[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The miR-99 family is one of the evolutionarily most ancient microRNA families, and it plays a critical role in developmental timing and the maintenance of tissue identity. Recent studies, including reports from our group, suggested that the miR-99 family regulates various physiological processes in adult tissues, such as dermal wound healing, and a number of disease processes, including cancer. By combining 5 independent genome-wide expression profiling experiments, we identified a panel of 266 unique transcripts that were down-regulated in epithelial cells transfected with miR-99 family members. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using 12 different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 81 out of these 266 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for the miR-99 family. Confirmation experiments and functional analyses were performed to further assess 6 selected miR-99 target genes, including mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR), Homeobox A1 (HOXA1), CTD small phosphatase-like (CTDSPL), N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1), Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A), and SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 5 (SMARCA5). HOXA1 is a known proto-oncogene, and it also plays an important role in embryonic development. The direct targeting of the miR-99 family to two candidate binding sequences located in the HOXA1 mRNA was confirmed using a luciferase reporter gene assay and a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation (RIP-IP) assay. Ectopic transfection of miR-99 family reduced the expression of HOXA1, which, in consequence, down-regulated the expression of its downstream gene (i.e., Bcl-2) and led to reduced proliferation and cell migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confidence miR-99 family target genes, including proto-oncogene HOXA1, which may play an important role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and migration during physiological disease processes, such as dermal wound healing and tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that control mRNA stability and the translation efficiency of their target genes. Mature microRNAs are approximately 22-nucleotide in length. They mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation by binding to the imperfect complementary sequences (a.k.a. microRNA regulatory elements, MRE) in the target mRNAs. It is estimated that more than one-third of the protein-coding genes in the human genome are regulated by microRNAs. The experimental methods to examine the interaction between the microRNA and its targeting site(s) in the mRNA are important for understanding microRNA functions. The luciferase reporter gene assay has recently been adapted to test the effect of microRNAs. In this chapter, we use a previously identified miR-138 targeting site in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of the RhoC mRNA as an example to describe a quick method for testing the interaction of microRNA and mRNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA repair system plays an indispensable role in maintaining genomic integrity, and its ability to mediate and repair carcinogen-induced DNA lesion is a key determinant of susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that reduced DNA repair capacity might play a central role in cancer development. Enhanced proliferation is a hall mark of cancer cells. In this study, we aim to test the association between reduction in DNA repair and enhancement in cell proliferation in HNSCC. The expression of base excision repair pathway genes (XRCC1 and OGG1) and a proliferation marker, Ki-67, was studied in a cohort of 50 HNSCC patients and controls, using real-time PCR in order to determine the potential prognostic significance of these factors. Using real-time PCR, statistically significant downregulation of XRCC1 (p < 0.01) and OGG1 (p < 0.04) was observed in HNC tumor samples compared to control samples. Ki-67 was also overexpressed (p < 0.03) in HNC tumor samples versus control samples. Additionally, to explore gene-gene relationship, we observed a positive Spearmen correlation between XRCC1 versus OGG1 (r = 0.554***, p < 0.0001) and a negative correlation between XRCC1 versus Ki-67 (r = -0.377**, p < 0.007) in HNC cases. OGG1 also showed negative correlation with Ki-67, but this correlation was statistically not significant. In this study, we have found that the deregulation of BER genes (XRCC1 and OGG1) in relation to excessive proliferation (as measured by proliferation marker Ki-67) may be considered as important factors in the development of head and neck cancer in Pakistani population.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Medical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA deregulation is a critical event in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Several microRNA profiling studies aimed at deciphering the microRNA signatures of HNSCC have been reported, but there tends to be poor agreement among studies. The objective of this study was to survey the published microRNA profiling studies on HNSCC, and to assess the commonly deregulated microRNAs in an independent sample set.
Meta-analysis of 13 published microRNA profiling studies was performed to define microRNA signatures in HNSCC. Selected microRNAs (including members of miR-99 family) were evaluated in an independent set of HNSCC cases. The potential contributions of miR-99 family to the tumorigenesis of HNSCC were assessed by in vitro assays.
We identified 67 commonly deregulated microRNAs. The up-regulation of miR-21, miR-155, miR-130b, miR-223 and miR-31, and the down-regulation of miR-100, miR-99a and miR-375 were further validated in an independent set of HNSCC cases with quantitative RT-PCR. Among these validated microRNAs, miR-100 and miR-99a belong to the miR-99 family. Our in vitro study demonstrated that restoration of miR-100 to the HNSCC cell lines suppressed cell proliferation and migration, and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic transfection of miR-99 family members down-regulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) genes.
In summary, we described a panel of frequently deregulated microRNAs in HNSCC, including members of miR-99 family. The deregulation of miR-99 family contributes to the tumorigenesis of HNSCC, in part by targeting IGF1R and mTOR signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA-138 is one of the most frequently down-regulated microRNAs in cancer. We recently identified 51 candidate targets of microRNA-138 (Jiang, L., Dai, Y., Liu, X., Wang, C., Wang, A., Chen, Z., Heidbreder, C. E., Kolokythas, A., and Zhou, X. (2011) Hum. Genet. 129, 189-197). Among these candidates, Fos-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) is a member of Fos gene family and is a known proto-oncogene. In this study, we first confirmed the microRNA-138-mediated down-regulation of FOSL1 in squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. We then demonstrated the effect of this microRNA-138-FOSL1 regulatory module on downstream genes (homolog of Snail 2 (Snai2) expression and the Snai2-mediated repression of E-cadherin expression), as well as its contributions to tumorigenesis. The microRNA-138-directed recruitment of FOSL1 mRNA to the RNAi-induced silencing complex was confirmed by a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation assay. Three canonical and three high affinity non-canonical microRNA-138 (miR-138) targeting sites were identified on the FOSL1 mRNA: one in the 5'-UTR, three overlapping sites in the coding sequences, and two overlapping sites in the 3'-UTR. The direct targeting of miR-138 to these sites was confirmed using luciferase reporter gene assays. In summary, we describe an important microRNA regulatory module, which may play an important role in cancer initiation and progression. Our results also provide evidence that microRNAs target both canonical and non-canonical targeting sites located in all areas of the mRNA molecule (e.g. 5'-UTR, coding sequences, and 3'-UTR).
