Hiroki Bochimoto

Asahikawa Medical University, Асахикава, Hokkaido, Japan

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Publications (12)36.42 Total impact

  • D Koga · H Bochimoto · T Watanabe · T Ushiki
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    ABSTRACT: The osmium maceration method with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled to demonstrate directly the three-dimensional (3D) structure of membranous cell organelles. However, the polarity of the Golgi apparatus (that is, the cis-trans axis) can hardly be determined by SEM alone, because there is no appropriate immunocytochemical method for specific labelling of its cis- or trans-faces. In the present study, we used the osmium impregnation method, which forms deposits of reduced osmium exclusively in the cis-Golgi elements, for preparation of specimens for SEM. The newly developed procedure combining osmium impregnation with subsequent osmium maceration specifically visualised the cis-elements of the Golgi apparatus, with osmium deposits that were clearly detected by backscattered electron-mode SEM. Prolonged osmication by osmium impregnation (2% OsO4 solution at 40°C for 40 h) and osmium maceration (0.1% OsO4 solution at 20°C for 24 h) did not significantly impair the 3D ultrastructure of the membranous cell organelles, including the Golgi apparatus. This novel preparation method enabled us to determine the polarity of the Golgi apparatus with enough information about the surrounding 3D ultrastructure by SEM, and will contribute to our understanding of the global organisation of the entire Golgi apparatus in various differentiated cells.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Microscopy
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    ABSTRACT: Although the osmium maceration method has been used to observe three-dimensional (3D) structures of membranous cell organelles with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the use of osmium tetroxide for membrane fixation and the removal of cytosolic soluble proteins largely impairs the antigenicity of molecules in the specimens. In the present study, we developed a novel method to combine cryosectioning with the maceration method for correlative immunocytochemical analysis. We first immunocytochemically stained a semi-thin cryosection cut from a pituitary tissue block with a cryo-ultramicrotome, according to the Tokuyasu method, before preparing an osmium-macerated specimen from the remaining tissue block. Correlative microscopy was performed by observing the same area between the immunostained section and the adjacent face of the tissue block. Using this correlative method, we could accurately identify the gonadotropes of pituitary glands in various experimental conditions with SEM. At 4 weeks after castration, dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were distributed throughout the cytoplasm. On the other hand, an extremely dilated cisterna of the RER occupied the large region of the cytoplasm at 12 weeks after castration. This novel method has the potential to analyze the relationship between the distribution of functional molecules and the 3D ultrastructure in different composite tissues.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) agonist has been reported to reduce tumor metastasis by modifying tumor angiogenesis; however, the mechanisms of how PGI2 affects the endothelial cells or pericytes in tumor vessel maturation are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of PGI2 on tumor metastasis in a mouse lung metastasis model using Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. The mice were treated continuously with beraprost sodium (BPS), a PGI2 analog, for 3 weeks and then examined for lung metastases. The number and size of lung metastases were decreased significantly by BPS treatment. In addition, scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed that BPS increased the number of tumor‑associated pericytes and improved intratumor hypoxia. Collectively, this study suggests that BPS attenuated vascular functional maturation in metastatic tumors.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Demyelination and axonal damage are responsible for neurological deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. However, the pathology of axonal damage in MS is not fully understood. In this study, histological analysis of morphological changes of axonal organelles during demyelination in murine models was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using an osmium-maceration method. In cuprizone-induced demyelination, SEM showed typical morphology of demyelination in the corpus callosum of mouse brain. In contrast, SEM displayed variations in ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin structures and axonal organelles in spinal cord white matter of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, an animal model of MS. Myelin detachment and excessive myelin formation were observed as typical morphological myelin abnormalities in EAE. In addition, well-developed axoplasmic reticulum-like structures and accumulated mitochondria were observed in tortuous degenerating/degenerated axons and the length of mitochondria in axons of EAE spinal cord was shorter compared with naïve spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry also revealed dysfunction of mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery in EAE spinal cord axons. Moreover, the number of Y-shaped mitochondria was significantly increased in axons of the EAE spinal cord. Axonal morphologies in myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice were similar to those in EAE. However, shiverer mice had "tortuous" (S-curve shaped mitochondria) and larger mitochondria compared with wild-type and EAE mice. Lastly, analysis of human MS patient autopsied brains also demonstrated abnormal myelin structures in demyelinating lesions. These results indicate that morphological abnormalities of myelin and axonal organelles play important role on the pathogenesis of axonal injury in demyelinating diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Neurochemistry International
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of adhesion formation needs to be clarified to reduce the adhesion-related morbidity. The epithelial characteristics of the peritoneum suggest a protective role against adhesion formation, yet how the peritoneum is involved in adhesion formation is not well characterized. We microscopically observed an experimental model of adhesion formation to investigate the effects of an injured tissue on the opposite intact peritoneum. Adhesions were induced between injured and intact hepatic lobes, and the intact peritoneum opposite to the injured tissue was examined for 8 days. The opposite intact peritoneum was denuded of mesothelial cells for 6 hours, and the remnant mesothelial cells changed morphologically for 24 hours. The detachment of mesothelial cells allowed fibrin to attach to the basement membrane of the opposite peritoneum, connecting the two lobes. Moreover, macrophages and myofibroblasts accumulated between the two lobes, and angiogenesis occurred from the opposite intact lobe to the injured lobe. These observations indicate that an injured tissue deprives the opposite intact peritoneum of its epithelial structure and causes fibrous adhesions to the opposite intact tissue. This study implies a possible role of mesothelial cells for barrier function against adhesion formation, that is, keeping mesothelial cells intact might lead to its prophylaxis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: An immature vasa vasorum in the adventitia of arteries has been implicated in induction of the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Normalization/maturation of the vasa vasorum may be an attractive therapeutic approach for arteriosclerotic diseases. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a pleotropic molecule with angiogenic activity in addition to neural growth effects. However, whether NGF affects the formation of microvessels in addition to innervation during pathological angiogenesis is unclear. In the present study, we show a new role for NGF in neovessels around injured arterial walls using a novel in vivo angiogenesis assay. The vasa vasorum around arterial walls was induced to grow using wire-mediated mouse femoral arterial injury. When collagen-coated tube (CCT) was placed beside the injured artery for 7-14days, microvessels grew two-dimensionally in a thin layer on the CCT (CCT-membrane) in accordance with the development of the vasa vasorum. The perivascular nerve was found at not only arterioles but also capillaries in the CCT-membrane. Biodegradable hydrogels containing VEGF and NGF were applied around the injured artery/CCT. VEGF significantly increased the total length and instability of microvessels within the CCT-membrane. In contrast, NGF induced regeneration of the peripheral nerve around the microvessels and induced the maturation and stabilization of microvessels. In an ex vivo nerve-free angiogenesis assay, although NGF potentially stimulated vascular sprouting from aorta tissues, no effects of NGF on vascular maturation were observed. These data demonstrated that NGF had potent angiogenic effects on the microvessels around the injured artery, and especially induced the maturation/stabilization of microvessels in accordance with the regeneration of perivascular nerves.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to the widely accepted images of the Golgi apparatus as a cup-like shape, the Golgi in pituitary gonadotropes is organized as a spherical shape in which the outer and inner faces are cis- and trans-Golgi elements, respectively. At the center of the spherical Golgi, a pair of centrioles is situated as a microtubule-organizing center from which radiating microtubules isotropically extend toward the cell periphery. This review focuses on the significance of the characteristic organization of the Golgi and microtubule network in gonadotropes, considering the roles of microtubule-dependent membrane transport in the formation and maintenance of the Golgi structure. Because the highly symmetrical organization of the Golgi is possibly perturbed in response to experimental treatments of gonadotropes, monitoring of the Golgi structure in gonadotropes under various experimental conditions will be a novel in vivo approach to elucidate the biogenesis of the Golgi apparatus.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists exert acutely stimulatory action on gonadotropes, but thereafter suppress paradoxically gonadotropin synthesis and release by receptor desensitization. To examine whether GnRH signaling affects the morphological characteristics in membranous organelles related to the synthesis of gonadotropin, we have analyzed the ultrastructural changes in the ER and Golgi apparatus of male rat pituitary gonadotropes during sustained treatment with a GnRH agonist, leuprorelin. In pituitary gonadotropes at 1 day after the onset of treatment, clusters of the tubuloreticular ER appeared, and the globular Golgi apparatus was transiently disassembled into isolated small-sized stacks. However, 1 week after the onset of the treatment, the tubuloreticular ER was seemingly converted to rough ER with regularly stacked sheets and the scattered Golgi stacks converged to form globular structures. In the following chronic phase of the treatment, the ER cisterns remained flattened and the trans-Golgi compartment appeared to be collapsed. Sustained treatment with leuprorelin could also restore the enlarged Golgi apparatus and expand the cisterns of the rough ER; a feature that was seen in hypertrophic gonadotropes of castrated rats. These findings indicated that the ultrastructure of the membranous organelles changed because of the chronic suppressive effects of leuprorelin on gonadotropes both in the physiological and stimulated states. The acute and chronic ultrastructural changes in the ER and Golgi apparatus during sustained leuprorelin treatment also suggests that GnRH signaling cross-talks with the regulation of the morphological characteristics in membranous organelles related to gonadotropin synthesis.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Archives of Histology and Cytology
