[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher order modes (HOMs) can severely limit the operation of superconducting cavities in a linear accelerator with high beam current, high duty factor, and complex pulse structure. The full HOM spectrum has to be analyzed in order to identify potentially dangerous modes already during the design phase and to define their damping requirements. For this purpose a dedicated beam simulation code simulation of higher order mode dynamics (SMD) focused on beam-HOM interaction was developed, taking into account important effects like the HOM frequency spread, beam input jitter, different chopping patterns, as well as klystron and alignment errors. Here, SMD is used to investigate the influence of HOMs in detail in the superconducting proton linac at CERN and their potential to drive beam instabilities in the longitudinal and transverse plane.
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Review of Modern Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducting rf cavities in high current proton linacs is advisable before envisaging to omit all HOM dampers.
Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Review of Modern Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher Order Modes (HOMs) can severely limit the operation of superconducting cavities in a linac with high beam current, high duty factor and complex pulse structure. The full HOM spectrum has to be analyzed in order to identify potentially dangerous modes already during the design phase and to define their damping requirements. For this purpose a dedicated beam simulation code focused on beam-HOMinteraction was developed, taking into account important effects like the HOMfrequency spread, beam input jitter, different chopping patterns, as well as klystron and alignment errors. Here, the code is used to investigate in detail the HOM properties of the cavities foreseen in the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN and their potential to drive beam instabilities. Special attention is given to HOM excitation by chopped pulses with high repetition rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of the upgrade of the LHC injector complex at CERN, the construction of a 4 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (the SPL, in fact an H- accelerator) is planned to begin in 2012. Depending upon physics requests, it should be upgradeable to 5 GeV and multi-MW beam power at a later stage. The construction of Linac4, its low energy front end, has started at the beginning of 2008. A full project proposal with a cost estimate for the low power version of the SPL aimed at improving LHC performance has to be ready for mid-2011. As a first step towards that goal, essential machine parameters like RF frequency, cooling temperature and accelerating gradient have recently been revisited and plans have been drawn for designing and testing critical components.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hardware commissioning of the LHC RF Systems, the ACS Superconducting RF systems, ADT Transverse Dampers and APWL Wideband Longitudinal Monitors, started in late 2007 and was completed in time for the first LHC beams in 2008. The RF inter-machine synchroni-sation systems were in place and operational for the LHC synchronization tests in August 2008. The very first beams through IP4 were observed on the RF monitors and beam 2 was captured on 11th September. Measurements with beam on the damper systems were also pos-sible, preparing the way for closing the damper loop with beam. Major milestones during commissioning the ACS and ADT systems and results obtained during first capture tests are presented. Preparatory work for acceleration and multi-bunch operation is described as are the beam tests foreseen for 2009.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CERN SPS machine has been extensively upgraded to prepare it for its future role as the LHC injector. These changes include a significant impedance reduction programme and new beam-control and feedback systems. Nominal beams have recently been produced at the extraction energy, 450 GeV. To achieve this intensity it was initially necessary to inject higher intensities due to particle loss at capture and low energy. These intensity-dependent losses reached 30% for matched, but not optimum, capture. Studies of different phenomena leading to these losses have increased the transmission efficiency to ~95%. We describe the steps taken to minimize losses, pointing out mechanisms involved and presenting unresolved issues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a high energy and high power superconducting proton linac, it is more economical to drive several cavities with a single high power transmitter rather than to use one transmitter per cavity. However, this option has the disadvantage of not permitting individual control for each cavity, which potentially leads to instabilities. Provided that it can be built at a reasonable cost, a fast phase and amplitude modulator inserted into each cavity feeder line can provide the necessary control capability. A prototype of such a device has been built, based on two fast and compact high power RF phase-shifters, magnetically biased by external coils. The design is described, together with the results obtained at high and low power levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dependence of energy loss on bunch length was determined experimentally for a single proton bunch in the SPS at 26 GeV/c. This was done from measurements of the synchronous phase as a function of intensity for different capture voltages. The results are compared with the expected dependence calculated from the resistive part of the SPS impedance below 1 GHz. Two impedance sources, the cavities of the 200 MHz RF system and the extraction kickers, give the main contributions to particle energy loss in very good agreement with experiment. The results obtained allow a better understanding of some mechanisms leading to capture loss of the high intensity LHC beam in the SPS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The longitudinal emittance of the LHC beam must be increased in a controlled way in both the SPS and the LHC itself. In the first case a small increase is sufficient to help prevent coupled-bunch instabilities but in the second a factor three is required to also reduce intra-beam scattering effects. This has been achieved in the SPS by exciting the beam at the synchrotron frequency through the phase loop of the main RF system using bandwidthlimited noise, a method that is particularly suitable for the LHC which will have only one RF system. We describe the tests that have been done in the SPS both for low- and high-intensity beams, the hardware used and the influence of parameters such as time of excitation, bandwidth, frequency and amplitude on the resulting blow-up. After taking into account intensity effects it was possible to achieve a controlled emittance increase by a factor of about 2.5 without particle loss or the creation of visible tails in the distribution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The LHC-ACN RF system consists of 8 normalconducting cavities and is designed to reduce beam losses in the LHC when injecting beams with longitudinal emittance > 0.7 eVs from the CERN SPS. The cavity design took into account the possibility of recuperating all the "ancillary" equipment (tuners, fundamental mode damper, High Order Mode (HOM) couplers) from the old CERN SPS 200MHz system. The cavities are made from OFE copper. The original ingots, procured in Austria, have been forged and pre-formed by pressing them with a 20 tons press, following a procedure defined and adapted for the unusual dimensions of these pieces. The raw components thus obtained were machined and then welded together with an electron beam. In order to get a good repeatability of the fundamental mode frequency across the eight cavities, a procedure has been established with the contractor for the final machining and welding leading to a spread in frequencies below Â±20 kHz (< 0.01%). The cavities will be installed in the LHC when losses at high intensities become significant. In the meantime they are undergoing a surface treatment to clean the RF surface and will be stored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The helium processing technique has been used at CERN to improve the performance of the accelerating RF cavities with respect to field emission. It was extensively used in the vertical bare cavity tests to improve the superconducting cavities for the LEP Project. However this technique was rarely used on fully equipped production modules because of the risk of damaging the power couplers and its ceramic window by a possible glow discharges. First experience with helium processing on finished modules equipped with additional vacuum interlocks to protect the power couplers was acquired in the test area in October 1996. He processing was applied to three modules limited by field emission. Their overall performance was increased up to about 7 MV/m. Confident with these results, one module was processed in the LEP tunnel just before the shutdown 1996. The results obtained confirmed the feasibility of this method on a module already installed in the LEP tunnel and its efficiency in improving the performances. During the winter shutdown 1996-97, helium processing has been done separately on seven installed in LEP.