Katharine R. Hind

University of British Columbia - Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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Publications (7)20.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Premise of the study: Phenotypic plasticity and convergent evolution have long complicated traditional morphological taxonomy. Fortunately, DNA sequences provide an additional basis for comparison, independent of morphology. Most importantly, by obtaining DNA sequences from historical type specimens, we are now able to unequivocally match species names to genetic groups, often with surprising results. Methods: We used an integrative taxonomic approach to identify and describe Northeast Pacific pinnately branched species in the red algal coralline genus Bossiella, for which traditional taxonomy recognized only one species, the generitype, Bossiella plumosa. We analyzed DNA sequences from historical type specimens and modern topotype specimens to assign species names and to identify genetic groups that were different and that required new names. Our molecular taxonomic assessment was followed by a detailed morphometric analysis of each species. Key results: Our study of B. plumosa revealed seven pinnately branched Bossiella species. Three species, B. frondescens, B. frondifera, and B. plumosa, were assigned names based on sequences from type specimens. The remaining four species, B. hakaiensis, B. manzae, B. reptans, and B. montereyensis, were described as new to science. In most cases, there was significant overlap of morphological characteristics among species. Conclusions: This study underscores the pitfalls of relying upon morpho-anatomy alone to distinguish species and highlights our likely underestimation of species worldwide. Our integrative taxonomic approach can serve as a model for resolving the taxonomy of other plant and algal genera.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · American Journal of Botany
  • Katharine R. Hind · Paul W. Gabrielson · Gary W. Saunders
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    ABSTRACT: A floristic survey of the red algal genus Bossiella was conducted using molecular-assisted alpha taxonomy (MAAT). The MAAT approach used DNA sequence data as a first pass to assess species diversity followed by additional study including detailed morphological observations to delimit species. In addition, type specimen sequencing was conducted to apply existing species names to genetic groups. Four Bossiella species were recognised in the eastern Pacific Ocean based on morphology, but a genetic screen using a DNA barcode marker, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI-5P), showed 17 genetic species groups. Due to the large number of species requiring taxonomic assessment, we focused this study on species with predominantly dichotomous branching, that is, the recognised morphospecies B. californica and B. orbigniana. DNA sequences from three loci, psbA, rbcL and COI-5P, resolved five species: B. californica, B. dichotoma, B. schmittii, Bossiella heteroforma sp. nov. and B. orbigniana (the only species with a type locality not in the northeast Pacific). Morphology alone was an inadequate discriminator of these species, but incorporating distribution and habitat data facilitated identification of some species without DNA sequencing. All of these species were widely distributed in the northeast Pacific Ocean, from at least northern British Columbia, Canada, to Monterey Bay, California, USA, with two reaching Baja California Norte, Mexico.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Phycologia
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    ABSTRACT: Coralline red algae play a key role in the ecology of near shore marine ecosystems and are increasingly being used to study the effects of climate change in the marine environment. Corallines are very difficult to identify to species, and even to genus, using morpho-anatomy, likely complicating studies of their ecology, physiology, and biodiversity. We sequenced a 296 base pair fragment of chloroplast DNA from a 187 year-old isolectotype specimen of Pachyarthron cretaceum, a morphologically distinct geniculate species, to demonstrate that coralline morphology is often misleading and that species names can only be applied unequivocally by comparing DNA sequences from type material with sequences from field collected specimens. Our results indicate that Pachyarthron cretaceum is synonymous with Corallina officinalis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Phycology
  • Katharine R Hind · Gary W Saunders
