Mjaye L Mazwi

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (3)7.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric cardiac surgery patients commonly suffer from alterations in vascular tone in the early post-operative period. Pharmacologic manipulation of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) can be complex in a variety of special patient situations including extremes of age, presence of left sided valvar lesions and the use of mechanical circulatory support. Familiarity with how these special circumstances alter SVR and the response to pharmacologic intervention will allow for tailored therapy and hopefully, optimized outcomes. This article addresses the eighth of eight topics comprising the special issue entitled "Pharmacologic strategies with afterload reduction in low cardiac output syndrome after pediatric cardiac surgery".
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Current Vascular Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: This review offers a critical-care perspective on the pathophysiology, monitoring, and management of acute heart failure syndromes in children. An in-depth understanding of the cardiovascular physiological disturbances in this population of patients is essential to correctly interpret clinical signs, symptoms and monitoring data, and to implement appropriate therapies. In this regard, the myocardial force-velocity relationship, the Frank-Starling mechanism, and pressure-volume loops are discussed. A variety of monitoring modalities are used to provide insight into the haemodynamic state, clinical trajectory, and response to treatment. Critical-care treatment of acute heart failure is based on the fundamental principles of optimising the delivery of oxygen and minimising metabolic demands. The former may be achieved by optimising systemic arterial oxygen content and the variables that determine cardiac output: heart rate and rhythm, preload, afterload, and contractility. Metabolic demands may be decreased by a number of ways including positive pressure ventilation, temperature control, and sedation. Mechanical circulatory support should be considered for refractory cases. In the near future, monitoring modalities may be improved by the capture and analysis of complex clinical data such as pressure waveforms and heart rate variability. Using predictive modelling and streaming analytics, these data may then be used to develop automated, real-time clinical decision support tools. Given the barriers to conducting multi-centre trials in this population of patients, the thoughtful analysis of data from multi-centre clinical registries and administrative databases will also likely have an impact on clinical practice.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Cardiology in the Young
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Neonates with critical congenital heart disease remain at risk of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. Residual or undiagnosed anatomic lesions might be contributory. The present study aimed to describe the incidence and type of cardiac lesions that lead to early, unplanned cardiac reintervention, identify the risk factors for unplanned reintervention, and explore the associations between unplanned reinterventions and hospital mortality. METHODS: The present single-center retrospective cohort study included 943 consecutive neonates with critical congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery from 2002 to 2008. An unplanned cardiac reintervention was defined as a cardiac reoperation or interventional cardiac catheterization performed during the same hospitalization as the initial operation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors for unplanned cardiac reintervention and hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 943 neonates, 104 (11%) underwent an unplanned cardiac reintervention. The independent predictors of unplanned reintervention included prenatal diagnosis, lower birth weight, need for mechanical ventilation before the initial cardiac operation, lower attending surgeon experience, and greater Risk Adjustment in Congenital Heart Surgery, version 1, category. Those who underwent reintervention had increased hospital mortality (n = 33/104, 32%) relative to those who did not (n = 31/839, 4%; adjusted odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.7 to 15.6; P < .001). The mortality rates among patients undergoing surgical reintervention (23/66, 35%) or transcatheter reintervention (4/16, 25%), or both (6/22, 27%) were similar (P = .66). CONCLUSIONS: The need for unplanned cardiac reintervention in neonates with critical congenital heart disease is strongly associated with increased mortality. Early unplanned reinterventions might be an important covariate in outcomes studies and useful as a quality improvement measure.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery