[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic nanoparticles have been employed to capture pathogens for many biological applications; however, optimal particle sizes have been determined empirically in specific capturing protocols. Here, a theoretical model that simulates capture of bacteria is described and used to calculate bacterial collision frequencies and magnetophoretic properties for a range of particle sizes. The model predicts that particles with a diameter of 460 nm should produce optimal separation of bacteria in buffer flowing at 1 L h−1. Validating the predictive power of the model, Staphylococcus aureus is separated from buffer and blood flowing through magnetic capture devices using six different sizes of magnetic particles. Experimental magnetic separation in buffer conditions confirms that particles with a diameter closest to the predicted optimal particle size provide the most effective capture. Modeling the capturing process in plasma and blood by introducing empirical constants (ce), which integrate the interfering effects of biological components on the binding kinetics of magnetic beads to bacteria, smaller beads with 50 nm diameters are predicted that exhibit maximum magnetic separation of bacteria from blood and experimentally validated this trend. The predictive power of the model suggests its utility for the future design of magnetic separation for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe development of an extracorporeal hemoadsorption device for sepsis therapy that employs commercially available polysulfone or polyethersulfone hollow fiber filters similar to those used clinically for hemodialysis, covalently coated with a genetically engineered form of the human opsonin Mannose Binding Lectin linked to an Fc domain (FcMBL) that can cleanse a broad range of pathogens and endotoxin from flowing blood without having to first determine their identity. When tested with human whole blood in vitro, the FcMBL hemoadsorption filter (FcMBL-HF) produced efficient (90-99%) removal of Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria, fungi (Candida albicans) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-endotoxin. When tested in rats, extracorporeal therapy with the FcMBL-HF device reduced circulating pathogen and endotoxin levels by more than 99%, and prevented pathogen engraftment and inflammatory cell recruitment in the spleen, lung, liver and kidney when compared to controls. Studies in rats revealed that treatment with bacteriocidal antibiotics resulted in a major increase in the release of microbial fragments or 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs) in vivo, and that these PAMPs were efficiently removed from blood within 2 h using the FcMBL-HF; in contrast, they remained at high levels in animals treated with antibiotics alone. Importantly, cleansing of PAMPs from the blood of antibiotic-treated animals with the FcMBL-hemoadsorbent device resulted in reduced organ pathogen and endotoxin loads, suppressed inflammatory responses, and resulted in more stable vital signs compared to treatment with antibiotics alone. As PAMPs trigger the cytokine cascades that lead to development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and contribute to septic shock and death, co-administration of FcMBL-hemoadsorption with antibiotics could offer a more effective approach to sepsis therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe a blood-cleansing device for sepsis therapy inspired by the spleen, which can continuously remove pathogens and toxins from blood without first identifying the infectious agent. Blood flowing from an infected individual is mixed with magnetic nanobeads coated with an engineered human opsonin-mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-that captures a broad range of pathogens and toxins without activating complement factors or coagulation. Magnets pull the opsonin-bound pathogens and toxins from the blood; the cleansed blood is then returned back to the individual. The biospleen efficiently removes multiple Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and endotoxins from whole human blood flowing through a single biospleen unit at up to 1.25 liters per h in vitro. In rats infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli, the biospleen cleared >90% of bacteria from blood, reduced pathogen and immune cell infiltration in multiple organs and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels. In a model of endotoxemic shock, the biospleen increased survival rates after a 5-h treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microfluidic water-in-oil droplets that serve as separate, chemically isolated compartments can be applied for single-cell analysis; however, to investigate encapsulated cells effectively over prolonged time periods, an array of droplets must remain stationary on a versatile substrate for optimal cell compatibility. We present here a platform of unique geometry and substrate versatility that generates a stationary nanodroplet array by using wells branching off a main microfluidic channel. These droplets are confined by multiple sides of a nanowell and are in direct contact with a biocompatible substrate of choice. The device is operated by a unique and reversed loading procedure that eliminates the need for fine pressure control or external tubing. Fluorocarbon oil isolates the droplets and provides soluble oxygen for the cells. By using this approach, the metabolic activity of single adherent cells was monitored continuously over time, and the concentration of viable pathogens in blood-derived samples was determined directly by measuring the number of colony-formed droplets. The method is simple to operate, requires a few microliters of reagent volume, is portable, is reusable, and allows for cell retrieval. This technology may be particularly useful for multiplexed assays for which prolonged and simultaneous visual inspection of many isolated single adherent or nonadherent cells is required.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cancer nanotherapeutic has been developed that targets the extracellular matrix (ECM)-modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) and alters the ECM structure. Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (∼220 nm) coated with a LOX inhibitory antibody bind to ECM and suppress mammary cancer cell growth and invasion in vitro as well as tumor expansion in vivo, with greater efficiency than soluble anti-LOX antibody. This nanomaterials approach opens a new path for treating cancer with higher efficacy and decreased side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe a combined microfluidic-micromagnetic cell separation device that has been developed to isolate, detect and culture circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood, and demonstrate its utility using blood from mammary cancer-bearing mice. The device was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane and contains a microfluidic architecture with a main channel and redundant 'double collection' channel lined by two rows of dead-end side chambers for tumor cell collection. The microdevice design was optimized using computational simulation to determine dimensions, magnetic forces and flow rates for cell isolation using epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody-coated magnetic microbeads (2.8 μm diameter). Using this device, isolation efficiencies increased in a linear manner and reached efficiencies close to 90% when only 2 to 80 breast cancer cells were spiked into a small volume (1.0 mL) of blood taken from wild type mice. The high sensitivity visualization capabilities of the device also allowed detection of a single cell within one of its dead-end side chambers. When blood was removed from FVB C3(1)-SV40 T-antigen mammary tumor-bearing transgenic mice at different stages of tumor progression, cells isolated in the device using anti-EpCAM-beads and magnetically collected within the dead-end side chambers, also stained positive for pan-cytokeratin-FITC and DAPI, negative for CD45-PerCP, and expressed SV40 large T antigen, thus confirming their identity as CTCs. Using this isolation approach, we detected a time-dependent rise in the number of CTCs in blood of female transgenic mice, with a dramatic increase in the numbers of metastatic tumor cells appearing in the blood after 20 weeks when tumors transition to invasive carcinoma and exhibit increased growth of metastases in this model. Importantly, in contrast to previously described CTC isolation methods, breast tumor cells collected from a small volume of blood removed from a breast tumor-bearing animal remain viable and they can be easily removed from these devices and expanded in culture for additional analytical studies or potential drug sensitivity testing.