- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three antigens (NcSAG1, NcSRS2 and NcMIC3) from Neospora caninum were expressed using the BmNPV bacmid system in silkworm larvae and purified from the hemolymph. From 20 silkworm larvae, 1.5, 1.2 and 1.4 mg of purified recombinant NcSAG1, NcSRS2 and NcMIC3 were obtained, respectively. When each purified recombinant antigen was immunized with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) to mice, recombinant NcSAG1 induced a Th2 immune response in immunized mice and produced a SAG1-specific antibody. In the experiment where NcSAG1-immunized mice were challenged with N. caninum, the cerebral N. caninum burden was significantly reduced compared with that of either the FIA- or PBS-immunized mice. Recombinant NcSRS2 or NcMIC3 induced both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but NcMIC3-immunization did not induce significant production of NcMIC3-specific antibodies. These results suggest that the silkworm can produce recombinant antigens of N. caninum, which can be used as a recombinant vaccine against N. caninum. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baculovirus display systems have been utilized for cell-specific gene transfer, regenerative medicine, and as vaccine vectors. In particular, baculovirus particles displaying surface antigens have been used as vaccines against some parasites and viruses. In this study, Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) particles displaying Neospora caninum antigens (NcSAG1, NcSRS2, and NcMIC3) purified from the hemolymph or fat body of silkworm larvae were prepared to vaccinate mice against N. caninum. Each antigen was expressed on the surface of BmNPV particles through glycoprotein 64 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Antigen-specific antibody production was induced in mice by immunization with each recombinant BmNPV particle. NcMIC3-displaying BmNPV particles purified from the fat body induced a lower antibody titer than particles purified from the hemolymph. Antigen-specific IgG2a was predominantly produced in mice by immunization with NcSAG1-displaying BmNPV particles compared to IgG1, and induction of IFN-γ was dominant, indicating that antigen-displaying BmNPV particles can elicit a Th1 immune response in mice. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that immunization with each antigen-displaying BmNPV particle partially protected mice from cerebral N. caninum infection. These results suggest that antigen-displaying BmNPV particles can provide an alternative method of controlling neosporosis in cattle and represent a new generation of N. caninum vaccines.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neosporosis, an infectious disease of cattle and dogs, causes an abortion in cattle, which has a major damage on the dairy industry worldwide. Tracking of Neospora caninum parasite that is responsible for neosporosis is required for the prevention of this infectious disease. We developed three chimera monoclonal antibodies consist of variable regions of murine antibody and constant regions of human antibody against N. caninum. Recombinant surface antigen-related sequence 2 (rNcSRS2) of N. caninum was expressed in silkworm larvae, and immunized in mice to obtain phage displaying antibody library. Through three rounds of selection, three antibodies, A6, E1 and H3, were isolated and bound to rNcSRS2 with nanomolar to micromolar affinity. In immunofluorescent staining assays, A6 and E1 bound to N. caninum strain Nc-Liv, demonstrating a successful tracking of the parasite. H3 clone bound to rNcSRS2 but not to a truncated protein without glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor domain in the carboxyl terminal. Amino acid sequences of A6 and E1 were similar, but that of H3 differed in the CDR-H1 region, which might be the reason of their difference of affinity. These antibodies are thought to be useful for prevention of cattle from neosporosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying antigen have been increasingly recognized as a potential vaccine in the livestock industry. In this study, Neospora caninum surface protein related sequence (NcSRS)2 was displayed on the surface of Rous sarcoma virus group-antigen protein (RSV-gag) VLPs. Two types of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmids, encoding RSV-gag and NcSRS2 genes, were co-injected into silkworm larvae to produce VLPs-NcSRS2. At 7 days post-injection, VLPs-NcSRS2 were collected from hemolymph and purified. The antigenicity of the purified protein was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using neosporosis-positive bovine serum. ELISA revealed that ∼0.16μg rNcSRS2 was displayed per 1μg VLPs-NcSRS2.To develop an antibody specific for VLPs-NcSRS2, purified VLPs-NcSRS2 were used to immunize mice in a three-dose regimen without adjuvant and the production of antibodies was confirmed in serum samples. By using a silkworm expression system, we demonstrated the display, expression and immunization of neosporosis-targeting membrane proteins, which are vaccine candidates for neosporosis.
