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ABSTRACT: An African HIV-infected patient presented with widespread necrotic lymphadenopathy five months after starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and was thought to have disseminated tuberculosis in the context of an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) on the basis of typical imaging appearances and suggestive appearances from a fine needle aspirate of a nodal mass. The patient deteriorated despite empirical antituberculosis therapy and the correct diagnosis of nodal cryptococcal infection was subsequently established by histological examination of a core biopsy from a lymph node. IRIS should be borne in mind when considering the differential diagnosis in a patient who has recently started cART.
University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustLondinium, England, United Kingdom