[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established.
We enrolled in our study 10,744 overweight or obese subjects, 55 years of age or older, with preexisting cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both to assess the cardiovascular consequences of weight management with and without sibutramine in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events. All the subjects received sibutramine in addition to participating in a weight-management program during a 6-week, single-blind, lead-in period, after which 9804 subjects underwent random assignment in a double-blind fashion to sibutramine (4906 subjects) or placebo (4898 subjects). The primary end point was the time from randomization to the first occurrence of a primary outcome event (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitation after cardiac arrest, or cardiovascular death).
The mean duration of treatment was 3.4 years. The mean weight loss during the lead-in period was 2.6 kg; after randomization, the subjects in the sibutramine group achieved and maintained further weight reduction (mean, 1.7 kg). The mean blood pressure decreased in both groups, with greater reductions in the placebo group than in the sibutramine group (mean difference, 1.2/1.4 mm Hg). The risk of a primary outcome event was 11.4% in the sibutramine group as compared with 10.0% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.31; P=0.02). The rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke were 4.1% and 2.6% in the sibutramine group and 3.2% and 1.9% in the placebo group, respectively (hazard ratio for nonfatal myocardial infarction, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.57; P=0.02; hazard ratio for nonfatal stroke, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.77; P=0.03). The rates of cardiovascular death and death from any cause were not increased.
Subjects with preexisting cardiovascular conditions who were receiving long-term sibutramine treatment had an increased risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke but not of cardiovascular death or death from any cause. (Funded by Abbott; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00234832.)
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoglycaemia and its consequences represent a significant risk for many people who have type 2 diabetes, and hypoglycaemia is currently under-recognised and commonly avoidable. Current clinical guidelines recommend the targeting of tight glycaemic control and this strategy may also be associated with an increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia impacts on morbidity, mortality and quality of life of people with type 2 diabetes, and improved recognition of the symptoms of hypoglycaemia will allow effective treatment and reduce the risk of progression to more severe episodes. A common cause of hypoglycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes is glucose-lowering medication, in particular, those which raise insulin independently of ambient glucose concentration such as sulphonylureas and exogenous insulin. The recently published National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline recommends the use of Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or thiazolidinediones (glitazones) as alternative second-line therapy instead of a sulphonylurea in those patients who are at significant risk of hypoglycaemia and its consequences.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · International Journal of Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
Type 2 diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the role of lipid-lowering therapy with statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes is inadequately defined. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of atorvastatin 10 mg daily for primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes without high concentrations of LDL-cholesterol.
2838 patients aged 40-75 years in 132 centres in the UK and Ireland were randomised to placebo (n=1410) or atorvastatin 10 mg daily (n=1428). Study entrants had no documented previous history of cardiovascular disease, an LDL-cholesterol concentration of 4.14 mmol/L or lower, a fasting triglyceride amount of 6.78 mmol/L or less, and at least one of the following: retinopathy, albuminuria, current smoking, or hypertension. The primary endpoint was time to first occurrence of the following: acute coronary heart disease events, coronary revascularisation, or stroke. Analysis was by intention to treat.
The trial was terminated 2 years earlier than expected because the prespecified early stopping rule for efficacy had been met. Median duration of follow-up was 3.9 years (IQR 3.0-4.7). 127 patients allocated placebo (2.46 per 100 person-years at risk) and 83 allocated atorvastatin (1.54 per 100 person-years at risk) had at least one major cardiovascular event (rate reduction 37% [95% CI -52 to -17], p=0.001). Treatment would be expected to prevent at least 37 major vascular events per 1000 such people treated for 4 years. Assessed separately, acute coronary heart disease events were reduced by 36% (-55 to -9), coronary revascularisations by 31% (-59 to 16), and rate of stroke by 48% (-69 to -11). Atorvastatin reduced the death rate by 27% (-48 to 1, p=0.059). No excess of adverse events was noted in the atorvastatin group.
Atorvastatin 10 mg daily is safe and efficacious in reducing the risk of first cardiovascular disease events, including stroke, in patients with type 2 diabetes without high LDL-cholesterol. No justification is available for having a particular threshold level of LDL-cholesterol as the sole arbiter of which patients with type 2 diabetes should receive statins. The debate about whether all people with this disorder warrant statin treatment should now focus on whether any patients are at sufficiently low risk for this treatment to be withheld.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: To describe baseline characteristics of patients in the Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of lipid lowering with atorvastatin 10 mg daily for the primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: The main eligibility criteria were Type 2 diabetes, age 40-75 years, no previous history of coronary heart disease, stroke or other major cardiovascular events, a documented history of at least one of retinopathy, micro- or macroalbuminuria, hypertension or current smoking, LDL-cholesterol < or = 4.14 mmol/l and triglycerides < or = 6.78 mmol/l.
RESULTS: Randomization of 2838 persons (909 women) into CARDS was completed in June 2001. At entry, mean age was 62 years, 12% were over 70 years old and median duration of diabetes was 6 years. Median fasting lipid levels were total cholesterol 5.4 mmol/l, LDL-cholesterol 3.1 mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol 1.4 mmol/l and triglyceride 1.7 mmol/l. There was a documented history of retinopathy in 30% of patients, micro/macroalbuminuria in 11% (additionally 17% had micro/macroalbuminuria based on two elevated pretreatment measurements of albumin-creatinine ratios), hypertension in 79% and 23% were current smokers.
CONCLUSION: CARDS will contribute importantly to the evidence for the macrovascular and microvascular benefits of lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The results are likely to have important implications for the management of patients.
Copyright 2004 Diabetes UK
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Diabetic Medicine