Dataset: Figure S2[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Confirmation of anti-rNcSAG1 antibodies in immunized mouse. After immunization, anti-NcSAG1 antibodies in the serum of mouse were confirmed using an ELISA with immobilization of BSA or rNcSAG1 on a microplate. After blocking with PBS containing skimmed milk, microplate was added with diluted mouse sera samples in 103, 104, 105, and 106 times. Then, the ECLTM Anti-mouse IgG, Horseradish Peroxidase linked whole antibody (from sheep) was added. After incubation at room temperature for 1 h, the assay was carried out. (TIFF)
Dataset: Figure S3[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of A10 and H3 antibody binding to rNcSAG1 with anti-N. caninum antibodies in neosporosis-positive serum. Sera samples from healthy cattle (negative) and N. caninum-infected cattle (positive), which were different from those used in Figure 6, were provided by Tobu Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center of Japan. These sera were used to inhibit the binding of A10 or H3 to immobilized rNcSAG1on a microplate (n = 3). (TIFF)
Dataset: Figure S1[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scheme for the development of murine anti-NcSAG1 antibodies. The variable region genes of antibodies were amplified from cDNA, which was transcribed from total RNA extracted from spleen cells of immunized mice and cloned into a phagemid pDong1/Fab. By transformation of E. coli with pDong1-containing antibody gene, a phage displayed Fab library was made and used for monoclonal antibody selection. VH: variable region gene of heavy chain of antibody; VL: variable region gene of light chain of antibody; CH1: constant region gene of heavy chain of antibody; CL: constant region gene of light chain of antibody. (TIFF)
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neosporosis, caused by an intracellular parasite, Neospora caninum, is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs. It occurs worldwide and causes huge damages to dairy farms. In this study, we immunized mice with recombinant surface-associated protein 1 of N. caninum (rNcSAG1) and developed two novel monoclonal antibodies, A10 and H3, against NcSAG1 using phage-display technology. Both clones bound to purified rNcSAG1 and the half maximal inhibitory concentrations of A10 and H3 are 50 and 72 nM of rNcSAG1, respectively. In immunofluorescence assays, both A10 and H3 Fabs bound to N. caninum parasites. Direct detection of N. caninum parasites was developed firstly using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with A10 and H3. Binding of A10 and H3 antibodies to rNcSAG1 was also inhibited by some certain anti-N. caninum antibodies in the neosporosis-positive cattle sera, suggesting they might bind to the same epitopes of NcSAG1 with those anti-N. caninum antibodies of bovine. These antibodies were demonstrated to have a potential for monitoring the N. caninum parasites in a dairy farm, which may lead to protect livestock from parasite-infection.
Dataset: Figure S4[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular model of the variable regions of antibodies A10 and H3. Structures were built using WAM antibody modeling server. A10 is shown in green, and the blue parts stand for the A10-CDRH3 and A10-CDRL3; H3 is in red, and dark red parts stand for the H3-CDRH3 and H3-CDRL3. (TIFF)
Dataset: Table S1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection of Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle, which has a serious worldwide impact on the economic performance of the dairy and beef industries. Now, inexpensive and efficacious vaccines are required to protect cattle from neosporosis in livestock industry. In this study, N. caninum surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and SAG1-related sequence 2 (SRS2) were expressed in hemolymph of silkworm larvae as a soluble form. Expressed SAG1 and SRS2 clearly showed antigenicity against N. caninum-positive sera of cow. SAG1 and SRS2 were purified to near homogeneity from hemolymph of silkworm larvae using anti-FLAG M2 antibody agarose: approximately 1.7mg of SAG1 from 10 silkworm larvae and 370μg of SRS2 from 17 silkworm larvae. Mice that were injected by antigens induced antibodies against SAG1 and SRS2. This study indicates that it is possible that this silkworm expression system leads to a large-scale production of N. caninum-antigens with biological function and low production cost. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid expression system paves the way to produce largely and rapidly these recombinant antigens for its application to subunit vaccines against neosporosis in cattle.
Dataset: Additional file 1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of cattle and dogs, caused by intracellular parasite, Neospora caninum. Neosporosis appears to be a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide and causes to huge economic loss to dairy industry. Recombinant surface associated antigen 1 (NcSAG1), NcSAG1 related sequence 2 (NcSRS2) and the dense granule antigen 2 (NcGRA2) of N. caninum were expressed either in silkworm or in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified recombinant proteins bound to the N. caninum-specific antibodies in serum samples from infected cattle as revealed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). By co-immobilizing these recombinant proteins, a novel indirect ELISA was developed for detection of neosporosis. With the use of 32 serum samples, comprising 12 positive serum samples and 20 negative serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 91.7 and 100%, respectively. Seventy-two serum samples from dairy farms were also tested and one was diagnosed with neosporasis with both this method and a commercial assay. A diagnostic method employing recombinant proteins of N. caninum was developed. The method showed high sensitivity and specificity. Diagnostic test with field serum samples suggested its applicability to the practical diagnosis of neosporosis.