Dong Xiao

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (51)322.73 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that Gugggulsterone (Gug) inhibits growth of cultured LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis induction in association with reactive-oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The present study builds upon the novel observations and now reveals a novel mechanism of Gug-anticancer activity that ATP citrate lyase (ACLY)-regulated Akt inactivation is involved in Gug-mediated inhibition of prostate cancer growth. Oral gavage of Gug significantly retarded the growth of PC-3 xenografts in athymic mice without causing weight loss and any other side effects. The Gug-induced apoptosis was associated with remarkably down-regulation of Akt and ACLY in both cancer cells and xenografts tumor tissue of Gug-treated group. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt conferred significant protection against Gug-mediated apoptotic cell death in both cancer cells. Moreover, the Gug-induced apoptosis, and Akt and ACLY inactivation in PC-3 and LNCaP cells was intensified by siRNA-based knockdown of ACLY protein level and by pharmacological inhibition of ACLY, or was protected by the ectopic expression of ACLY. In conclusion, the present study reveals a novel mechanism of Gug-anticancer activity that Gug-inhibited prostate cancer growth is regulated by ACLY/Akt signaling axis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with cancer. However, the mechanisms that underlie metastatic progression remain unclear. We examined TMEM16A (ANO1) expression as a key factor shifting tumors between growth and metastasis. Experimental design: We evaluated 26 pairs of primary and metastatic lymph node (LN) tissue from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) for differential expression of TMEM16A. In addition, we identified mechanisms by which TMEM16A expression influences tumor cell motility via proteomic screens of cell lines and in vivo mouse studies of metastasis. Results: Compared with primary tumors, TMEM16A expression decreases in metastatic LNs of patients with SCCHN. Stable reduction of TMEM16A expression enhances cell motility and increases metastases while decreasing tumor proliferation in an orthotopic mouse model. Evaluation of human tumor tissues suggests an epigenetic mechanism for decreasing TMEM16A expression through promoter methylation that correlated with a transition between an epithelial and a mesenchymal phenotype. These effects of TMEM16A expression on tumor cell size and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required the amino acid residue serine 970 (S970); however, mutation of S970 to alanine does not disrupt the proliferative advantages of TMEM16A overexpression. Furthermore, S970 mediates the association of TMEM16A with Radixin, an actin-scaffolding protein implicated in EMT. Conclusions: Together, our results identify TMEM16A, an eight transmembrane domain Ca2+-activated Cl- channel, as a primary driver of the "Grow" or "Go" model for cancer progression, in which TMEM16A expression acts to balance tumor proliferation and metastasis via its promoter methylation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer, a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males, is well recognized as having late disease on-set (mostly at age 60-70) and showing slow/latent disease development, and strategies to prevent cancer formation in late manhood may have significant health impacts. Cucurbitacin B (CuB) is a naturally occurring compound that is found abundantly in cucumbers and other vegetables, and it is known to exert anti-cancer activities (primarily via apoptosis-induction) in several human cancers. However, its chemopreventive potential for prostate cancer has not yet been investigated. Here, we reported that CuB significantly and specifically inhibited prostate cancer cell growth with low IC50 (∼ 0.3 μM; PC-3 and LNCaP), accompanied by marked apoptosis (Caspase 3/7 activation, PARP cleavage, increase of Annexin V-Alexa Fluor 488 (Alexa488)+ cells and accumulation of Sub-G0/G1 population), whereas normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) were CuB-insensitive. Using a chemopreventive model, pre-treatment of mice with CuB (2 weeks before PC-3 prostate cancer cell implantation) significantly reduced the rate of in vivo tumor-formation. A 79% reduction in tumor size (accompanied by marked in situ apoptosis) was observed in the CuB-treated group (with no noticeable toxicity) vs. controls at day 31. Strikingly, mechanistic investigations demonstrated that CuB drove dose-dependent inhibition of ATP citrate lyase phosphorylation (ACLY; an important enzyme for cancer metabolism) both in vitro and in the CuB-chemopreventive mouse model. Importantly, ACLY over-expression abrogated CuB's apoptotic effects in prostate cancer cells, confirming ACLY as a direct target of CuB. Thus, CuB harbors potent chemopreventive activity for prostate cancer, and we revealed a novel anti-tumor mechanism of CuB via inhibition of ACYL signaling in human cancer.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Cancer letters
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    Jinrong Wei · Yong Zhou · Guo-Qin Jiang · Dong Xiao
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is one of the major hindrances in the treatment of human cancers. Erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1) is involved in the drug resistance of various cancer cells, and is overexpressed in drug-resistant human breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of ETS1 on adriamycin resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells. siRNAs against ETS1 or negative control siRNAs was transfected to MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression of ETS1 and MDR1. The cytotoxicity of adriamycin was assessed using the MTT assay. Drug efflux was investigated by flow cytometry using the Rhodamine 123 intracellular accumulation assay. ETS1 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in MCF-7/ADR cells, compared to MCF-7 cells. ETS1 siRNA successfully silenced ETS1 mRNA and protein expression. Silencing of ETS1 also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1; also known as ABCB1, P-glycoprotein/P-gp), which is a major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter linked to multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. Silencing of ETS1 significantly increased the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells to adriamycin, compared to cells transfected with negative control siRNA. In addition, intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123 significantly increased in MCF-7/ADR cells transfected with ETS1 siRNA, indicating that silencing of ETS1 may reduce drug efflux. This study demonstrates that drug resistance can be effectively reversed in adriamycin-resistant breast carcinoma cells through delivery of siRNAs targeting ETS1.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Cancer Cell International
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    ABSTRACT: z-Guggulsterone (z-Gug) and Gugulipid (GL) have been used to treat a variety of ailments. We now report their anti-cancer effect and mechanism against human breast cancer. Using the human estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells as well as the normal human mammary epithelial cell line (HMEC), we evaluated the anti-breast-cancer efficacy and apoptosis inducing activity of GL. We determined the cellular and molecular mechanism of GL-inhibited breast cancer cell growth. GL significantly inhibited growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50~2muM at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-Gug. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and caspase 3 activity. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with down-regulation of the beta-Catenin signaling pathway. The decreased expression of Wnt/beta-Catenin targeting genes, such as cyclin D1, C-myc and survivin, and the inhibition of the activity of the transcription factor (T-cell factor 4, TCF-4) were observed in GL-treated breast cancer cells. The GL treatment resulted in a significant reduction of beta-Catenin /TCF-4 complex in both of the cancer cells. The GL-induced apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced by RNA Interference of beta-Catenin and TCF-4. On the other hand, the normal human mammary epithelial cell HMEC, compared with the human breast cancer cells, is significantly more resistant to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by GL. The present study indicates that the beta-Catenin signaling pathway is the target for GL-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Genomic findings underscore the heterogeneity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)1,2. Identification of mutations that predict therapeutic response would be a major advance. We determined the mutationally altered, targetable mitogenic pathways in a large HNSCC cohort. Analysis of whole-exome sequencing data from 151 tumors revealed the PI3K pathway to be the most frequently mutated oncogenic pathway (30.5%). PI3K pathway-mutated HNSCC tumors harbored a significantly higher rate of mutations in known cancer genes. In a subset of HPV-positive tumors, PIK3CA or PIK3R1 was the only mutated cancer gene. Strikingly, all tumors with concurrent mutation of multiple PI3K pathway genes were advanced (stage IV), implicating concerted PI3K pathway aberrations in HNSCC progression. Patient-derived tumorgrafts with canonical and non-canonical PIK3CA mutations were sensitive to an m-TOR/PI3K inhibitor (BEZ-235) in contrast to PIK3CA wildtype tumorgrafts. These results suggest that PI3K pathway mutations may serve as predictive biomarkers for treatment selection.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Cancer Discovery
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    ABSTRACT: Frequent gene amplification of the receptor-activated calcium-dependent chloride channel TMEM16A (TAOS2 or ANO1) has been reported in several malignancies. However, its involvement in human tumorigenesis has not been previously studied. Here, we show a functional role for TMEM16A in tumor growth. We found TMEM16A overexpression in 80% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN), which correlated with decreased overall survival in patients with SCCHN. TMEM16A overexpression significantly promoted anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and loss of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, TMEM16A-induced cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth were accompanied by an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation and cyclin D1 induction. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK and genetic inactivation of ERK1/2 (using siRNA and dominant-negative constructs) abrogated the growth effect of TMEM16A, indicating a role for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in TMEM16A-mediated proliferation. In addition, a developmental small-molecule inhibitor of TMEM16A, T16A-inh01 (A01), abrogated tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Together, our findings provide a mechanistic analysis of the tumorigenic properties of TMEM16A, which represents a potentially novel therapeutic target. The development of small-molecule inhibitors against TMEM16A may be clinically relevant for treatment of human cancers, including SCCHN.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells but the mechanisms underlying growth inhibitory effect of BITC are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that BITC treatment causes FoxO1-mediated autophagic death in cultured human breast cancer cells. The BITC-treated breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, BT-474, and BRI-JM04) and MDA-MB-231 xenografts from BITC-treated mice exhibited several features characteristic of autophagy, including appearance of double-membrane vacuoles (transmission electron microscopy) and acidic vesicular organelles (acridine orange staining), cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and/or suppression of p62 (p62/SQSTM1 or sequestosome 1) expression. On the other hand, a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) was resistant to BITC-induced autophagy. BITC-mediated inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell viability was partially but statistically significantly attenuated in the presence of autophagy inhibitors 3-methyl adenine and bafilomycin A1. Stable overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, which was fully protective against apoptosis, conferred only partial protection against BITC-induced autophagy. BITC treatment decreased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream targets (P70s6k and 4E-BP1) in cultured MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 xenografts, but activation of mTOR by transient overexpression of its positive regulator Rheb failed to confer protection against BITC-induced autophagy. Autophagy induction by BITC was associated with increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. Furthermore, autophagy induction and cell growth inhibition resulting from BITC exposure were significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA knockdown of FoxO1. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insights into the molecular circuitry of BITC-induced cell death involving FoxO1-mediated autophagy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · PLoS ONE

