[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rare autosomal dominant condition Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is attributed to mutations on chromosome 17 in the folliculin (FLCN) gene, but not always diagnosed due to lack of, or a variety of symptoms such as fibrofolliculomas, lung cystic lesions, spontaneous pneumothorax and renal cancer. We hypothesized that the lack of or variability in symptoms could be due to BHD patients potentially being abnormally susceptible to infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) or human polyomavirus (HPyV), which can be associated with skin lesions or latency in the kidneys. Seven fibrofolliculoma skin lesions, one renal cancer and one lung cyst from nine patients with BHD treated at the Karolinska University Hospital were therefore analyzed for cutaneous and mucosal HPV types and 10 HPyVs by bead based multiplex assays or by PCR. All samples were negative for viral DNA. In conclusion, the data suggest that HPV and HPyVs do not contribute to BHD pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Material and methods
Presence of HPV DNA was analyzed in mouthwash and tonsillar swab samples, if indicative of HPV-positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer in 76 patients, with suspected head neck cancer, undergoing diagnostic endoscopy at Karolinska University Hospital. The diagnosis and tumor HPV status was later obtained from patients’ records. As controls, 37 tumor-free dental visitors were included.
Of the 76 patients, 22/29 (76%) and 16/18 (89%) had an HPV-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer respectively, with 18/22 (82%) and 8/16 (50%) respectively having tumor concordant HPV-type positive oral samples. Two other HPV-positive oral samples in the base of tongue cancer group did not correlate to the tumor HPV status. Among the remaining patients, 19 with other head neck cancer and 10 with benign conditions, 4/29 (14%) had HPV-positive oral samples. Consequently, of the HPV-positive oral samples, dominated by HPV16 and high signals, 27/32 (84%) were derived from 26 patients with concordant HPV-type positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer and one patient with an unknown primary head and neck cancer. The other five HPV-positive oral samples, with mainly low signals were derived from two patients with non-concordant HPV-type positive tumor biopsies, two patients with HPV-negative tumor biopsies and a patient with a benign condition. Of the dental patients, 3/37 (8%) had HPV-positive tonsillar swabs with weak signals.
In patients with suspected head neck cancer, HPV-positive oral samples, especially HPV16 with high signals, could be indicative of HPV-positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer have a better outcome than those with corresponding HPV-negative tumors (80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival with conventional radiotherapy). They should not all need chemoradiotherapy, but before tapering treatment, more markers are needed to predict treatment response. In the present study, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) - HLA-A*02 was analyzed with HPV as a prognostic factor for tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.
Pre-treatment biopsies, previously tested for HPV DNA, from 425 patients diagnosed with tonsillar and base of tongue cancer between 2000-2009 at the Karolinska University Hospital were examined for HLA-A*02.
HLA-A*02 was present in 144/305 (47.2%) of the HPV-positive and 63/120 (52.8%) of the HPV-negative tumours. Among 383 patients treated with curative intent, absence of HLA-A*02 was correlated with increased disease-free survival in the HPV-positive (p=0.016), but not in the HPV-negative group.
Absence of HLA-A*02 correlated with better disease-free survival for patients with HPV-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine LMP10 expression and its possible impact on clinical outcome in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and HPV-negative tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC).
Outcome is better in HPV-positive TSCC and BOTSCC compared to matching HPV-negative tumours, with roughly 80% vs. 40% 5-year disease free survival (DFS) with less aggressive treatment than today's chemoradiotherapy. Since current treatment often results in harmful side effects, less intensive therapy, with sustained patient survival would be an attractive alternative. However, other markers together with HPV status are necessary to select patients and for this purpose LMP10 expression is investigated here in parallel to HPV status and clinical outcome.
From 385 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 at the Karolinska University Hospital, 278 formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies, with known HPV DNA status, were tested for LMP10 nuclear and cytoplasmic expression (fraction of positive cells and staining intensity). The data was then correlated to clinical outcome.
An absent/low compared to a moderate/high LMP10 nuclear fraction of positive cells was correlated to a better 3-year DFS in the HPV-positive group of patients (log-rank p = 0.005), but not in the HPV-negative group. In the HPV-negative group of patients, in contrast to the HPV-positive group, moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic fraction and weak/moderate/high LMP10 cytoplasmic intensity correlated to a better 3-year DFS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001) and 3-year overall survival (p = 0.001 and 0.009).
LMP10 nuclear expression in the HPV-positive group and LMP10 cytoplasmic expression in the HPV-negative group of patients correlated to better clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Mucosal melanomas arise in non UV-light exposed areas and causative factors are yet unknown. Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) are rapidly increasing in numbers and are potentially oncogenic, as has been established for MCPyV in Merkel cell carcinoma, an unusual skin cancer type. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between TSPyV, MWPyV, HPyV6, 7 and 9 and mucosal melanoma.
Fifty-five mucosal melanomas, were analyzed by a Luminex assay, for the presence of 10 HPyVs (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, TSPyV, MWPyV, HPyV6, 7 and 9) and two primate viruses (SV40 and LPyV).
In 37 samples the DNA quality was satisfactory for analysis. However, none of the samples analyzed were positive for any of the examined viruses.
None of the above-analyzed HPyVs were detected in mucosal melanoma samples, and they are for this reason unlikely to play a major role in the development of this tumor type.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rise in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been suggested to be responsible for the increased incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in the Western world. This has boosted interest in oral HPV prevalence and whether HPV vaccines can prevent oral HPV infection. In a previous study we showed oral HPV prevalence to be almost 10% in youth aged 15-23 y attending a youth clinic in Stockholm, Sweden. However, this may not be a generalizable sample within the Swedish population. Therefore, mouthwashes were used to investigate oral HPV prevalence in 335 Swedish high school students aged 17-21 y (median age 18 y), from 1 municipality with 140,000 inhabitants. The presence of HPV DNA in the oral samples, as examined by a Luminex-based assay, was significantly lower in this cohort, only 1.8% (3.1% in females and 0.6% in males), as compared to our previous study.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with human papillomavirus DNA positive (HPVDNA+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) have better clinical outcome than those with HPV DNA negative (HPVDNA−) OSCC upon intensive oncological treatment. All HPVDNA+ OSCC patients may not require intensive treatment, however, but before potentially deintensifying treatment, additional predictive markers are needed. Here, we examined HPV, p16INK4a, and CD44 in OSCC in correlation to clinical outcome. Pretreatment tumors from 290 OSCC patients, the majority not receiving chemotherapy, were analyzed for HPV DNA by Luminex and for p16INK4a and CD44 by immunohistochemistry. 225/290 (78%) tumors were HPVDNA+ and 211/290 (73%) overexpressed p16INK4a, which correlated to presence of HPV (P < 0.0001). Presence of HPV DNA, absent/weak CD44 intensity staining correlated to favorable 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analysis, and likewise for p16INK4a by univariate analysis. Upon stratification for HPV, HPVDNA+ OSCC with absent/weak CD44 intensity presented the significantly best 3-year DFS and OS, with >95% 3-year DFS and OS. Furthermore, in HPVDNA+ OSCC, p16INK4a+ overexpression correlated to a favorable 3-year OS. In conclusion, patients with HPVDNA+ and absent/weak CD44 intensity OSCC presented the best survival and this marker combination could possibly be used for selecting patients for tailored deintensified treatment in prospective clinical trials.
Absence of/weak CD44 or presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was shown as a favorable prognostic factors in tonsillar and tongue base cancer. Moreover, patients with the combination of absence of/weak CD44 and presence of HPV DNA presented a very favorable outcome. Therefore, we suggest that this marker combination could potentially be used to single out patients with a high survival that could benefit from a de-escalated oncological treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC, respectively) have a better clinical outcome than those with HPV negative tumours, irrespective of treatment. However, to better individualise treatment, additional biomarkers are needed together with HPV status. In a pilot study, we showed that high numbers of CD8(+) tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in HPVDNA+ p16(INK4a+) TSCC indicated a better outcome. Here this study was extended. Totally 203 TSCC and 77 BOTSCC formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour biopsies, earlier tested for HPV DNA (79% HPVDNA+) and p16(INK4a) from patients treated with curative intention, were analysed for CD8(+) and CD4(+) TILs by immunohistochemistry. Data obtained for 275 patients were correlated to HPVDNA and p16(INK4a) status, overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). In both HPVDNA+ and HPVDNA+ p16(INK4a+) tumours higher CD8(+) TIL counts correlated to a better 3-year OS (logrank test, both p<0.001) and 3-year DFS (logrank test, p=0.003 and p=0.004 respectively) as compared to the lowest quartile in the groups. A similar pattern was observed when analysing TSCC alone, while for BOTSCC significance was obtained only for 3-year OS. In HPVDNA- tumours the trend was similar, but significance was obtained again only for 3-year OS. The number of CD4(+) TILs did not generally correlate to survival. In conclusion, in HPVDNA+ and/or HPVDNA+ p16(INK4a+) tumours high CD8(+) TIL counts indicated a better 3-year OS. This suggests that high CD8(+) TIL counts together with HPVDNA+ or HPVDNA+ p16(INK4a+) could be used when selecting patients for more individualised treatment.