G. D. Illingworth

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (544)

  • R. J. Bouwens · G. D. Illingworth · P. A. Oesch · [...] · M. Stefanon
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide the first observational constraints on the sizes of the faintest galaxies lensed by the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) clusters. Ionizing radiation from faint galaxies likely drives cosmic reionization, and the HFF initiative provides a key opportunity to find such galaxies. Yet, we cannot really assess their ionizing emissivity without a robust measurement of their sizes, since this is key to quantifying both their prevalence and the faint-end slope to the UV luminosity function. Here we provide the first such size constraints with 2 new techniques. The first utilizes the fact that the detectability of highly-magnified galaxies as a function of shear is very dependent on a galaxy's size. Only the most compact galaxies will remain detectable in regions of high shear (vs. a larger detectable size range for low shear), a phenomenon we carefully quantify using simulations. Remarkably, however, no correlation is found between the surface density of faint galaxies and the predicted shear, using 87 faint high-magnification mu>10 z~2-8 galaxies seen behind the first 4 HFF clusters. This can only be the case if such faint (~-15 mag) galaxies have significantly smaller sizes than luminous galaxies. We constrain their half-light radii to be <~30 mas (<160-240 pc). As a 2nd size probe, we rotate and stack 26 faint high-magnification sources along the major shear axis. Less elongation is found than even for objects with an intrinsic half-light radius of 10 mas. Together these results indicate that extremely faint z~2-8 galaxies have near point-source profiles in the HFF dataset (half-light radii conservatively <30 mas and likely 5-10 mas). These results suggest smaller completeness corrections and hence much lower volume densities for faint z~2-8 galaxies and shallower faint-end slopes than have been derived in many recent studies (by factors of ~2-3 and by dalpha>~0.1-0.3).
    Article · Aug 2016
  • Garth Illingworth · Daniel Magee · Rychard Bouwens · [...] · Valentino Gonzalez
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have submitted to MAST the 1.0 version data release of the Hubble Legacy Fields (HLF) project covering a 25 x 25 arcmin area over the GOOD-S (ECDF-S) region from the HST archival program AR-13252. The release combines exposures from Hubble's two main cameras, the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS/WFC) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3/IR), taken over more than a decade between mid-2002 to early 2016. The HLF includes essentially all optical (ACS/WFC F435W, F606W, F775W, F814W and F850LP filters) and infrared (WFC3/IR F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W filters) data taken by Hubble over the original CDF-S region including the GOODS-S, ERS, CANDELS and many other programs (31 in total). The data has been released at https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/hlf/ as images with a common astrometric reference frame, with corresponding inverse variance weight maps. We provide one image per filter for WFC3/IR at 60 mas per pixel resolution and two ACS/WFC images per filter, at both 30 and 60 mas per pixel. Since this comprehensive dataset combines data from 31 programs on the GOODS-S/ECDF-S, the AR proposal identified the MAST products by the global name "Hubble Legacy Field", with this region being identified by "HLF-GOODS-S". This dataset complements that of the Frontier Fields program. The total incorporated in the HLF-GOODS-S is 5.7 Msec in 7079 exposures from 2387 orbits. This is ~70% of a HST full cycle!
    Article · Jun 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using Hubble data, including new grism spectra, Oesch et al. (2016) recently identified GN-z11, a $M_\textrm{UV}$=-21.1 galaxy at $z$=11.1 (just 400 Myr after the Big Bang). With an estimated stellar mass of $\sim$10$^9$M$_\odot$, this galaxy is surprisingly bright and massive, raising questions as to how such an extreme object could form so early in the Universe. Using Meraxes, a semi-analytic galaxy formation model developed as part of the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme, we investigate the potential formation mechanisms and eventual fate of GN-z11. The volume of our simulation is comparable to that of the discovery observations and possesses two analogue galaxies of similar luminosity to this remarkably bright system. Existing in the two most massive subhaloes at $z$=11.1 ($M_\textrm{vir}$=1.4$\times 10^{11}$M$_\odot$ and 6.7$\times 10^{10}$M$_\odot$), our model analogues show excellent agreement with all available observationally derived properties of GN-z11. Although they are relatively rare outliers from the full galaxy population at high-$z$, they are no longer the most massive or brightest systems by $z$=5. Furthermore, we find that both objects possess relatively smooth, but extremely rapid mass growth histories with consistently high star formation rates and UV luminosities at $z{>}11$, indicating that their brightness is not a transient, merger driven feature. Our model results suggest that future wide-field surveys with JWST may be able to detect the progenitors of GN-z11 analogues out to $z{\sim}$13-14, pushing the frontiers of galaxy-formation observations to the early phases of cosmic reionization and providing a valuable glimpse of the first galaxies to reionize the Universe on large scales.