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    ABSTRACT: Axonal injury and demyelination are observed in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, pathological changes that underlie these morphologies are not fully understood. We examined in vivo morphological changes using a new histological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with osmium maceration method to observe three-dimensional structures such as myelin and axons in the spinal cord. Myelin basic protein-deficient shiverer mice and mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were used to visualize how morphological changes in myelin and axons are induced by dysmyelination and demyelination. SEM revealed following morphological changes during dysmyelination of shiverer mice. First, enriched mitochondria and well-developed sER in axons were observed in shiverer, but not in wild-type mice. Second, the processes from some perinodal glial cells ran parallel to internodes of axons in addition to the process that covered the nodal region of the axon in shiverer mice. Last, this technique left myelin and axonal structures undisturbed. Moreover, SEM images showed clear variations in the ultrastructural abnormalities of myelin and axons in the white matter of the EAE spinal cord. This technique will be a powerful tool for identifying the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in demyelination.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: Prior to secretion, regulated peptide hormones are selectively sorted to secretory granules (SGs) at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in endocrine cells. Secretogranin III (SgIII) appears to facilitate SG sorting process by tethering of protein aggregates containing chromogranin A (CgA) and peptide hormones to the cholesterol-rich SG membrane (SGM). Here, we evaluated the role of SgIII in SG sorting in AtT-20 cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting SgIII. In the SgIII-knockdown cells, the intracellular retention of CgA was greatly impaired, and only a trace amount of CgA was localized within the vacuoles formed in the TGN, confirming the significance of SgIII in both the tethering of CgA-containing aggregates and the establishment of the proper SG morphology. Although the intracellular retention of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was considerably impaired in SgIII-knockdown cells, residual ACTH/POMC was still localized to some few remaining SGs together with another granin protein, secretogranin II (SgII), and was secreted in a regulated manner. Biochemical analyses indicated that SgII bound directly to the SGM in a cholesterol-dependent manner and was able to retain the aggregated form of POMC, revealing a latent redundancy in the SG sorting and retention mechanisms, that ensures the regulated secretion of bioactive peptides.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Traffic
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    ABSTRACT: Disruption of epithelial barrier function was identified as one of the pathologic mechanisms in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Epithelial barrier consists of various intercellular junctions, in which the tight junction (TJ) is an important component. However, the regulatory mechanism of tight junction is still not clear. Here we examined the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in the epithelial barrier function on Caco-2 monolayers using a specific FAK inhibitor, PF-573, 228 (PF-228). We found that the decrease of transepithelial resistance and the increase of paracellular permeability were accompanied with the inhibition of autophosphorylation of FAK by PF-228 treatment. In addition, PF-228 inhibited the FAK phosphorylation at Y576/577 on activation loop by Src, suggesting Src-dependent regulation of FAK in Caco-2 monolayers. In an ethanol-induced barrier injury model, PF-228 treatment also inhibited the recovery of transepithelial resistance as well as these phosphorylations of FAK. In a sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, FAK co-localized with claudin-1, an element of the TJ complex, and they co-migrate after ethanol-induced barrier injury. Immunofluorescence imaging analysis revealed that PF-228 inhibited the FAK redistribution to the cell border and reassembly of TJ proteins in the recovery after ethanol-induced barrier injury. Finally, knockdown of FAK by siRNA resulted in the decrease of transepithelial resistance. These findings reveal that activation of FAK is necessary for maintaining and repairing epithelial barrier in Caco-2 cell monolayer via regulating TJ redistribution.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease
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    ABSTRACT: In polarized exocrine cells, the Golgi apparatus is cup-shaped and its convex and concave surfaces are designated as cis and trans faces, functionally confronting the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface, respectively. To clarify the morphological characteristics of the Golgi apparatus in non-polarized endocrine cells, the investigators immunocytochemically examined its precise architecture in pituitary gonadotropes, especially in relation to the arrangement of the intracellular microtubule network. The Golgi apparatus in the gonadotropes was not cup-shaped but ball-shaped or spherical, and its outer and inner surfaces were the cis and trans faces, respectively. Centrioles were situated at the center of the Golgi apparatus, from which radiating microtubules isotropically extended to the cell periphery through the gaps in the spherical wall of the Golgi stack. The shape of the Golgi apparatus and the arrangement of microtubules demonstrated in the present study could explain the microtubule-dependent movements of tubulovesicular carriers and granules within the gonadotropes. Furthermore, the spherical shape of the Golgi apparatus possibly reflects the highly symmetrical arrangement of microtubule arrays, as well as the poor polarity in the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry