John C Gore

Vanderbilt University, Нашвилл, Michigan, United States

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Publications (722)2831.54 Total impact

  • Jingping Xie · Chunxia Wang · John C Gore
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    ABSTRACT: The development of new anti-cancer therapeutic agents is necessary to improve antitumor efficacy and reduce toxicities. Here we report using a systematic anticancer drug screening approach we developed previously, to concurrently screen colon and glioma cancer cell lines for 2000 compounds with known bioactivity and 1920 compounds with unknown activity. The hits specific to each tumor cell line were then selected, and further tested with the same cells transfected with EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) alone. By comparing the percentage of signal reduction from the same cells transfected with the sensor-conjugated reporter system; hits preferably causing apoptosis were identified. Among the known lead compounds, many cardiac glycosides used as cardiotonic drugs were found to effectively and specifically kill colon cancer cells, while statins (hypolipidemic agents) used as cholesterol lowering drugs were relatively more effective in killing glioma cells.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening
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    ABSTRACT: Mapping axon diameter is of interest for the potential diagnosis and monitoring of various neuronal pathologies. Advanced diffusion-weighted MRI methods have been developed to measure mean axon diameters non-invasively, but suffer major drawbacks that prevent their direct translation into clinical practice, such as complex non-linear data fitting and, more importantly, long scanning times that are usually not tolerable for most human subjects. In the current study, temporal diffusion spectroscopy using oscillating diffusion gradients was used to measure mean axon diameters with high sensitivity to small axons in the central nervous system. Axon diameters have been found to be correlated with a novel metric, DDR⊥ (the rate of dispersion of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient with gradient frequency), which is a model-free quantity that does not require complex data analyses and can be obtained from two diffusion coefficient measurements in clinically relevant times with conventional MRI machines. A comprehensive investigation including computer simulations and animal experiments ex vivo showed that measurements of DDR⊥ agree closely with histological data. In humans in vivo, DDR⊥ was also found to correlate well with reported mean axon diameters in human corpus callosum, and the total scan time was only about 8 min. In conclusion, DDR⊥ may have potential to serve as a fast, simple and model-free approach to map the mean axon diameter of white matter in clinics for assessing axon diameter changes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · NMR in Biomedicine

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of renal failure; however, current clinical tests are insufficient for assessing this disease. DN is associated with changes in renal metabolites, so we evaluated the utility of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging to detect changes characteristic of this disease. Methods: Sensitivity of CEST imaging at 7 Tesla to DN was evaluated by imaging diabetic mice [db/db, db/db endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-/-] that show different levels of nephropathy as well as by longitudinal imaging (8 to 24 weeks). Nondiabetic (db/m) mice were used as controls. Results: Compared with nondiabetic mice, the CEST contrasts of hydroxyl metabolites that correspond to glucose and glycogen were significantly increased in papilla (P), inner medulla (IM), and outer medulla (OM) in db/db and db/db eNOS-/- kidneys at 16 weeks. The db/db eNOS-/- mice that showed advanced nephropathy exhibited greater CEST effects in OM and significant CEST contrasts were also observed in cortex. Longitudinally, db/db mice exhibited progressive increases in hydroxyl signals in IM+P and OM from 12 to 24 weeks and an increase was also observed in cortex at 24 weeks. Conclusion: CEST MRI can be used to measure changes of hydroxyl metabolites in kidney during progression of DN. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neuroimaging studies in younger adults have demonstrated sex differences in brain processing of painful experimental stimuli. Such differences may contribute to findings that women suffer disproportionately from pain. It is not known whether sex-related differences in pain processing extend to older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated sex differences in pain reports and brain response to pain in 12 cognitively healthy older female adults and 12 cognitively healthy age-matched older male adults (age range 65-81, median = 67). Participants underwent psychophysical assessments of thermal pain responses, functional MRI, and psychosocial assessment. Results: When compared to older males, older females reported experiencing mild and moderate pain at lower stimulus intensities (i.e., exhibited greater pain sensitivity; Cohen's d = 0.92 and 0.99, respectively, p < 0.01) yet did not report greater pain-associated unpleasantness. Imaging results indicated that, despite the lower stimulus intensities required to elicit mild pain detection in females, they exhibited less deactivations than males in regions associated with the default mode network (DMN) and in regions associated with pain affect (bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, somatomotor area, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and dorsal ACC). Conversely, at moderate pain detection levels, males exhibited greater activation than females in several ipsilateral regions typically associated with pain sensation (e.g., primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory cortices (SII) and posterior insula). Sex differences were found in the association of brain activation in the left rACC with pain unpleasantness. In the combined sample of males and females, brain activation in the right secondary somatosensory cortex was associated with pain unpleasantness. Conclusions: Cognitively healthy older adults in the sixth and seventh decades of life exhibit similar sex differences in pain sensitivity compared to those reported in younger individuals. However, older females did not find pain to be more unpleasant. Notably, increased sensitivity to mild pain in older females was reflected via less brain deactivation in regions associated with both the DMN and in pain affect. Current findings elevate the rACC as a key region associated with sex differences in reports of pain unpleasantness and brain deactivation in older adults. Also, pain affect may be encoded in SII in both older males and females.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Biology of Sex Differences
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    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging usually detects changes in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions, and is most effective in detecting activity in brain cortex which is irrigated by rich vasculature to meet high metabolic demands. We recently demonstrated that MRI signals from T2*-sensitive acquisitions in a resting state exhibit structure-specific temporal correlations along white matter tracts. In this report we validate our preliminary findings and introduce spatio-temporal functional correlation tensors to characterize the directional preferences of temporal correlations in MRI signals acquired at rest. The results bear a remarkable similarity to data obtained by diffusion tensor imaging but without any diffusion-encoding gradients. Just as in gray matter, temporal correlations in resting state signals may reflect intrinsic synchronizations of neural activity in white matter. Here we demonstrate that functional correlation tensors are able to visualize long range white matter tracts as well as short range sub-cortical fibers imaged at rest, and that evoked functional activities alter these structures and enhance the visualization of relevant neural circuitry. Furthermore, we explore the biophysical mechanisms underlying these phenomena by comparing pulse sequences, which suggest that white matter signal variations are consistent with hemodynamic (BOLD) changes associated with neural activity. These results suggest new ways to evaluate MRI signal changes within white matter.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging may potentially detect mobile proteins/peptides non-invasively in vivo, but its specificity may be reduced by contamination from other confounding effects such as asymmetry of non-specific magnetization transfer (MT) effects and spin-lattice relaxation with rate R1 (=1/T1 ). Previously reported spillover, MT and R1 correction methods were based on a two-pool model, in which the existence of multiple water compartments with heterogeneous relaxation properties in real tissues was ignored. Such simple models may not adequately represent real tissues, and thus such corrections may be unreliable. The current study investigated the effectiveness and accuracy of correcting for R1 in APT imaging via simulations and in vivo experiments using tumor-bearing rats subjected to serial injections of Gd-DTPA that produced different tissue R1 values in regions of blood-brain-barrier breakdown. The results suggest that conventional measurements of APT contrast (such as APT* and MTRasym ) may be significantly contaminated by R1 variations, while the R1 -corrected metric AREX* was found to be relatively unaffected by R1 changes over a broad range (0.4-1 Hz). Our results confirm the importance of correcting for spin-lattice relaxation effects in quantitative APT imaging, and demonstrate the reliability of using the observed tissue R1 for corrections to obtain more specific and accurate measurements of APT contrast in vivo. The results also indicate that, due to relatively fast transcytolemmal water exchange, the influence of intra- and extracellular water compartments on CEST measurements with seconds long saturation time may be ignored in tumors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · NMR in Biomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeThe goal of this study was to investigate the influence of water compartmentation and heterogeneous relaxation properties on quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging in tissues, and in particular whether a two-pool model is sufficient to describe qMT data in brain tumors.Methods Computer simulations and in vivo experiments with a series of qMT measurements before and after injection of Gd-DTPA were performed. Both off-resonance pulsed saturation (pulsed) and on-resonance selective inversion recovery (SIR) qMT methods were used, and all data were fit with a two-pool model only.ResultsSimulations indicated that a two-pool fitting of four-pool data yielded accurate measures of pool size ratio (PSR) of macromolecular versus free water protons when there were fast transcytolemmal exchange and slow R1 recovery. The fitted in vivo PSR of both pulsed and SIR qMT methods showed no dependence on R1 variations caused by different concentrations of Gd-DTPA during wash-out, whereas the fitted kex (magnetization transfer exchange rate) changed significantly with R1.ConclusionA two-pool model provides reproducible estimates of PSR in brain tumors independent of relaxation properties in the presence of relatively fast transcytolemmal exchange, whereas estimates of kex are biased by relaxation variations. In addition, estimates of PSR in brain tumors using the pulsed and SIR qMT methods agree well with one another. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is mainly attributable to cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord dysfunction. High-resolution, 7T anatomical imaging of the cervical spinal cord is presented. Image contrast between gray/white matter and lesions surpasses conventional, clinical T1- and T2-weighted sequences at lower field strengths. To study the spinal cord of healthy controls and patients with MS using magnetic resonance imaging at 7T. Axial (C2-C5) T1- and T2*-weighted and sagittal T2*-/spin-density-weighted images were acquired at 7T in 13 healthy volunteers (age 22-40 years), and 15 clinically diagnosed MS patients (age 19-53 years, Extended Disability Status Scale, (EDSS) 0-3) in addition to clinical 3T scans. In healthy volunteers, a high-resolution multi-echo gradient echo scan was obtained over the same geometry at 3T. Evaluation included signal and contrast to noise ratios and lesion counts for healthy and patient volunteers, respectively. High-resolution images at 7T exceeded resolutions reported at lower field strengths. Gray and white matter were sharply demarcated and MS lesions were more readily visualized at 7T compared to clinical acquisitions, with lesions apparent at both fields. Nerve roots were clearly visualized. White matter lesion counts averaged 4.7 vs 3.1 (52% increase) per patient at 7T vs 3T, respectively (p=0.05). © The Author(s), 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Multiple Sclerosis
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    Hua Li · Xiaoyu Jiang · Feng Wang · Junzhong Xu · John C Gore
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    ABSTRACT: Diffusion MRI provides a non-invasive means to characterize tissue microstructure at varying length scales. Temporal diffusion spectra reveal how the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) varies with frequency. When measured using oscillating gradient spin echo sequences, the manner in which ADC disperses with gradient frequency (which is related to the reciprocal of diffusion time) provides information on the characteristic dimensions of restricting structures within the medium. For example, the dispersion of ADC with oscillating gradient frequency (ΔfADC) has been shown to correlate with axon sizes in white matter and provide novel tissue contrast in images of mouse hippocampus and cerebellum. However, despite increasing interest in applying frequency-dependent ADC to derive novel information on tissue, the interpretations of ADC spectra are not always clear. In this study, the relation between ADC spectra and restricting dimensions are further elucidated and used to derive novel image contrast related to the sizes of intrinsic microstructures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of cell membrane permeability on diffusion measurements over a broad range of diffusion times. Human myelogenous leukemia K562 cells were cultured and treated with saponin to selectively alter cell membrane permeability, resulting in a broad physiologically relevant range of 0.011-0.044 μm/ms. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were acquired with the effective diffusion time (Δeff ) ranging from 0.42 to 3000 ms. Cosine-modulated oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) measurements were performed to achieve short Δeff from 0.42 to 5 ms, while stimulated echo acquisitions were used to achieve long Δeff from 11 to 2999 ms. Computer simulations were also performed to support the experimental results. Both computer simulations and experiments in vitro showed that the influence of membrane permeability on diffusion MR measurements is highly dependent on the choice of diffusion time, and it is negligible only when the diffusion time is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the intracellular exchange lifetime. The influence of cell membrane permeability on the measured ADCs is negligible in OGSE measurements at moderately high frequencies. By contrast, cell membrane permeability has a significant influence on ADC and quantitative diffusion measurements at low frequencies such as those sampled using conventional pulsed gradient methods. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility and specificity of quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging for monitoring spinal cord injuries (SCIs). MRI scans were performed in anesthetized monkeys at 9.4T, before and serially after a unilateral lesion of the cervical spinal cord. A two-pool fitting model was used to derive qMT parameters. qMT measures were reproducible across normal subjects, with an average pool size ratio (PSR) of 0.086 ± 0.003 (mean ± SD) for gray matter, and 0.120 ± 0.005 for white matter, respectively. Compared with normal gray matter, the PSR of abnormal tissues rostral and caudal to the injury site decreased by 19.5% (P < 0.05), while the PSR of the cyst-like volume decreased drastically weeks after SCI. Strong correlations in cyst-like regions were observed between PSR and other MRI measures including longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 ), apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy (FA). Decreased PSR and FA values correlated well with demyelination in abnormal tissues. The qMT parameters provide robust and specific information about the molecular and cellular changes produced by SCI. PSR detected demyelination and loss of macromolecules in abnormal tissue regions rostral and caudal to the cyst/lesion sites. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    Full-text · Dataset · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Liver glycogen represents an important physiological form of energy storage. It plays a key role in the regulation of blood glucose concentrations and dysregulations in hepatic glycogen metabolism are linked to many diseases including diabetes and insulin resistance. In this work we develop, optimize, and validate a non-invasive protocol to measure glycogen levels in isolated perfused mouse livers using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) NMR spectroscopy. Model glycogen solutions were used to determine optimal saturation pulse parameters which were then applied to intact perfused mouse livers of varying glycogen content. Glycogen measurements from serially acquired CEST Z-spectra of livers were compared with measurements from interleaved natural abundance 13C NMR spectra. Experimental data revealed that CEST-based glycogen measurements were highly correlated with 13C NMR glycogen spectra. Monte Carlo simulations were then used to investigate the inherent (i.e. signal to noise based) errors in the quantification of glycogen with each technique. This revealed that CEST was intrinsically more precise than 13C NMR, although in practice may be prone to other errors induced by variations in experimental conditions. We also observed that the CEST signal from glycogen in liver was significantly less than that observed from identical amounts in solution. Our results demonstrate that CEST provides an accurate, precise, and readily accessible method to non-invasively measure liver glycogen levels and their changes. Furthermore this technique can be used to map glycogen distributions via conventional proton magnetic resonance imaging - a capability universally available on clinical and pre-clinical MRI scanners vs. 13C detection, which is limited to a small fraction of clinical-scale MRI scanners.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Analytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown strong correlations between myelin content and T1 within the brain, and have even suggested that T1 can be used to estimate myelin content. However, other micro-anatomical features such as compartment size are known to affect longitudinal relaxation rates, similar to compartment size effects in porous media. T1 measurements were compared with measured or otherwise published axon size measurements in white matter tracts of the rat spinal cord, rat brain, and human brain. In both ex vivo and in vivo studies, correlations were present between the relaxation rate 1/T1 and axon size across regions of rat spinal cord with nearly equal myelin content. While myelination is likely the dominant determinant of T1 in white matter, variations in white matter microstructure, independent of myelin volume fraction, may also be reflected in T1 differences between regions or subjects. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Recent demonstrations of correlated low-frequency MRI signal variations between subregions of the spinal cord at rest in humans, similar to those found in the brain, suggest that such resting-state functional connectivity constitutes a common feature of the intrinsic organization of the entire central nervous system. We report our detection of functional connectivity within the spinal cords of anesthetized squirrel monkeys at rest and show that the strength of connectivity within these networks is altered by the effects of injuries. By quantifying the low-frequency MRI signal correlations between different horns within spinal cord gray matter, we found distinct functional connectivity relationships between the different sensory and motor horns, a pattern that was similar to activation patterns evoked by nociceptive heat or tactile stimulation of digits. All horns within a single spinal segment were functionally connected, with the strongest connectivity occurring between ipsilateral dorsal and ventral horns. Each horn was strongly connected to the same horn on neighboring segments, but this connectivity reduced drastically along the spinal cord. Unilateral injury to the spinal cord significantly weakened the strength of the intrasegment horn-to-horn connectivity only on the injury side and in slices below the lesion. These findings suggest resting-state functional connectivity may be a useful biomarker of functional integrity in injured and recovering spinal cords.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The high value of the specific absorption rate (SAR) of radio-frequency (RF) energy arising from the series of RF refocusing pulses in T2-weighted (T2-w) turbo spin echo (TSE) MRI hampers its clinical application at 7.0 Tesla (7T). T2-w gradient and spin echo (GRASE) uses the speed from gradient refocusing in combination with the chemical-shift/static magnetic field (B0) inhomogeneity insensitivity from spin-echo refocusing to acquire T2-w images with a limited number of refocusing RF pulses, thus reducing SAR. To investigate whether low SAR T2-w GRASE could replace T2-w TSE in detecting white matter (WM) disease in MS patients imaged at 7T. The .7 mm(3) isotropic T2-w TSE and T2-w GRASE images with variable echo times (TEs) and echo planar imaging (EPI) factors were obtained on a 7T scanner from postmortem samples of MS brains. These samples were derived from brains of 3 female MS patients. WM lesions (WM-Ls) and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) signal intensity, WM-Ls/NAWM contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MRI/myelin staining sections comparisons were obtained. GRASE sequences with EPI factor/TE = 3/50 and 3/75 ms were comparable to the SE technique for measures of CNR in WM-Ls and NAWM and for detection of WM-Ls. In all sequences, however, identification of areas with remyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and gray matter demyelination, as depicted by myelin staining, was not possible. T2-w GRASE images may replace T2-w TSE for clinical use. However, even at 7T, both sequences fail in detecting and characterizing MS disease beyond visible WM-Ls. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging studies have provided compelling evidence for abnormal hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. Most studies made inferences about baseline hippocampal activity using a single hemodynamic parameter (e.g., blood volume or blood flow). Here we studied several hemodynamic measures in the same cohort to test the hypothesis of increased hippocampal activity in schizophrenia. We used dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess blood volume, blood flow, and mean transit time in the hippocampus of 15 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls. Left and right hippocampal measurements were combined for absolute measures of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time (MTT). We found significantly increased hippocampal CBV, but normal CBF and MTT, in schizophrenia. The uncoupling of CBV and CBF could be due to several factors, including antipsychotic medication, loss of cerebral perfusion pressure, or angiogenesis. Further studies need to incorporate several complementary imaging modalities to better characterize hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Pain

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Pain

Publication Stats

40k Citations
2,831.54 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Vanderbilt Institute of Imaging Science
      • • Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Psychology
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 2009
    • Vietnam National University, Hanoi
      Hà Nội, Ha Nội, Vietnam
  • 2008
    • Shaare Zedek Medical Center
      • Neurology and Toxicology Service and Unit
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
    • The King's College
      Charlotte, North Carolina, United States
  • 2002-2008
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 1-2004
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Pediatric Diagnostic Radiology
      • • Department of Applied Physics
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Department of Therapeutic Radiology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2003
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1984-2003
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1997
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996
    • University of New Haven
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Department of Radiology
      San Antonio, Texas, United States