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Molecular pharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, not only affords significant protection against chemically induced cancer in experimental rodents but also inhibits growth of human cancer cells by causing apoptotic and autophagic cell death. However, the underlying mechanism of PEITC-induced cell death is not fully understood. Using LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells as a model, we demonstrate that the PEITC-induced cell death is initiated by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Exposure of LNCaP and PC-3 cells to pharmacologic concentrations of PEITC resulted in ROS production, which correlated with inhibition of complex III activity, suppression of OXPHOS, and ATP depletion. These effects were not observed in a representative normal human prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC). The ROS production by PEITC treatment was not influenced by cyclosporin A. The Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were more resistant to PEITC-mediated ROS generation, apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential compared with respective wild-type cells. The PEITC treatment resulted in activation of Bax in wild-type LNCaP and PC-3 cells, but not in their respective Rho-0 variants. Furthermore, RNA interference of Bax and Bak conferred significant protection against PEITC-induced apoptosis. The Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells also resisted PEITC-mediated autophagy. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of PEITC-induced cell death involving ROS production due to inhibition of complex III and OXPHOS.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as garden cress, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture. The present study was undertaken to determine in vivo efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The BITC administration retarded growth of MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously implanted in female nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The BITC-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth correlated with reduced cell proliferation as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 expression. Analysis of the vasculature in the tumors from BITC-treated mice indicated smaller vessel area compared with control tumors based on immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis marker CD31. The BITC-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo correlated with downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 protein levels in the tumor. Consistent with these results, BITC treatment suppressed VEGF secretion and VEGF receptor 2 protein levels in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the BITC-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited reduced capacity for migration compared with vehicle-treated control cells. In contrast to cellular data, BITC administration failed to elicit apoptotic response as judged by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 xenografts in association with reduced cell proliferation and suppression of neovascularization. These preclinical observations merit clinical investigation to determine efficacy of BITC against human breast cancers.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
  • Dong Xiao · Shivendra V. Singh

    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Cancer Research
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    Dong Xiao · Shivendra V Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Naturally occurring phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) selectively inhibits growth of cancer cells by causing apoptosis, but the mechanism of cell death induction is not fully understood. We now show, for the first time, that growth factor adapter protein p66(Shc) is indispensable for PEITC-induced apoptosis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from p66(Shc) knockout mice were significantly more resistant to PEITC-mediated growth inhibition, cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activation compared with wild-type fibroblasts. The PEITC treatment resulted in induction as well as increased Ser(36) phosphorylation of p66(Shc) in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of p66(Shc) protein conferred significant protection against PEITC-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation as well as production of reactive oxygen species in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. The PEITC-treated PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited increased binding of p66(Shc) with prolyl isomerase Pin1, a protein implicated in translocation of p66(Shc) to mitochondria. Consistent with these results, treatment of PC-3 cells with PEITC resulted in translocation of p66(Shc) to the mitochondria as judged by immunoblotting using cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions and immunofluorescence microscopy. Growth suppression and apoptosis induction in tumor xenografts in vivo by oral administration of PEITC to the PC-3 tumor-bearing male athymic mice were accompanied by statistically significant increase in the level of Ser(36)-phosphorylated p66(Shc). Collectively, these results provide novel insight into the critical role of p66(Shc) in regulation of PEITC-induced apoptotic cell death in human prostate cancer cells.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Cancer Research
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    Dong Xiao · Shivendra Vikram Singh