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    ABSTRACT: The use of molecular markers in taxonomic studies has become a standard practice in biology. However, consensus on which markers to use at the species level is lacking because evolutionary lineages show differences in divergence rates between organellar genomes. Ideally, researchers use multiple lines of evidence when first describing a species, such as the incorporation of several molecular markers from varied genomes (mitochondrion, plastid and nucleus). This study examined species boundaries in the red algal genus Chiharaea. We used five molecular markers, with at least one marker from each genome, coupled with thorough morphological analyses. We recognized three species in Chiharaea (C. americana, C. rhododactyla sp. nov., C. silvae) and two forms (C. americana f. americana and C. americana f. bodegensis (H.W. Johansen) stat. nov.). For C. americana f. americana and C. americana f. bodegensis differentiation based on morphological data was reflected in the plastid-encoded large subunit of RuBisCO (rbcL), but was not concordant with either the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI-5P) or nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. We suggest that this discordance is indicative of ongoing hybridization and introgression between populations of C. americana f. americana and C. americana f. bodegensis. In addition, we used a PCR assay with ITS specific primers to amplify multiple ITS variants for collections assignable to C. americana indicating that there is genetic variability within ITS copies most likely due to introgression, crossing over and/or the retention of ancestral variants.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
  • Katharine R. Hind · Gary W. Saunders
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    ABSTRACT: A multigene phylogeny using COI‐5P (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1), psbA (PSII reaction center protein D1), and EF2 (elongation factor 2) sequence data for members of the tribe Corallineae was constructed to assess generic boundaries. We determined that traditional reliance on conceptacle position as an indicator of generic affinities in the Corallineae is not supported and taxonomic changes are required. We found that species currently assigned to Pseudolithophyllum muricatum resolved within the Corallineae in all analyses. This is the first record of crustose members in the subfamily Corallinoideae. Further‐more, the genus Serraticardia was polyphyletic; we propose to synonomize Serraticardia with Corallina, transfer the type species S. maxima to Corallina (C. maxima (Yendo) comb. nov.), and describe the new genus Johansenia for S. macmillanii (J. macmillanii (Yendo) comb. nov.). Our molecular data also indicate that species in the genus Marginisporum have evolutionary affinities among species of Corallina and these genera should also be synonymized. This necessitates the combinations C. aberrans (Yendo) comb. nov. for M. aberrans (Yendo) Johansen & Chihara, C. crassissima (Yendo) comb. nov. for M. crassissimum (Yendo) Ganesan, and C. declinata (Yendo) comb. nov. for M. declinata (Yendo) Ganesan. Corallina elongata was divergent from all other members of Corallina and is transferred to a new genus, Ellisolandia (E. elongata (J. Ellis & Solander) comb. nov). In addition, COI‐5P and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data combined with morphological characters were used to establish that rather than the four Corallina species recognized in Canada, there are nine.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Phycology
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    Dataset: Table S1
    M. Alex Smith · Claudia Bertrand · Kate Crosby · Eldon S. Eveleigh · Jose Fernandez-Triana · Brian L. Fisher · Jason Gibbs · Mehrdad Hajibabaei · Winnie Hallwachs · Katharine Hind · [...] · Sujeevan Ratnasingham · Josephine Rodriguez · Rodolphe Rougerie · Mark R. Shaw · Cory Sheffield · Julie K. Stahlhut · Dirk Steinke · James Whitfield · Monty Wood · Xin Zhou ·
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    ABSTRACT: DNA barcode diversity for ant species of Mauritius coded by Wolbachia infection. (XLS)
    Preview · Dataset · May 2012
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    Dataset: Figure S1
    M. Alex Smith · Claudia Bertrand · Kate Crosby · Eldon S. Eveleigh · Jose Fernandez-Triana · Brian L. Fisher · Jason Gibbs · Mehrdad Hajibabaei · Winnie Hallwachs · Katharine Hind · [...] · Sujeevan Ratnasingham · Josephine Rodriguez · Rodolphe Rougerie · Mark R. Shaw · Cory Sheffield · Julie K. Stahlhut · Dirk Steinke · James Whitfield · Monty Wood · Xin Zhou ·