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II AT(2) receptor interacting protein 1 (ATIP1) has been recently identified as a tumor suppressor. In the present study, a 2.2 kb fragment of the 5' flanking region of the human ATIP1 gene was cloned, and its promoter activity was confirmed. Two putative p53 binding sites were identified in the minimal promoter. Cisplatin treatment and ectopic expression of p53 led to enhanced ATIP1 expression. Knockdown of p53 reduced the ATIP1 expression. The direct interaction of p53 and the ATIP1 promoter was confirmed by reporter gene and chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays. When the p53 sites were mutated, the effect of p53 on ATIP1 promoter was eliminated. The results suggest that the ATIP1 gene is regulated by p53 at the transcriptional level, and that it may play an important role in cancer initiation and progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down-regulation of miR-138 (microRNA-138) has been frequently observed in various cancers, including HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma). Our previous studies suggest that down-regulation of miR-138 is associated with mesenchymal-like cell morphology and enhanced cell migration and invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that these miR-138-induced changes were accompanied by marked reduction in E-cad (E-cadherin) expression and enhanced Vim (vimentin) expression, characteristics of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition). On the basis of a combined experimental and bioinformatics analysis, we identified a number of miR-138 target genes that are associated with EMT, including VIM, ZEB2 (zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2) and EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homologue 2). Direct targeting of miR-138 to specific sequences located in the mRNAs of the VIM, ZEB2 and EZH2 genes was confirmed using luciferase reporter gene assays. Our functional analyses (knock-in and knock-down) demonstrated that miR-138 regulates the EMT via three distinct pathways: (i) direct targeting of VIM mRNA and controlling the expression of VIM at a post-transcriptional level, (ii) targeting the transcriptional repressors (ZEB2) which in turn regulating the transcription activity of the E-cad gene, and (iii) targeting the epigenetic regulator EZH2 which in turn modulates its gene silencing effects on the downstream genes including E-cad. These results, together with our previously observed miR-138 effects on cell migration and invasion through targeting RhoC (Rho-related GTP-binding protein C) and ROCK2 (Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2) concurrently, suggest that miR-138 is a multi-functional molecular regulator and plays major roles in EMT and in HNSCC progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: miR-7 (microRNA-7) has been characterized as a tumour suppressor in several human cancers. It targets a number of proto-oncogenes that contribute to cell proliferation and survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which miR-7 suppresses tumorigenesis in TSCC (tongue squamous cell carcinoma) is unknown. The present bioinformatics analysis revealed that IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor) mRNA is a potential target for miR-7. Ectopic transfection of miR-7 led to a significant reduction in IGF1R at both the mRNA and protein levels in TSCC cells. Knockdown of miR-7 in TSCC cells enhanced IGF1R expression. Direct targeting of miR-7 to three candidate binding sequences located in the 3'-untranslated region of IGF1R mRNA was confirmed using luciferase-reporter-gene assays. The miR-7-mediated down-regulation of IGF1R expression attenuated the IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1)-induced activation of Akt (protein kinase B) in TSCC cell lines, which in turn resulted in a reduction in cell proliferation and cell-cycle arrest, and an enhanced apoptotic rate. Taken together, the present results demonstrated that miR-7 regulates the IGF1R/Akt signalling pathway by post-transcriptional regulation of IGF1R. Our results indicate that miR-7 plays an important role in TSCC and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for TSCC patients.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA deregulation is a critical event in tumor initiation and progression. The down-regulation of microRNA-138 has been frequently observed in various cancers, including tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Our previous studies suggest that deregulation of miR-138 is associated with the enhanced proliferation and invasion in TSCC cells. Here, we seek to identify the targets of miR-138 in TSCC, and explore their functional relevance in tumorigenesis. Our genome-wide expression profiling experiments identified a panel of 194 unique transcripts that were significantly down-regulated in TSCC cells transfected with miR-138. A comprehensive screening using six different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 51 out of these 194 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for miR-138. These targets include: chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A (CLNS1A), G protein alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 (GNAI2), solute carrier family 20, member 1 (SLC20A1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), and Rho-related GTP-binding protein C (RhoC). GNAI2 is a known proto-oncogene that is involved in the initiation and progression of several different types of tumors. Direct targeting of miR-138 to two candidate binding sequences located in the 3'-untranslated region of GNAI2 mRNA was confirmed using luciferase reporter gene assays. Knockdown of miR-138 in TSCC cells enhanced the expression of GNAI2 at both mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, ectopic transfection of miR-138 reduced the expression of GNAI2, which, in consequence, led to reduced proliferation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confident miR-138 target genes, including proto-oncogene GNAI2, which may play an important role in TSCC initiation and progression.