    Article · May 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present Hubble WFC3/IR slitless grism spectra of a remarkably bright z ≥ 10 galaxy candidate, GN-z11, identified initially from CANDELS/GOODS-N imaging data. A significant spectroscopic continuum break is detected at . The new grism data, combined with the photometric data, rule out all plausible lower redshift solutions for this source. The only viable solution is that this continuum break is the Lyα break redshifted to , just ∼400 Myr after the Big Bang. This observation extends the current spectroscopic frontier by 150 Myr to well before the Planck (instantaneous) cosmic reionization peak at z ∼ 8.8, demonstrating that galaxy build-up was well underway early in the reionization epoch at z > 10. GN-z11 is remarkably, and unexpectedly, luminous for a galaxy at such an early time: its UV luminosity is 3 larger than measured at z ∼ 6-8. The Spitzer IRAC detections up to 4.5 μm of this galaxy are consistent with a stellar mass of ∼109Mo-. This spectroscopic redshift measurement suggests that James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to similarly and easily confirm such sources at z > 10 and characterize their physical properties through detailed spectroscopy. Furthermore, WFIRST, with its wide-field near-IR imaging, would find large numbers of similar galaxies and contribute greatly to JWST's spectroscopy, if it is launched early enough to overlap with JWST. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
    Article · Mar 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 $H_{140}$ imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel $I_{814}$ imaging. In a previous paper (Skelton et al. 2014) we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N. The data analysis is complicated by the fact that no slits are used: all objects in the WFC3 field are dispersed, and many spectra overlap. We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced 2D and 1D spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxies explicitly into account. The resulting catalog has 98,663 measured redshifts and line strengths down to $JH_{IR}\leq 26$ and 22,548 with $JH_{IR}\leq 24$, where we comfortably detect continuum emission. Of this sample 5,459 galaxies are at $z>1.5$ and 9,621 are at $0.7<z<1.5$, where H$\alpha$ falls in the G141 wavelength coverage. Based on comparisons with ground-based spectroscopic redshifts, and on analyses of paired galaxies and repeat observations, the typical redshift error for $JH_{IR}\leq 24$ galaxies in our catalog is $\sigma_z \approx 0.003 \times (1+z)$, i.e., one native WFC3 pixel. The $3\sigma$ limit for emission line fluxes of point sources is $1.5\times10^{-17}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. We show various representations of the full dataset, as well as individual examples that highlight the range of spectra that we find in the survey.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
  • R. J. Bouwens · G. D. Illingworth · P. A. Oesch · [...] · S. Wilkins
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thomson optical depth tau measurements from Planck provide new insights into the reionization of the universe. In pursuit of model-independent constraints on the properties of the ionising sources, we determine the empirical evolution of the cosmic ionizing emissivity. We use a simple two-parameter model to map out the evolution in the emissivity at z>~6 from the new Planck optical depth tau measurements, from the constraints provided by quasar absorption spectra and from the prevalence of Ly-alpha emission in z~7-8 galaxies. We find the redshift evolution in the emissivity dot{N}_{ion}(z) required by the observations to be d(log Nion)/dz=-0.15(-0.11)(+0.08), largely independent of the assumed clumping factor C_{HII} and entirely independent of the nature of the ionising sources. The trend in dot{N}_{ion}(z) is well-matched by the evolution of the galaxy UV-luminosity density (dlog_{10} rho_UV/dz=-0.11+/-0.04) to a magnitude limit >~-13 mag, suggesting that galaxies are the sources that drive the reionization of the universe. The role of galaxies is further strengthened by the conversion from the UV luminosity density rho_UV to dot(N)_{ion}(z) being possible for physically-plausible values of the escape fraction f_{esc}, the Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency xi_{ion}, and faint-end cut-off $M_{lim}$ to the luminosity function. Quasars/AGN appear to match neither the redshift evolution nor normalization of the ionizing emissivity. Based on the inferred evolution in the ionizing emissivity, we estimate that the z~10 UV-luminosity density is 8(-4)(+15)x lower than at $z~6, consistent with the observations. The present approach of contrasting the inferred evolution of the ionizing emissivity with that of the galaxy UV luminosity density adds to the growing observational evidence that faint, star-forming galaxies drive the reionization of the universe.
    Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    I. Labbe · P. A. Oesch · G. D. Illingworth · [...] · M. Stefanon
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IRAC ultradeep field (IUDF) and IRAC Legacy over GOODS (IGOODS) programs are two ultradeep imaging surveys at 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The primary aim is to directly detect the infrared light of reionization epoch galaxies at z > 7 and to constrain their stellar populations. The observations cover the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), including the two HUDF parallel fields, and the CANDELS/GOODS-South, and are combined with archival data from all previous deep programs into one ultradeep dataset. The resulting imaging reaches unprecedented coverage in IRAC 3.6{\mu}m and 4.5{\mu}m ranging from > 50 hour over 150 arcmin^2, > 100 hour over 60 sq arcmin2, to 200 hour over 5 - 10 arcmin$^2$. This paper presents the survey description, data reduction, and public release of reduced mosaics on the same astrometric system as the CANDELS/GOODS-South WFC3 data. To facilitate prior-based WFC3+IRAC photometry, we introduce a new method to create high signal-to-noise PSFs from the IRAC data and reconstruct the complex spatial variation due to survey geometry. The PSF maps are included in the release, as are registered maps of subsets of the data to enable reliability and variability studies. Simulations show that the noise in the ultradeep IRAC images decreases approximately as the square root of integration time over the range 20 - 200 hours, well below the classical confusion limit, reaching 1{\sigma} point source sensitivities as faint as of 15 nJy (28.5 AB) at 3.6{\mu}m and 18 nJy (28.3 AB) at 4.5{\mu}m. The value of such ultradeep IRAC data is illustrated by direct detections of z = 7 - 8 galaxies as faint as HAB = 28.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deep, wide-area (900 arcmin**2) near-IR/WFC3/IR + Spitzer/IRAC observations over the CANDELS program represents a significant resource for constraining the bright end of the z~9 and z~10 luminosity functions (LFs) in the UV. We recently reported the discovery of 6 luminous z~9-10 candidates over the GOODS-North+South fields, but extending this search to the full CANDELS program was limited due to the lack of HST-depth 1.05-micron observations in the other 3 CANDELS fields. Here we attempt to significantly realize the potential of CANDELS for z=9-10 science by combining a search over all 5 fields with results from a new HST program (B9-CANDELS) designed to follow up the highest-probability z~9-10 galaxy candidates with observations at 1.05 microns. The targeted z~9-10 candidates are preselected by taking advantage of the full HST, Spitzer/IRAC S-CANDELS observations, and the deepest-available ground-based optical+near-IR observations. With our follow-up program now 91% complete, we identify 4 new high-probability z~9-10 galaxies. This brings our total sample of bright z~9-10 galaxies to 14, including several other new sources from the CANDELS GOODS + ERS fields.Through extensive simulations, we replicate the selection process for our sample (both the preselection and follow-up) and obtain an accurate estimate of the volume density of bright galaxies (M_{UV,AB}<-20) at both z~9 and z~10. The volume density of bright z~9 and z~10 galaxies that we find is 4.5(-1.3)(+2.5)x and 8(-3)(+7)x lower than found at z~8. When compared with the best-fit evolution in the UV luminosities densities from z~8 to z~4 (>0.4L*), the luminosity densities we find at z~9 and z~10 are ~2x lower than the extrapolated trends. We would expect significant additional gains in these results from the on-going 500-orbit BoRG[z910] program and by obtaining additional follow-up observations over the CANDELS-WIDE fields.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We identify 4 unusually bright (H<~25.5) galaxies from HST and Spitzer CANDELS data with probable redshifts z~7-9. These identifications constitute the brightest-known galaxies to date at z>~7.5. As Y-band observations are not available over the full CANDELS program to perform a standard Lyman-break selection of z>7 galaxies, here we employ an alternate strategy using the deep Spitzer/IRAC data. We identify z~7.1-9.1 galaxies by selecting z>~6 galaxies from the HST CANDELS data that show quite red IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] colors, indicating a strong [OIII] line in the 4.5mu band. This selection strategy was validated using a modest sample for which we have deep Y-band coverage. Here we focus on using this criterion to select the brightest z>~7 sources. Applying the IRAC criteria to all HST-selected optical-dropout galaxies over the full ~900 arcmin**2 of the 5 CANDELS fields revealed four unusually bright z~7.1, 7.6, 7.9 and 8.6 candidates. The median [3.6]-[4.5] color of our selected z~7.1-9.1 sample is consistent with rest-frame [OIII]+Hbeta EWs of ~1600A in the [4.5] band. Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy has already been reported for one of our selected sources EGS-zs8-1, showing Lyalpha at a redshift of 7.7302$\pm$0.0006. We present similar Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy for a second selected galaxy with a probable 4.7sigma Lyalpha-line at a redshift of 7.4770+/-0.0008. Both have H-band magnitudes of ~25 mag and are ~0.5 mag more luminous (M(UV)~-22.0) than any previously discovered z~8 galaxy, with important implications for the UV LF. Our 3 brightest, highest redshift z>~7 galaxies all lie within the CANDELS EGS field, providing a dramatic illustration of the potential impact of field-to-field variance.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    R. J. Bouwens · G. D. Illingworth · P. A. Oesch · [...] · S. Wilkins
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thomson optical depth measurements from Planck provide new insights into the reionization of the universe. To obtain new model-independent constraints on the properties of the ionizing sources, we determine the empirical evolution of the ionising background. We use a simple two-parameter model to map out the evolution in this background at z>~6 from the new Planck optical depth tau measurements and from the constraints provided by quasar absorption spectra and the prevalence of Ly-alpha emission in z~7-8 galaxies. We find the redshift evolution in the ionising background N_{ion} required by the observations to be dlog_{10} N_{ion}/dz(z=8)=-0.19_{-0.11}^{+0.09}, largely independent of the assumed clumping factor C_{HII} and entirely independent of the identity of the ionizing sources. The trend in N_{ion} is well-matched by the evolution of the galaxy UV-luminosity density (dlog_{10} rho_{UV}/dz=-0.11+/-0.04) to a magnitude limit >~-13 mag, suggesting that galaxies are the sources that drive the reionization of the universe. The role of galaxies is further strengthened by the conversion from the UV luminosity density to N_{ion}(z) being possible for physically plausible values of the escape fraction f_{esc}, the Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency xi_{ion}, and faint-end cut-off M_{lim} to the LF. Lastly, we use the inferred evolution in the ionizing background to estimate the z~10 UV luminosity density, finding this luminosity density to be 12_{-7}^{+21}x lower than at z~6, consistent with current measurements at z~10. Quasars/AGN appear to match neither the redshift evolution nor normalization of the ionizing background. This new approach of contrasting the inferred evolution of the ionising background with that of the galaxy UV luminosity density adds to the growing observational evidence that galaxies are the sources that drive the reionization of the universe.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2015
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    P. A. Oesch · P. G. van Dokkum · G. D. Illingworth · [...] · D. Magee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic redshift measurement of a very bright Lyman break galaxy at z=7.7302+-0.0006 using Keck/MOSFIRE. The source was pre-selected photometrically in the EGS field as a robust z~8 candidate with H=25.0 mag based on optical non-detections and a very red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] broad-band color driven by high equivalent width [OIII]+Hbeta line emission. The Lyalpha line is reliably detected at >6 sigma and shows an asymmetric profile as expected for a galaxy embedded in a relatively neutral inter-galactic medium near the Planck peak of cosmic reionization. The line has a rest-frame equivalent width of EW0=21+-4 A and is extended with V_FWHM=376+89-70 km/s. The source is perhaps the brightest and most massive z~8 Lyman break galaxy in the full CANDELS and BoRG/HIPPIES surveys, having assembled already 10^(9.9+-0.2) M_sol of stars at only 650 Myr after the Big Bang. The spectroscopic redshift measurement sets a new redshift record for galaxies. This enables reliable constraints on the stellar mass, star-formation rate, formation epoch, as well as combined [OIII]+Hbeta line equivalent widths. The redshift confirms that the IRAC [4.5] photometry is very likely dominated by line emission with EW0(OIII+Hbeta)= 720-150+180 A. This detection thus adds to the evidence that extreme rest-frame optical emission lines are a ubiquitous feature of early galaxies promising very efficient spectroscopic follow-up in the future with infrared spectroscopy using JWST and, later, ELTs.