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine efficacy of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) for sensitization of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (AIPC) to Docetaxel-induced apoptosis using cellular and xenograft models. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Microscopy and DNA fragmentation assay were performed to quantify apoptotic cell death in cultured cells. Protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model was utilized to determine in vivo efficacy of the PEITC and/or Docetaxel treatments. Pharmacologic concentrations of PEITC augmented Docetaxel-induced apoptosis in PC-3 and DU145 cells in association with suppression of Bcl-2 and XIAP protein levels and induction of Bax and Bak. The PEITC-Docetaxel combination was markedly more efficacious against PC-3 xenograft in vivo compared with PEITC or Docetaxel alone. Significantly higher counts of apoptotic bodies were also observed in tumor sections from mice treated with the PEITC-Docetaxel combination compared with PEITC or Docetaxel alone. The PEITC and/or Docetaxel-mediated changes in the levels of apoptosis regulating proteins in the tumor were generally consistent with the molecular alterations observed in cultured cells. These results offer obligatory impetus to test PEITC-Docetaxel combination for the treatment of AIPC in a clinical setting.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest resulting from treatment of DU145 cells with diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a promising cancer chemopreventive constituent of garlic. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting was performed to determine protein expression. Overexpression of wild-type or mutant Cdc25C was achieved by transient transfection. Nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdk1) was studied by immunoblotting. Exposure of DU145 human prostate cancer cells to DATS resulted in concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of G2/M phase cells, which correlated with down-regulation as well as increased S216 phosphorylation of Cdc25C. Ectopic expression of wild-type or redox-insensitive mutants (C330S and C330S/C377S) or S216A mutant of Cdc25C failed to confer protection against DATS-induced G2/M phase arrest. The DATS-mediated G2/M phase cell cycle arrest was also independent of reduced complex formation between cdk1 and cyclin B1, but correlated with delayed nuclear translocation of cdk1. The present study indicates that the DATS-mediated G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in DU145 cells results from differential kinetics of nuclear localization of cdk1 and cyclin B1.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Pharmaceutical Research
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    Dong Xiao · Yan Zeng · Shivendra V Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Growth suppressive effect of diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a promising cancer chemopreventive constituent of garlic, against cultured human cancer cells correlates with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1)-mediated mitotic arrest, but the fate of the cells arrested in mitosis remains elusive. Using LNCaP and HCT-116 human cancer cells as a model, we now demonstrate that the Chk1-mediated mitotic arrest resulting from DATS exposure leads to apoptosis. The DATS exposure resulted in G(2) phase and mitotic arrest in both LNCaP and HCT-116 cell lines. The G(2) arrest was accompanied by downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), cell division cycle (Cdc) 25B, and Cdc25C leading to Tyr15 phosphorylation of Cdk1 (inactivation). The DATS-mediated mitotic arrest correlated with inactivation of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome as evidenced by accumulation of its substrates cyclinB1 and securin. The DATS treatment increased activating phosphorylation of Chk1 (Ser317) and transient transfection with Chk1-targeted siRNA conferred significant protection against DATS-induced mitotic arrest in both cell lines. The Chk1 protein knockdown also afforded partial yet statistically significant protection against apoptotic DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation resulting from DATS exposure in both LNCaP and HCT-116 cells. Even though DATS treatment resulted in stabilization and Ser15 phosphorylation of p53, the knockdown of p53 protein failed to rescue DATS-induced mitotic arrest. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that Chk1 dependence of DATS-induced mitotic arrest in human cancer cells is not influenced by the p53 status and cells arrested in mitosis upon DATS exposure are driven to apoptotic DNA fragmentation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: Present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of cellular responses to D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent. Mitochondrial DNA deficient Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were generated by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide. Apoptosis was assessed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. Immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle-regulating proteins. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and cell cycle distribution were measured by flow cytometry. The Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were significantly more resistant to SFN-induced ROS generation, apoptotic DNA fragmentation, disruption of MMP, cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest compared with corresponding wild-type cells. SFN-induced autophagy, which serves to protect against apoptotic cell death in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, was also partially but markedly suppressed in Rho-0 variants compared with wild-type cells. SFN statistically significantly inhibited activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. These results indicate, for the first time, that mitochondria-derived ROS serve to initiate diverse cellular responses to SFN exposure in human prostate cancer cells.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Pharmaceutical Research

Publication Stats

3k Citations
322.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2014
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Otolaryngology
      • • Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States