[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) reinhardtii is a model organism for photosynthesis research. State transitions regulate redistribution of excitation energy between photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) to provide balanced photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence induction (the so-called OJIPSMT transient) is a signature of several photosynthetic reactions. Here, we show that the slow (seconds to minutes) S to M fluorescence rise is reduced or absent in the stt7 mutant (which is locked in state 1) in C. reinhardtii. This suggests that the SM rise in wild type C. reinhardtii may be due to state 2 (low fluorescence state; larger antenna in PS I) to state 1 (high fluorescence state; larger antenna in PS II) transition, and thus, it can be used as an efficient and quick method to monitor state transitions in algae, as has already been shown in cyanobacteria (Papageorgiou et al. 1999, 2007; Kaňa et al. 2012). We also discuss our results on the effects of (1) 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dimethyl urea, an inhibitor of electron transport; (2) n-propyl gallate, an inhibitor of alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria and of plastid terminal oxidase in chloroplasts; (3) salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX in mitochondria; and (4) carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, an uncoupler of phosphorylation, which dissipates proton gradient across membranes. Based on the data presented in this paper, we conclude that the slow PSMT fluorescence transient in C. reinhardtii is due to the superimposition of, at least, two phenomena: qE dependent non-photochemical quenching of the excited state of Chl, and state transitions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Photosynthesis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photosynthetic organisms during acclimation to light, differences in the amount of energy absorbed by photosystems leads to an imbalance in the energy distribution between photosystem (PS) II and PSI. Here, we describe the changes in fast chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence transients (OJIP) in wild type and stn7 under state I and state II light conditions. Fluorescence quenching in the OJIP transients recorded from state II exposed wt leaves is due to mobilization of LHCII to PSI. Similar kind of quenching was not observed in stn7 plants exposed to state II light. OJIP transients can be used to study the changes in Chl a fluorescence upon state transitions in A. thaliana. Immunoblotting and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis studies have shown that phosphorylated Lhcb2 under state II condition exhibited 4 isoforms, whereas dephosphorylated Lhcb2 exhibited 3 isoforms in state I. Phosphorylation and migration of LHCII to PSI resulted in changes in the pigment protein profile of the thylakoid membranes in state II from wt. The increase in circular dichroism (CD) signals at 663nm and 679nm was due to association of chirally active trimeric LHCII to PSI-LHCI supercomplex leading to macro-aggregation of pigment-pigment complexes in state II pre-illuminated conditions in wt A. thaliana.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non photochemical reduction of PQ pool and mobilization of LHCII between PSII and PSI are found to be linked under abiotic stress conditions. The interaction of non photochemical reduction of PQ pool and state transitions associated physiological changes are critically important under anaerobic condition in higher plants.
The present study focused on the effect of anaerobiosis on non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool which trigger state II transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon exposure to dark-anaerobic condition the shape of the OJIP transient rise is completely altered where as in aerobic treated leaves the rise is unaltered. Rise in F(o) and F(J) was due to the loss of oxidized PQ pool as the PQ pool becomes more reduced. The increase in F(o)' was due to the non photochemical reduction of PQ pool which activated STN7 kinase and induced LHCII phosphorylation under anaerobic condition. Further, it was observed that the phosphorylated LHCII is migrated and associated with PSI supercomplex increasing its absorption cross-section. Furthermore, evidences from crr2-2 (NDH mutant) and pgr5 mutants (deficient in non NDH pathway of cyclic electron transport) have indicated that NDH is responsible for non photochemical reduction of the PQ pool. We propose that dark anaerobic condition accelerates production of reducing equivalents (such as NADPH by various metabolic pathways) which reduce PQ pool and is mediated by NDH leading to state II transition.
Anaerobic condition triggers non photochemical reduction of PQ pool mediated by NDH complex. The reduced PQ pool activates STN7 kinase leading to state II transition in A. thaliana.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors limiting growth, development and distribution of plants. The effect of cold temperature on phosphorylation and migration of LHCII has been studied by 77K fluorescence emission spectroscopy and immuno-blotting in Arabidopsis thaliana. It has been reported that the mechanism of state transitions has been well operated at optimum growth temperatures. In this study, exposure of leaves to cold conditions (10 °C for 180 min) along with low light treatment (for 3h) did not show any increase in F726 which corresponds to fluorescence from PSI supercomplex, whereas low light at optimal temperature (26±2 °C) could enhanced F726. Therefore these results conclude that low light at cold condition did not enhance PSI absorption cross-section. We have also observed low levels of LHCII phosphorylation in cold exposed leaves in dark or low light. Though LHCII phosphorylation was detectable, the lateral movement of phosphorylated LHCII is reduced due to high granal stacking in cold treated leaves either in light or dark. Apart from these results, it is suggested that increased OJ phase and decreased JI and IP phases of Chl a fluorescence transients were due to reduced electron transport processes in cold treated samples.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology