[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, enhancing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is as important as good metabolic control and prevention of secondary complications. This study aims to evaluate possible regional differences in HRQoL, demographic features and clinical characteristics of patients with T1DM in Brazil, a country of continental proportions, as well as investigate which variables could influence the HRQoL of these individuals and contribute to these regional disparities.
This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study performed by the Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group (BrazDiab1SG), by analyzing EuroQol scores from 3005 participants with T1DM, in 28 public clinics, among all geographical regions of Brazil. Data on demography, economic status, chronic complications, glycemic control and lipid profile were also collected.
We have found that the North-Northeast region presents a higher index in the assessment of the overall health status (EQ-VAS) compared to the Southeast (74.6 ± 30 and 70.4 ± 19, respectively; p < 0.05). In addition, North-Northeast presented a lower frequency of self-reported anxiety-depression compared to all regions of the country (North-Northeast: 1.53 ± 0.6; Southeast: 1.65 ± 0.7; South: 1.72 ± 0.7; Midwest: 1.67 ± 0.7; p < 0.05). These findings could not be entirely explained by the HbA1c levels or the other variables examined.
Our study points to the existence of additional factors not yet evaluated that could be determinant in the HRQoL of people with T1DM and contribute to these regional disparities.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the effect of sitagliptin on somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical diabetic neuropathy.
Materials and methods:
Interventional, prospective, and open study. Patients with less than six months from the diagnosis were included. Examinations of SEPs and laboratory tests at fasting and after food stimulation were performed before and after three months of treatment with sitagliptin (100 mg/day).
There was a reduction in the mean levels of HbA1c (P < 0.0001), fasting glucose (P = 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.019), and ALT (P = 0.022). An increase in active GLP-1 was found at the end of the study (P = 0.0025). Several SEPs showed statistically significant differences when analyzed before and after treatment with sitagliptin.
The results give a glimpse of the possible use of sitagliptin in the treatment of some neurodegenerative conditions of the peripheral nervous system, in addition to its already established role in glycemic control.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To evaluate the determinants of intensive insulin regimens (ITs) in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D).
This multicenter study was conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. Data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% female, 57.1% Caucasian). Insulin regimens were classified as follows: group 1, conventional therapy (CT) (intermediate human insulin, one to two injections daily); group 2 (three or more insulin injections of intermediate plus regular human insulin); group 3 (three or more insulin injections of intermediate human insulin plus short-acting insulin analogues); group 4, basal-bolus (one or two insulin injections of long-acting plus short-acting insulin analogues or regular insulin); and group 5, basal-bolus with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Groups 2 to 5 were considered IT groups.
We obtained complete data from 2,961 patients. Combined intermediate plus regular human insulin was the most used therapeutic regimen. CSII was used by 37 (1.2%) patients and IT by 2,669 (90.2%) patients. More patients on IT performed self-monitoring of blood glucose and were treated at the tertiary care level compared to CT patients (p < 0.001). The majority of patients from all groups had HbA1c levels above the target. Overweight or obesity was not associated with insulin regimen. Logistic regression analysis showed that economic status, age, ethnicity, and level of care were associated with IT (p < 0.001).
Given the prevalence of intensive treatment for T1D in Brazil, more effective therapeutic strategies are needed for long term-health benefits.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the day-to-day variability of the measures of heart rate variability (HRV) on the sample size calculation for the study of cardiac autonomic neuropathy.
Material and methods:
We analyzed HRV in the frequency domain [very low (VLF), low (LF), and high frequency (HF) bands] and in the time domain [the root mean squared of successive RR intervals differences (RMSSD); the mean RR intervals (RRNN); the standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) and the coefficient of variation (CV)] during a 5-min electrocardiogram record. We also analyzed the heart rate response to deep breathing [expiration:inspiration ratio], to the Valsalva maneuver and to standing [maximum:minimum ratio] and the blood pressure response to standing. The day-to-day variability was assessed by calculating the within-subject standard deviations (WSSD), limits of agreement, typical errors and the ratio of the WSSD to the mean values obtained on days 1 and 2 (WSSD/GM).
Sixty-seven healthy subjects (45 females), aged 27 (19-39) years, were recruited. The RMSSD, CV, VLF, LF, HF and blood pressure response to standing showed marked variability (WSDD/GM (%)=237.7, 455.1, 69.9, 126.5, 81.3 and 380.5, respectively), while the RRNN, SDNN, Valsalva, expiration:inspiration and maximum:minimum ratio showed less variability (WSSD/GM (%)=6.4, 24.5, 18.6, 11.0 and 14.1, respectively). The minimum differences expected to be statistically significant for the autonomic measurements were calculated.
Some tests that assess HRV showed adequate reproducibility. This study allows the determination of a sample size calculation for longitudinal or drug-testing studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in type 2 diabetes.
Patients (N = 110) were evaluated regarding Epworth Sleepiness Scale (EDS), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (Berlin questionnaire), and comorbidity severity (Charlson Comorbidity Index). Patients were compared with indivi-duals with arterial hypertension and without diabetes.
Diabetic patients had more EDS, depressive symptoms, and higher comorbidity severity than hypertensive patients (p < 0.005). In diabetic patients, poor quality sleep (53.3%), and high risk of OSA (40.9%) and RLS (14.5%) were found; EDS (55.5%) was associated with depressive symptoms present in 44.5% indivi-duals (OR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01-1.15), and remained so after data were controlled for age, gender, body mass index, and glycated hemoglobin (OR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.03-5.03).
Sleep abnormalities are frequent. EDS affects most of the patients and is independently associated with depressive symptoms. Adequate antidepressant therapy should be tested for the effects on EDS.
Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) despite normal levels of thyroid hormones, is highly prevalent in Brazil, especially among women and the elderly. Although an increasing number of studies have related SCH to an increased risk of coronary artery disease and mortality, there have been no randomized clinical trials verifying the benefit of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these risks, and the treatment remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: This consensus, sponsored by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism and developed by Brazilian experts with extensive clinical experience with thyroid diseases, presents these recommendations based on evidence for the clinical management of SCH patients in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After structuring the clinical questions, the search for evidence in the literature was initially performed in the MedLine-PubMed database and later in the Embase and SciELO - Lilacs databases. The strength of evidence was evaluated according to the Oxford classification system and established based on the experimental design used, considering the best available evidence for each question and the Brazilian experience. RESULTS: The topics covered included SCH definition and diagnosis, natural history, clinical significance, treatment and pregnancy, and the consensus issued 29 recommendations for the clinical management of adult patients with SCH. CONCLUSION: Treatment with levothyroxine was recommended for all patients with persistent SCH with serum TSH values > 10 mU/L and for certain patient subgroups.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUÇÃO: O hipotireoidismo subclínico (HSC), definido por concentrações elevadas do TSH em face de níveis normais dos hormônios tireoidianos, tem elevada prevalência no Brasil, particularmente entre mulheres e idosos. Embora um número crescente de estudos venha associando o HSC com maior risco de doença arterial coronariana e de mortalidade, não há ensaio clínico randomizado sobre o benefício do tratamento com levotiroxina na redução dos riscos e o tratamento permanece controverso. OBJETIVO: Este consenso, patrocinado pelo Departamento de Tireoide da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia e desenvolvido por especialistas brasileiros com vasta experiência clínica em tireoide, apresenta recomendações baseadas em evidências para uma abordagem clínica do paciente com HSC no Brasil. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Após estruturação das questões clínicas, a busca das evidências disponíveis na literatura foi realizada inicialmente na base de dados do MedLine-PubMed e posteriormente nas bases Embase e SciELO - Lilacs. A força da evidência, avaliada pelo sistema de classificação de Oxford, foi estabelecida a partir do desenho de estudo utilizado, considerando-se a melhor evidência disponível para cada questão e a experiência brasileira. RESULTADOS: Os temas abordados foram definição e diagnóstico, história natural, significado clínico, tratamento e gestação, que resultaram em 29 recomendações para a abordagem clínica do paciente adulto com HSC. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com levotiroxina foi recomendado para todos os pacientes com HSC persistente com níveis séricos do TSH > 10 mU/L e para alguns subgrupos especiais de pacientes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify the impact of levothyroxine replacement on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a Brazilian sample of primary hypothyroidism patients. A cross-sectional study was performed with 2,057 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients on levothyroxine (LT4) replacement at four referral centers in Brazil (median age = 53; 25th percentile = 43; 75th percentile = 61 years). Patient biochemical data were acquired from medical records, and patients completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic issues and clinical signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36v2. Patients were divided into three groups according to TSH levels: overtreated (OvT; TSH < 0.4 mU/L), appropriately treated (AT; TSH between 0.4 and 4.0 mU/L), and undertreated (UnT; TSH > 4.0 mU/L). Patients were also analyzed by TSH and FT4 serum levels: overt hyperthyroidism (OHyper; TSH < 0.4 mU/L and FT4 > 1.9 ng/dL), subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper; TSH < 0.4 mU/L and FT4 0.8-1.9 ng/dL), subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo; TSH > 4.0 mU/L and FT4 0.8-1.9 ng/dL), and overt hypothyroidism (OHypo; TSH > 4.0 mU/L and FT4 < 0.8 ng/dL). A total of 14.4 % of patients were OvT, with 13.0 % SHyper and 1.4 % OHyper. The prevalence of UnT was 25.9 %, with 21.5 % SHypo and 4.4 % OHypo. Overtreatment was not associated with HRQoL impairment. UnT patients had worse HRQoL than AT patients, especially for physical and emotional aspects, independent of SHypo or OHypo status. Hypothyroidism undertreatment is associated with poor patient HRQoL. Therefore, adequate LT4 therapy should be given to maintain serum TSH within the reference range.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy affects both maternal and fetal metabolism, and even in non-diabetic women, it exerts a diabetogenic effect. Among pregnant women, 2% to 14% develop gestational diabetes. Pregnancy can also occur in women with preexisting diabetes, which may predispose the fetus to many alterations in organogenesis, restrict growth, and the mother, to some diabetes-related complications, such as retinopathy and nephropathy, or to acceleration of the course of these complications, if they are already present. Women with gestational diabetes generally start their treatment with diet and lifestyle changes; when these changes are not enough for optimal glycemic control, insulin therapy must then be considered. Women with type 2 diabetes using oral hypoglycemic agents are advised to change to insulin therapy. Those with preexisting type 1 diabetes should start intensive glycemic control. As basal insulin analogues have frequently been used off-label in pregnant women, there is a need to evaluate their safety and efficacy. The aim of this review is to report the use of both short- and long-acting insulin analogues during pregnancy and to enable clinicians, obstetricians, and endocrinologists to choose the best insulin treatment for their patients.
Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disease. Few studies have evaluated its association with hearing loss (HL) and the results are conflicting.
To evaluate the prevalence and features of HL in a group of patients being treated for acromegaly. To analyze peripheral and central auditory transmission.
Cross-sectional study. A group of 34 patients with acromegaly were submitted to metabolic evaluation, tonal audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. HL was considered when pure tone average was > 25 DBHL for low frequencies (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) or high frequencies (3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz). The patients were divided in group A (with HL) and B (without HL).
Twelve patients (35.3%) had sensorineural HL (Group A), being 8 bilateral and 4 unilateral. No one had mixed or conductive HL. The prevalence of diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance was similar between the groups. The frequencies 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz were the most affected and with a similar pattern in both ears.
sensorineural HL was found in 38.9% of cases. Neither clinical nor metabolic differences were noted between the groups, as well as in regards to peripheral and central auditory transmission.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH) in an adult population with a predominance of families with low education and income levels, in the hinterlands of Pernambuco, Brazil, and to analyze its association with other factors related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
A cross-sectional study in 2008/2009 was conducted with a sample of 198 subjects stratified by age, and representative of the urban adult population of the Canaã district of city of Triunfo, in the hinterlands of Pernambuco, Brazil.