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of Lyman-Break Galaxies (LBGs) at high-redshift can be affected by gravitational lensing induced by foreground deflectors not only in galaxy clusters, but also in blank fields. We quantify the impact of strong magnification in the samples of $B$, $V$, $i$, $z$ $\&$ $Y$ LBGs ($4\lesssim z \lesssim8$) observed in the XDF and GOODS/CANDELS fields, by investigating the proximity of dropouts to foreground objects. We find that $\sim6\%$ of bright LBGs ($m_{H_{160}}<26$) at $z\sim7$ have been strongly lensed ($\mu>2$) by foreground objects. This fraction decreases from $\sim 3.5\%$ at $z\sim6$ to $\sim1.5\%$ at $z\sim4$. Since the observed fraction of strongly lensed galaxies is a function of the shape of the luminosity function (LF), it can be used to derive Schechter parameters, $\alpha$ and $M_{\star}$, independently from galaxy number counts. Our magnification bias analysis yields Schechter-function parameters in close agreement with those determined from galaxy counts albeit with larger uncertainties. Extrapolation of our analysis to $z\gtrsim 8$ suggests that future surveys with JSWT, WFIRST and EUCLID should find excess LBGs at the bright-end, even if there is an intrinsic exponential cutoff of number counts. Finally, we highlight how the magnification bias measurement near the detection limit can be used as probe of the population of galaxies too faint to be detected. Preliminary results using this novel idea suggest that the magnification bias at $M_{UV}\sim -18$ is not as strong as expected if $\alpha\lesssim -1.7$ extends well below the current detection limits in the XDF. At face value this implies a flattening of the LF at $M_{UV}\gtrsim-16.5$. However, selection effects and completeness estimates are difficult to quantify precisely. Thus, we do not rule out a steep LF extending to $M_{UV}\gtrsim -15$.
    Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Ivo Labbe · Pascal Oesch · Garth Illingworth · [...] · Massimo Stiavelli
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Joint HST/WFC3 and Spitzer/IRAC observations are a powerful tool to probe the buildup of early galaxies, as demonstrated by the recent IRAC detections and stellar mass estimates of several bright z~9-10 galaxies (only 500 Myr after the Big Bang). However, the vast majority of galaxies in the reionization epoch have not been individually detected with IRAC, as extragalactic surveys have mostly focused on medium-deep and wide surveys. IRAC detections are crucial for understanding the evolution of the first galaxies, providing constraints on stellar masses, star formation histories, emission line strengths, and ages. We therefore propose to complete Spitzer's legacy with an ultradeep survey in the CANDELS/GOODS South and North fields at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to 27.1, 26.7 mag (AB,5sigma). Ultradeep data over substantial areas are needed to detect normal galaxies at z>7, provide good statistics, and mitigate field-to-field variance. We demonstrate using pilot ultradeep data from cycle 10 on a small area in GOODS-S, that we can successfully recover IRAC photometry to these limits. GREATS will result in the IRAC detection of 200 galaxies at 7
    Article · Nov 2014
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    P. A. Oesch · R. J. Bouwens · G. D. Illingworth · [...] · I. Labbe
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We search the complete Hubble Frontier Field dataset of Abell 2744 and its parallel field for z~10 sources to further refine the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density (SFRD) at z>8. We independently confirm two images of the recently discovered triply-imaged z~9.8 source by Zitrin et al. (2014) and set an upper limit for similar z~10 galaxies with red colors of J_125-H_160>1.2 in the parallel field of Abell 2744. We utilize extensive simulations to derive the effective selection volume of Lyman-break galaxies at z~10, both in the lensed cluster field and in the adjacent parallel field. Particular care is taken to include position-dependent lensing shear to accurately account for the expected sizes and morphologies of highly-magnified sources. We show that both source blending and shear reduce the completeness at a given observed magnitude in the cluster, particularly near the critical curves. These effects have a significant, but largely overlooked, impact on the detectability of high-redshift sources behind clusters, and substantially reduce the expected number of highly-magnified sources. The detections and limits from both pointings result in a SFRD which is higher by 0.4+-0.4 dex than previous estimates at z~10 from blank fields. Nevertheless, the combination of these new results with all other estimates remain consistent with a rapidly declining SFRD in the 170 Myr from z~8 to z~10 as predicted by cosmological simulations and dark-matter halo evolution in LambdaCDM. Once biases introduced by magnification dependent completeness are accounted for, the full six cluster and parallel Frontier Field program will be an extremely powerful new dataset to probe the evolution of the galaxy population at z>8 before the advent of the JWST.