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important factor for the development of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In addition, patients with HPV-positive TSCC have a better clinical outcome than patients with HPV-negative TSCC. Although, HPV is an important prognostic marker, additional biomarkers are needed to better predict clinical outcome to individualize treatment. Hence, we examined if classical HLA HLA-A,B,C and nonclassical HLA-E,G could serve as such marker. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded TSCC from 150 patients diagnosed 2000-2006, earlier analyzed for HPV DNA and p16(INK4a) , and treated with intention to cure were evaluated for the expression of HLA-A,B,C and HLA-E,G by immunohistochemistry. For HPV-positive TSCC a low expression of HLA-A,B,C, whereas for HPV-negative TSCC, a normal expression of HLA-A,B,C was significantly correlated to a favorable clinical outcome. These correlations were more pronounced for membrane staining of HLA-A,B,C when compared with cytoplasmatic staining. No significant correlation was found between HLA-E,G and HPV status or clinical outcome. The unexpected contrasting correlation between HLA-A,B,C expression, and clinical outcome depending on HPV, indicates essential differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that for both HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC, the expression of HLA-A,B,C together with HPV may serve as a useful biomarker for predicting clinical outcome.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical, head, and neck cancers. We studied 483 patients at a youth clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, and found oral HPV prevalence was 9.3% and significantly higher for female youth with than without cervical HPV infection (p = 0.043). Most oral HPV types matched the co-occurring cervical types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative factor for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and patients with HPV positive (HPV(+)) TSCC have a better clinical outcome than those with HPV negative (HPV(-)) TSCC. However, since not all patients with HPV(+) TSCC respond to treatment, additional biomarkers are needed together with HPV status to better predict response to therapy and to individualize treatment. For this purpose, we examined whether the number of tumor infiltrating cytotoxic and regulatory T-cells in TSCC correlated to HPV status and to clinical outcome.
Formalin fixed paraffin embedded TSCC, previously analysed for HPV DNA, derived from 83 patients, were divided into four groups depending on the HPV status of the tumor and clinical outcome. Tumors were stained by immunohistochemistry and evaluated for the number of infiltrating cytotoxic (CD8(+)) and regulatory (Foxp3(+)) T-cells.
A high CD8(+) T-cell infiltration was significantly positively correlated to a good clinical outcome in both patients with HPV(+) and HPV(-) TSCC patients. Similarly, a high CD8(+)/Foxp3(+) TIL ratio was correlated to a 3-year disease free survival. Furthermore, HPV(+) TSCC had in comparison to HPV(-) TSCC, higher numbers of infiltrating CD8(+) and Foxp3(+) T-cells.
In conclusion, a positive correlation between a high number of infiltrating CD8(+) cells and clinical outcome indicates that CD8(+) cells may contribute to a beneficial clinical outcome in TSCC patients, and may potentially serve as a biomarker. Likewise, the CD8(+)/Foxp3(+)cell ratio can potentially be used for the same purpose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV16, is associated with the development of both cervical and tonsillar cancer and intratype variants in the amino acid sequence of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein have been demonstrated to be associated with viral persistence and cancer lesions. For this reason the presence of HPV16 E6 variants in tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) in cervical cancer (CC), as well as in cervical samples (CS), were explored.
HPV16 E6 was sequenced in 108 TSCC and 52 CC samples from patients diagnosed 2000-2008 in the County of Stockholm, and in 51 CS from young women attending a youth health center in Stockholm.
The rare E6 variant R10G was relatively frequent (19%) in TSCC, absent in CC and infrequent (4%) in CS, while the well-known L83V variant was common in TSCC (40%), CC (31%), and CS (29%). The difference for R10G was significant between TSCC and CC (p = 0.0003), as well as between TSCC and CS (p = 0.009). The HPV16 European phylogenetic lineage and its derivatives dominated in all samples (>90%).
The relatively high frequency of the R10G variant in TSCC, as compared to what has been found in CC both in the present study as well as in several other studies in different countries, may indicate a difference between TSCC and CC with regard to tumor induction and development. Alternatively, there could be differences with regard to the oral and cervical prevalence of this variant that need to be explored further.