One hundred ninety eight individuals with average age of 57.7 years old (31 to 90 years-old), mainly women (65.6%), and with low income and education levels (81.3% with a monthly income of less than one minimum wage) were evaluated. Among these, 127 (64.1%) were identified as having AH, 54 (42.5%) of whom had no prior diagnosis. From those who were previously diagnosed, only 31.3% had good blood pressure control. Higher prevalence was observed in those individuals with lower incomes, higher body mass indexes (BMI), and those with metabolic syndrome (MS).
These data demonstrated that there was a high prevalence of AH in the urban, low education and income levels adult population of Triunfo, strongly associated with lower income levels, elevated BMI, and the presence of MS; and a high prevalence of bad blood pressure control among the previously diagnosed cases. These results indicate that more effective interventions for early detection and adequate control of this disease and its comorbidities are necessary.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who meet the glycemic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors goals and the frequency of screening for diabetic complications in Brazil according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines.
This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted between December 2008 and December 2010 in 28 public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities. Data were obtained from 1774 adult patients (56.8% females, 57.2% Caucasians) aged 30.3 ± 9.8 years with diabetes duration of 14.3 ± 8.8 years.
Systolic blood pressure was at goal in 40.3% and diastolic blood pressure was at goal in 26.6% of hypertensive patients. LDL cholesterol and HbA1c were at the goal in 45.2% and 13.2% of the patients, respectively. Overweight was presented in 25.6% and obesity in 6.9%. Among those with more than 5 years of disease, screening for retinopathy was performed in the preceding year in 70.1%. Nephropathy and feet complications were screened in 63.1% and 65.1%, respectively.
The majority of patients did not meet metabolic control goals and a substantial proportion was not screened for diabetic complications. These issues may increase the risk of chronic complications and negatively impact public health.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal complications in acromegaly include glomerular hyperfiltration, insulin resistance, hypercalciuria and urolithiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether urinary calcium (U(Ca)) excretion is a direct consequence of growth hormone secretion or secondary to hyperfiltration and/or insulin resistance.
We performed a cross-sectional study of 58 patients diagnosed with acromegaly. Demographic data were obtained, serum analysis was performed, including insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and 24-h urine collection, to measure urinary protein excretion, U(Ca) and phosphate excretion, as well as fractional excretion of sodium and potassium. We also calculated the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).
Patients were predominantly male (60.3%), and their mean age was 45.9 ± 14 years. Hypercalciuria was present in 24% of patients. Patients with higher HOMA-IR had higher IGF-1 levels, a trend toward higher body mass index and higher U(Ca) excretion. In univariate analysis, U(Ca) excretion was associated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.472, P = 0.001), phosphaturia (r = 0.457, P = 0.001), IGF-1 (r = 0.398, P = 0.002) and creatinine clearance (r = 0.394, P = 0.001). HOMA-IR and phosphaturia were independently associated with U(Ca) excretion. No independent associations were found between phosphaturia and HOMA-IR or IGF-1.
The present study revealed an association between hypercalciuria and insulin resistance in patients with acromegaly. Further studies are required to fully understand the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in patients with acromegaly.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · International Urology and Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The Night Eating questionnaire (NEQ) is regarded as an important tool for the assessment of the severity of the Night Eating Syndrome. The objective of this study was to validate a new Brazilian Portuguese version of the NEQ that could be easily applied to patients from the public health system. Methods: In order to develop the Brazilian Portuguese version of the NEQ, we adopted the following steps: (a) translation, (b) back-translation, (c) comparison between translation and back-translation and (d) pretest. Subsequently, intra and inter-observer reproducibility were assessed in 37 patients from the Endocrinolgy Outpatient Clinic at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Ceará, Brazil. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated in 90 individuals from the same Institution. The construct validity of the NEQ was assessed by correlations with clinical variables. Results: This new translated and culturally adapted version showed excellent internal consistency (alfa coefficient =0.87) and reproducibility both intra-observer and inter-observer (individual item coefficients ranging from 0.95 to 1.0 and 0.92-1.0, respectively). Conclusions: These results indicate that this Brazilian Portuguese version of the NEQ is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of patients with nocturnal eating problems and is equivalent to its original version. No major cultural adaptations were introduced to the questionnaire during the validation process, despite significant linguistic and cultural differences.