bladder, bilateral kidney masses with loss of corticomedullary differentiation and reversal of diastolic flow. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral renal vein thrombosis and was managed conservatively. There was complete resolution of the bladder clot with restoration of corticomedullary differentiation bilaterally. We report the first case of renal vein thrombosis associated with a large bladder clot in a neonate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To perform a multi-institutional assessment of the outcomes and complications of robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation with 1 of 5 surgeons at Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, TX or Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh from 2010 to 2013 was performed. Failure of the procedure was defined as persistence of VUR on post-operative voiding cystourethrogram or radionucleotide cystogram and/or the need for reoperation. Multivariate logistic regression to identify possible risk factors for failure was performed with STATA® 11. Results A total of 61 patients (93 ureters) with a mean age of 6.7 years (0.6-18.0) underwent a procedure, 32 (52%) of which were bilateral. Ten patients (16%) had undergone previous subureteric injection for VUR. At a mean follow-up of 11.7 months, the procedure was successful in 44/61 (72%). There were 14 cases of persistent VUR (23%), 6 complications (10%), and 9 re-operations (11%). No factor was identified on multivariate logistic regression that increased patient risk for failure (p= 0.737). Conclusions We found a notably lower success rate for robot-assisted laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation in the hands of 5 fellowship-trained, robotically-experienced pediatric urologists than reported in the literature. Over 10% of patients required at least one reoperation for either persistent VUR or a surgical complication. Our experience suggests a higher complication and lower success rate for robot assisted laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation when compared to the gold standard of open reimplantation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Circumcision is the most common surgical procedure in males in the United States, and minor complications are not uncommon. Major complications like partial penile amputations have been reported with successful replantation. Complete penile amputations in adult males have been described, and successful replantation has been reported with increasing success. We report a case of complete penile amputation at the penopubic junction using a Mogen clamp in a 7-day-old neonate with replantation using postoperative leech therapy. To our knowledge this is the first time leech therapy has been used postoperatively for neonatal penile amputation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Urology
  • Jeremy N Reese · Janelle A Fox · Glenn M Cannon · Michael C Ost
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine which pediatric patients sustaining blunt grade IV renal trauma are at highest risk for failing non-operative management and in what time frame those patients will likely present. We retrospectively reviewed children with non-vascular grade IV blunt renal trauma between 2003-2012. We compared characteristics on computerized tomography, reasons for intervention, type of and timing of surgery, length of stay (LOS) and need for readmission between patients undergoing early intervention (<72 hours after admission) versus patients in whom conservative management was attempted, with any interventions occurring >72 hours after admission. Twenty-six children were identified with non-vascular grade 4 blunt renal trauma. Conservative management was attempted on 16 (62%) patients. Seven (44%) of these patients required intervention (ureteral stent and/or percutaneous drain placement) with a mean time to intervention of 11 days. Collecting system clot and larger urinoma (1.45cm vs 4.29cm) significantly predicted failure of conservative management (P<0.05). Presence of dissociated renal fragments (57% vs 11%) and interpolar contrast extravasation (57% vs 0%) were more common in the intervention group (P>0.05), as were readmissions (43% vs 0%), mean LOS (7.9 vs 5.4 days) and transfusions (14% vs 0%) (P>0.05). Collecting system hematoma and urinoma size significantly predicted failure of conservative management with a mean time to intervention of 11 days. Patients who failed conservative management had a greater incidence of dissociated renal fragments and interpolar extravasation. Early identification of these children may reduce hospital readmissions, LOS and prolonged morbidity.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: TURNER RM, TOMASZEWSKI JJ, FOX JA, GALAMBOS C, CANNON JR GM. Metanephric adenofibroma. Can J Urol 2013;20(1):6737-6738. A 10-year-old boy underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan for left flank pain following a fall. Imaging demonstrated a 5 cm left upper pole renal mass. Partial nephrectomy revealed metanephric adenofibroma, a benign stromal-epithelial tumor thought to represent a hyperdifferentiated, mature form of Wilms' tumor. We briefly discuss the histopathology and management of this rare tumor.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · The Canadian Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: An increasing percentage of pediatric pyeloplasties are being performed with assistance of the da Vinci® Surgical System. A review of the recent literature shows decreased operative times and length of hospital stays when robotic procedures are performed, although there are few published data comparing the cost of pediatric robotic and pure laparoscopic pyeloplasty. We reviewed a representative sample of pyeloplasties performed at our institution and performed a cost analysis. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified 23 robot-assisted and 23 laparoscopic pyeloplasties performed at our institution between August 2008 and April 2012. Total cost was calculated from direct and indirect costs provided by our billing department. Results: Robotic procedures were shorter than pure laparoscopic procedures (200 vs 265 minutes, p <0.001) but there was no significant difference in the total cost of the 2 procedures ($15,337 vs $16,067, p <0.46). When compared to laparoscopic cases, subgroup analysis demonstrated decreased operative times (140 vs 265 minutes, p <0.00001) and total cost ($11,949 vs $16,067, p <0.0001) in robotic cases where stents were placed in an antegrade fashion. Conclusions: With widespread use the cost of robotic instrumentation may decrease, and experience may further shorten operative times. However, it currently remains to be seen whether robotic technology will become a cost-effective replacement for pure laparoscopy in the management of pediatric ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The Journal of urology
  • Glenn M Cannon

    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Variant presentations of cloacal exstrophy are exceedingly rare. Historically, genetic males with cloacal extrophy were re-assigned to the female gender due to phallic inadequacy. Early recognition of intravesical phallic structures in cloacal exstrophy cases may impact gender reassignment discussions and long-term gender outcomes. We report the case of a male infant with cloacal exstrophy presenting with an intravesical phallus, review and compare the presenting anatomical features of the three previously reported cases, and discuss the potential impact of these findings on gender reassignment in these complex children.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of pediatric urology
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, patients seek medical information via the Internet, despite highly variable information quality. We sought to determine whether controversial urological topics are associated with decreased content quality or search characteristics. We systematically searched the Internet for 5 noncontroversial (cryptorchidism, testicular torsion, urethral stricture, testicular cancers, renal cancers) and 5 controversial (disorders of sexual differentiation, circumcision, penile elongation, interstitial cystitis, testosterone therapy) conditions. Number of total hits, sponsored links, page owner and author, accreditation, updates, advertising, readability, and content quality were assessed for each topic. Content quality was determined on a 5-point scale for accuracy and completeness of 3 domains: diagnosis, natural history, and treatment. In total, 100 websites were evaluated. Noncontroversial topics had more hits (1,610,000 vs 475,000) and more sponsored links (30% vs 10%) than controversial topics. Noncontroversial web pages were more likely to have government or medical owners (58% vs 30%, P = .009) than controversial web pages. Website quality was significantly different between noncontroversial and controversial topics. In regard to accuracy, noncontroversial topics had higher scores for diagnosis (4.6 vs 3.8, P <.0001), natural history (4.5 vs 3.2, P <.0001), and treatment (4.6 vs 3.3, P <.0001). Similarly, noncontroversial topics had higher completeness scores for diagnosis (3.8 vs 3.0, P = .001), natural history (3.7 vs 3.0, P = .003), and treatment (3.6 vs 3.0, P = .006). Web pages dedicated to controversial urological topics have lower quality content in regard to diagnosis, natural history, and treatment. Such quality issues may contribute to ongoing public confusion and misinformation regarding these challenging topics.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Physics in Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: In the US, there has been an evolution in the practice of pediatric urology from a primary academic sub-specialty focused on reconstruction of major congenital genitorurinary abnormalities to a mixed academic and private practice that serves as the primary care giver for all pediatric urologic concerns. The estimated manpower needs were unable to be resolved, due to our inability to determine the impact of sub-specialty certification on referral patterns, along with the failure to embrace the use of physician extenders. Here, we review a series of surveys performed in 2006-2010 regarding the sub-specialty of pediatric urology. The four surveys focused on workforce needs, appraised the financial impact of educational debt on the pediatric urology community, and evaluated concerns of the current fellows in training. The median financial income for a pediatric urologist, the resident's educational debt load, and a desire of the fellows to have an open dialog with the urologic community regarding the merits of the research year are revealed. We have identified that the ability to recruit fellows into our field is dependent upon a combination of factors: interest in the field, job availability in relationship to geographic locations, mentoring, concerns regarding financial/familial hardships encountered during a 2-year fellowship, and the lack of increased financial reimbursement for the extra training required.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of pediatric urology
  • Glenn M. Cannon · Richard S. Lee
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    ABSTRACT: In 1993, Jordan and Winslow described laparoscopic upper pole partial nephrectomy in a 14-year-old girl with bilateral duplicated collecting systems [1]. Since that time, there has been a substantial amount of literature devoted to laparoscopic renal surgery in children. Prior to and including 2009, there have been 28 case series of retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy [2–29], 26 case series of transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy [2, 11, 28, 30–52], and 3 case series of robotic-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy [53–55]. Regardless of the approach taken, the literature reveals that laparoscopic renal ablative surgery in children is safe and effective [56]. KeywordsPediatric-Laparoscopic-Robotic-Upper pole-Nephrectomy-Nonfunctioning-Moieties
    No preview · Chapter · Dec 2010
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal method for neovagina creation in patients with vaginal agenesis is controversial. Progressive perineal dilation is a minimally invasive method with high success rates. However, the economic merits of progressive perineal dilation compared to surgical vaginoplasty are unknown. We performed a Markov based cost-effectiveness analysis of 3 management strategies for vaginal agenesis-progressive perineal dilation with and without subsequent vaginoplasty, and up-front vaginoplasty. Cost data were drawn from the Pediatric Health Information System database (2004 to 2009) for inpatient procedures and from governmental cost data (2009) for outpatient procedures and clinical followup. Other model parameters were derived from a systematic literature review and comparison with other congenital and acquired pediatric and/or adolescent gynecologic conditions. Bounded and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to assess model stability. Including all procedures, equipment and physician visits, progressive perineal dilation had a mean cost of $796, while vaginoplasty cost $18,520. Up-front vaginoplasty was strongly dominated at any age, ie was more expensive but no more effective than other options. In cases of progressive perineal dilation failure the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of progressive perineal dilation with subsequent vaginoplasty was $1,564 per quality adjusted life-year. Only the utility weights of life after treatment impacted model outcomes, while frequency of followup and probability of treatment success did not. Initial progressive perineal dilation followed by vaginoplasty in cases of dilation failure is the most cost-effective management strategy for vaginal agenesis. Initial vaginoplasty was less cost-effective than initial progressive perineal dilation in 99.99% of simulations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · The Journal of urology
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, gastrointestinal segments are considered the gold standard for bladder reconstructive procedures. However, significant complications including chronic urinary tract infection, metabolic abnormalities, urinary stone formation, bowel dysfunction, and secondary malignancies are associated with this approach. Biomaterials derived from silk fibroin may represent a superior alternative due their robust mechanical properties, biodegradable features, and processing plasticity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a gel spun silk-based matrix for bladder augmentation in a murine model. Over the course of 70 d implantation period, H&E and Masson's trichrome (MTS) analysis revealed that silk matrices were capable of supporting both urothelial and smooth muscle regeneration at the defect site. Prominent uroplakin and contractile protein expression (α-actin, calponin, and SM22α) was evident by immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating maturation of the reconstituted bladder wall compartments. Gel spun silk matrices also elicited a minimal acute inflammatory reaction following 70 d of bladder integration, in contrast to parallel assessments of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and poly-glycolic acid (PGA) matrices which routinely promoted evidence of fibrosis and chronic inflammatory responses. Voided stain on paper analysis revealed that silk augmented animals displayed similar voiding patterns in comparison to non surgical controls by 42 d of implantation. In addition, cystometric evaluations of augmented bladders at 70 d post-op demonstrated that silk scaffolds supported significant increases in bladder capacity and voided volume while maintaining similar degrees of compliance relative to the control group. These results provide evidence for the utility of gel spun silk-based matrices for functional bladder tissue engineering applications.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: Overdistension of hollow organs evokes pathological changes characterized by smooth muscle remodeling. Mechanical stimuli induce smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth through acute activation of signaling cascades and by increased expression of soluble mitogens. Physical forces have also been implicated in ligand-independent activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, including the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, although the extent to which this occurs in intact tissue is unknown. Previously, we implicated Akt and activator protein-1 (AP-1) as mediators of growth and gene expression in SMC exposed to cyclic stretch or PDGF. Here we show that bladder wall distension leads to PDGFR activation and identify thrombomodulin (TM) as an Akt and AP-1 target in SMC. We demonstrate that TM, also induced by bladder stretch injury, is regulated at the transcriptional level by the AP-1 components c-jun and Fra1. Mutation of an AP-1 motif at -2010/-2004 abolished both AP-1 binding and PDGF responsiveness of the TM promoter. Fra1 silencing diminished PDGF-induced TM expression and SMC cell cycle transit. In contrast, TM knockdown did not affect cell growth but attenuated PDGF-stimulated SMC migration. Taken together, these results reveal new facets of TM regulation in SMC and provide the first demonstration of a role for endogenous TM in PDGF-induced cell migration. Moreover, TM induction on bladder injury suggests that it may be a biomarker for pathological smooth muscle remodeling.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · American Journal Of Pathology

Publication Stats

501 Citations
130.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2016
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Pediatric Nephrology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2004-2015
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Urology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • American Academy of Pediatrics
      Elk Grove Village, Illinois, United States
  • 2010-2011
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009-2010
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Urology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Tufts University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Бостон, Georgia, United States