[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schisandrin A and B (Sch A and B) are the main effective components extracted from the oriental medicine Schisandra chinensis which is traditionally used to enhance mental and intellectual function. Although their neuroprotective effects have been demonstrated, their influences on neurogenesis are still unknown. In the brain, new neural cells born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) next to the lateral ventricles migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB). To investigate the effects of Sch A and B on neurogenesis in the SVZ-RMS-OB system, Sch A and B were intragastrically administrated at dosages of 1, 10 and 20mg/kg·d respectively. The dose of 10mg/kg·d was selected for further analysis based on the preliminary analysis. In the SVZ, significant increases of phosphohistone H3 positive proliferating cells and the intensity of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP(+)) cells were noticed in Sch B group. In the RMS, Sch A treatment augmented the intensity of doublecortin positive neuroblasts. In the OB, Sch A decreased tyrosine hydroxylase cells and Calbindin (CalB(+)) cells, while Sch B increased CalB(+) cells and Calretinin (CalR(+)) cells. These results suggest that Sch B stimulates SVZ proliferation by enhancing GFAP(+) cells and improves the survival of OB interneurons, while Sch A promotes neuroblast formation in the RMS but impairs the survival of OB interneurons. The present study provides the first evidence that Sch B exerts neuroprotective functions by enhancing neurogenesis, but Sch A mainly negatively regulates neurogenesis, in the adult SVZ-RMS-OB system.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · European Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously researchers reported that Etv4, one of the members of Ets transcription factor Etv5 subfamily, remained at a low level during the normal sexual maturity in testis but a high level in epididymis. Since, the development of spermatogonia and the expression of the regulatory molecules during spermatogenesis could be altered in detrimental environment. In order to examine whether the expression of Etv4 were changed in male reproductive system when cryptorchidism occurred, expressions of Etv4 in testis and epididymis were examined in artificial Unilateral Cryptorchidism Mouse Model. Samples were collected on the 3rd, 6th, 12th and 18th days after cryptorchidism surgery, respectively. The effect of cryptorchidism was confirmed histologically. In cryptorchidism testis, Etv4 mRNA remained steadily at all time points compared with that in the contralateral (p>0.05). However, it decreased significantly in cryptorchidism epididymis compared with its contrapart on the same time point (p<0.01) and its decrease continued along with the time especially on day 12 (p<0.05) and day 18 (p<0.01) compared with day 3 in surgery-lateral epididymis. Collectively, Etv4 might play an essential role for sperm maturation in epididymis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whole-mount immunohistochemistry (whole-mount IH) of the seminiferous tubule is widely used to investigate the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Examination of the length of spermatogonial cysts is critical for tracing SSCs lineage by using Whole-mount IH. However, it is difficult for antibody molecules to penetrate into the depth of seminiferous epithelium because its thickness and the tight peritubular myoid and basement membrane outside. Here, we developed a free-floating immunofluorescent procedure of mouse seminiferous tubules using regular incubation time and normal antibody concentration. Microscopic results showed that undifferentiated spermatogonia were positively labeled by promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein, E-cadherin, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1, respectively. Spermatogonial cysts in varied length were revealed clearly and spermatogonia subpopulations including A(single) (A(s)), A(paired) (A(pr)), and A(aligned) (A(al)) were distinguished in lower background images. This method provides us an alternate simple way to trace the lineage of individual SSCs and show their three-dimensional locations and distributions within their niches anatomically in next step.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Microscopy Research and Technique
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are closely related to their niches. Naturally, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only adult stem cells in the body, which can transfer genetic information into the offspring. An insight into the modulation of the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs can help elucidate the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and investigate the proliferation and differentiation of other adult stem cells. Therefore, the SSC system provides an ideal model for researches on the adult stem cell niche. More and more evidence indicates that the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs are regulated by their niches. Based on our previous work and other related findings recently reported, this article presents an overview on the biological properties of SSC niches and their relationship with the self-renewal and differentiation of SSCs, focusing on the basic properties and components of SSC niches and various regulatory factors they produce.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a practical procedure for cryopreservation of adult bovine testis tissue, the impacts of three cryoprotectans and their concentrations, as well as varying thawing temperatures, on the cell viability of bovine testis tissue after freezing/thawing were examined. The highest testicular cell viabilities came from the media containing dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 85.3±1.2%), propylene glycol (PG, 82±1.0%) and ethylene glycol (EG, 83.4±1.0%) at 10% (V/V) concentration respectively. Using 10% DMSO gave significantly higher spermatogonia percentage (61.1±1.2%, P < 0.001) than processing with 10% PG (54.3±0.6%) or 10% EG (55±1.8%) after differential plating. Thawing in water bath of 37-40°C and 97~100°C also provided significantly higher viabilities (85.1±1.0 and 85±1.0%, P < 0.001, respectively) and spermatogonia percentages (56.6±2.0 and 56.6±2.6%, P < 0.001, respectively) than that thawing at 4°C (23.4±0.8% for total viability, 8.97 ± 1.0% for spermatogonia percentage). Collectively, 10%DMSO and thawing in 37~100°C water bath were appropriate for the cryopreservation of bovine testicular tissue and subsequent spermatogonia enrichment.