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) samples observed during reionization ($z\gtrsim6$) with Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 are reaching sizes sufficient to characterize their clustering properties. Using a combined catalog from the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field and CANDELS surveys, containing $N=743$ LBG candidates at z>6.5 at a mean redshift of $z=7.2$, we detect a clear clustering signal in the angular correlation function (ACF) at $\sim4\sigma$, corresponding to a real-space correlation length $r_{0}=6.7^{+0.9}_{-1.0}h^{-1}$cMpc. The derived galaxy bias $b=8.6^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$ is that of dark-matter halos of $M=10^{11.1^{+0.2}_{-0.3}}$M$_{\odot}$ at $z=7.2$, and highlights that galaxies below the current detection limit ($M_{AB}\sim-17.7$) are expected in lower-mass halos ($M\sim10^{8}-10^{10.5}$M$_{\odot}$). We compute the ACF of LBGs at $z\sim3.8-z\sim5.9$ in the same surveys. A trend of increasing bias is found from $z=3.8$ ($b\sim3.0$) to $z=7.2$ ($b\sim8.6$), broadly consistent with galaxies at fixed luminosity being hosted in dark-matter halos of similar mass at $4<z<6$, followed by a slight rise in halo masses at $z\sim7$ ($\sim2\sigma$ confidence). Separating the data at the median luminosity of the $z=7.2$ sample ($M_{UV}=-19.4$) shows higher clustering at $z=5.9$ for bright galaxies ($r_{0}=5.5^{+1.4}_{-1.5}h^{-1}$cMpc, $b=6.2^{+1.2}_{-1.5}$) compared to faint galaxies ($r_{0}=1.9^{+1.1}_{-1.0}h^{-1}$cMpc, $b=2.7\pm1.2$) implying a constant mass-to-light ratio $\frac{dlogM}{dlogL}\sim1.2^{+1.8}_{-0.8}$. A similar trend is present in the $z=7.2$ sample with larger uncertainty. Finally, our bias measurements allow us to investigate the fraction of dark-matter halos hosting UV-bright galaxies (the duty-cycle, $\epsilon_{DC}$). At $z=7.2$ values near unity are preferred, which may be explained by the shortened halo assembly time at high-redshift.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, a small sample of six $z\sim9-10$ candidates was discovered in CANDELS that are $\sim10-20\times$ more luminous than any of the previous $z\sim9-10$ galaxies identified over the HUDF/XDF and CLASH fields. We test the nature of these sources by comparing their sizes with the expected sizes of luminous galaxies at $z\sim9-10$. Using galfit to derive sizes from the CANDELS F160W images of these candidates, we find a mean size of 0.16" $\pm$ 0.06" (or $0.6\pm0.3$ kpc at $z\sim9-10$). This is much smaller than the 0.59" mean size found for lower redshift IRAC-red interlopers, and handsomely matches the 0.16 (0.6 kpc) size expected from extrapolating lower redshift measurements to $z\sim9-10$. Assuming the bright sample is at $z\sim9-10$, we use this sample to extend current constraints on the size-luminosity, size-mass relation, and size evolution of galaxies to $z\sim10$. We find that the $z\sim9-10$ candidate galaxies have similar sizes and luminosities as their $z\sim7$ counterparts. They have star-formation-rate surface densities in the range of $\Sigma_{SFR} = 1-10 ~ M_\odot ~ yr^{-1} ~ kpc^{-2}$, similar to those measured for lower-redshift ($z = 6-8$). The stellar mass-size relation is uncertain, but also similar to those inferred for galaxies at z=6, 7 and 8. In combination with previous size measurements at z=4-7, we find a size evolution of $(1+z)^{-m}$ with $m = 1.0 \pm 0.1$ for $> 0.3L_* (z=3)$ galaxies, consistent with the evolution previously derived from $2 < z < 8$ galaxies.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    R. J. Bouwens · G. D. Illingworth · P. A. Oesch · [...] · D. Magee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The remarkable HST datasets from the CANDELS, HUDF09, HUDF12, ERS, and BORG/HIPPIES programs have allowed us to map out the evolution of the UV LF from z~10 to z~4. We develop new color criteria that more optimally utilize the full wavelength coverage from the optical+near-IR observations over our search fields, while simultaneously minimizing the incompleteness and eliminating redshift gaps. We have identified 5991, 3391, 940, 598, 225, and 6 galaxy candidates at z~4, z~5, z~6, z~7, z~8, and z~10, respectively from the ~1000 arcmin**2 area covered by these datasets. The large z~4-8 samples we have identified in the five CANDELS fields allow us to assess the cosmic variance; the largest variations are apparent at z>=7. Our new LF determinations at z~4 and z~5 span a 6-mag baseline (-22.5 to -16 AB mag). These determinations agree well with previous estimates, but the larger samples and the larger volumes probed here result in a more reliable sampling of >L* galaxies and allow us to reassess the form of the UV LFs. Our new LF results strengthen our earlier findings to 4.5 sigma significance for a steeper UV LF at z>4, with alpha evolving from alpha=-1.64+/-0.04 at z~4 to alpha=-2.06+/-0.12 at z~7. The observed steepening of the UV LF is consistent with that expected from the evolution of the halo mass function. With our improved constraints at the bright end, we find less evolution in the characteristic luminosity M* over the redshift range z~4 to z~7 consistent with current models; the observed evolution in the LF is now largely represented by changes in phi*. Even with the much larger sample of bright galaxies, we find no evidence for the LF having a non-Schechter-like form at z~4-8. A simple conditional LF model based on halo growth and a modest evolution in the M/L of halos provides a good representation of the evolution of the UV LF.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present K-band spectra of rest-frame optical emission lines for 24 star-forming galaxies at z~3.2-3.7 using MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope. Strong rest-frame optical [O III] and Hbeta emission lines were detected in 18 LBGs. The median flux ratio of [O III]5007 to Hbeta is 5.1+/-0.5, a factor of 5-10x higher than in local galaxies with similar stellar masses. The observed Hbeta luminosities are in good agreement with expectations from the estimated star-formation rates, and none of our sources are detected in deep X-ray stacks, ruling out significant contamination by active galactic nuclei. Combining our sample with a variety of LBGs from the literature, including 49 galaxies selected in a very similar manner, we find a high median ratio of [OIII]/Hbeta = 4.8+0.8-1.7. This high ratio seems to be an ubiquitous feature of z~3-4 LBGs, very different from typical local star-forming galaxies at similar stellar masses. The only comparable systems at z~0 are those with similarly high specific star-formation rates, though ~5x lower stellar masses. High specific star-formation rates either result in a much higher ionization parameter or other unusual conditions for the interstellar medium, which result in a much higher [OIII]/Hbeta line ratio. This implies a strong relation between a global property of a galaxy, the specific star-formation rate, and the local conditions of ISM in star-forming regions.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ~ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M /M ☉ = 6.5 × 1010) to nearby massive ellipticals (M /M ☉ = 1.5 × 1011). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M /M ☉ = 6.5 × 109). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 1012 and 1013M ☉, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of $\sim$1500 H160-selected photometric galaxies detected to a limiting magnitude of 27.8 in the HUDF, using imaging from the HST WFC3/IR camera in combination with archival UV, optical, and NIR imaging. We fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range $1<z<6$. By selecting samples of galaxies at a constant cumulative number density, we explore the co-evolution of stellar masses and star formation rates from z$\sim$6. We find a steady increase in the SFRs of galaxies at constant number density from z$\sim$6 to z$\sim$3. The peak epoch of star formation is found to shift to later times for galaxies with increasing number densities, in agreement with the expectations from cosmic downsizing. The observed SFRs can fully account for the mass growth to z$\sim$2 amongst galaxies with cumulative number densities greater than 10$^{-3.5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. For galaxies with a lower constant number density we find the observed stellar masses are $\sim$3 times greater than that which may be accounted for by the observed star formation alone at late times, implying that growth from mergers plays an important role at $z<2$. We additionally observe a decreasing sSFR, equivalent to approximately one order of magnitude, from z$\sim$6 to z$\sim$2 amongst galaxies with number densities less than 10$^{-3.5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ along with significant evidence that at any redshift the sSFR is higher for galaxies at higher number density. The combination of these findings can qualitatively explain the previous findings of a sSFR plateau at high redshift. Tracing the evolution of the fraction of quiescent galaxies for samples matched in cumulative number density over this redshift range, we find no unambiguous examples of quiescent galaxies at $z>4$.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

24k Citations

Institutions

  • 2002-2014
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1991-2014
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Concepción
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
  • 2009
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1992-2009
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • Durham University
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1986-2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1987-2003
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2001
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1983-1999
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1985-1996
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1990-1994
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1982
    • Government of British Columbia, Canada
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1977
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States