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    ABSTRACT: The number of trace files matching Wolbachia in BOLD trace library. The value of <1e-110 was chosen as a threshold between the conservative match of query to known Wolbachia strains and the identification of novel strains. (PDF)
    Preview · Dataset · May 2012
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    Dataset: Table S2
    M. Alex Smith · Claudia Bertrand · Kate Crosby · Eldon S. Eveleigh · Jose Fernandez-Triana · Brian L. Fisher · Jason Gibbs · Mehrdad Hajibabaei · Winnie Hallwachs · Katharine Hind · [...] · Sujeevan Ratnasingham · Josephine Rodriguez · Rodolphe Rougerie · Mark R. Shaw · Cory Sheffield · Julie K. Stahlhut · Dirk Steinke · James Whitfield · Monty Wood · Xin Zhou ·
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    ABSTRACT: Collection details, accessions (BOLD and GenBank) and all host information associated with Wolbachia DNA sequences used here. (XLS)
    Preview · Dataset · May 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Wolbachia is a genus of bacterial endosymbionts that impacts the breeding systems of their hosts. Wolbachia can confuse the patterns of mitochondrial variation, including DNA barcodes, because it influences the pathways through which mitochondria are inherited. We examined the extent to which these endosymbionts are detected in routine DNA barcoding, assessed their impact upon the insect sequence divergence and identification accuracy, and considered the variation present in Wolbachia COI. Using both standard PCR assays (Wolbachia surface coding protein – wsp), and bacterial COI fragments we found evidence of Wolbachia in insect total genomic extracts created for DNA barcoding library construction. When .2 million insect COI trace files were examined on the Barcode of Life Datasystem (BOLD) Wolbachia COI was present in 0.16% of the cases. It is possible to generate Wolbachia COI using standard insect primers; however, that amplicon was never confused with the COI of the host. Wolbachia alleles recovered were predominantly Supergroup A and were broadly distributed geographically and phylogenetically. We conclude that the presence of the Wolbachia DNA in total genomic extracts made from insects is unlikely to compromise the accuracy of the DNA barcode library; in fact, the ability to query this DNA library (the database and the extracts) for endosymbionts is one of the ancillary benefits of such a large scale endeavor – for which we provide several examples. It is our conclusion that regular assays for Wolbachia presence and type can, and should, be adopted by large scale insect barcoding initiatives. While COI is one of the five multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) genes used for categorizing Wolbachia, there is limited overlap with the eukaryotic DNA barcode region.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wolbachia is a genus of bacterial endosymbionts that impacts the breeding systems of their hosts. Wolbachia can confuse the patterns of mitochondrial variation, including DNA barcodes, because it influences the pathways through which mitochondria are inherited. We examined the extent to which these endosymbionts are detected in routine DNA barcoding, assessed their impact upon the insect sequence divergence and identification accuracy, and considered the variation present in Wolbachia COI. Using both standard PCR assays (Wolbachia surface coding protein – wsp), and bacterial COI fragments we found evidence of Wolbachia in insect total genomic extracts created for DNA barcoding library construction. When >2 million insect COI trace files were examined on the Barcode of Life Datasystem (BOLD) Wolbachia COI was present in 0.16% of the cases. It is possible to generate Wolbachia COI using standard insect primers; however, that amplicon was never confused with the COI of the host. Wolbachia alleles recovered were predominantly Supergroup A and were broadly distributed geographically and phylogenetically. We conclude that the presence of the Wolbachia DNA in total genomic extracts made from insects is unlikely to compromise the accuracy of the DNA barcode library; in fact, the ability to query this DNA library (the database and the extracts) for endosymbionts is one of the ancillary benefits of such a large scale endeavor – for which we provide several examples. It is our conclusion that regular assays for Wolbachia presence and type can, and should, be adopted by large scale insect barcoding initiatives. While COI is one of the five multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) genes used for categorizing Wolbachia, there is limited overlap with the eukaryotic DNA barcode region.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · PLoS ONE