Georg G. Raffelt

Max Planck Institute for Physics, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (323)1136.08 Total impact

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    I. Tamborra · F. Hanke · B. Müller · H.-T. Janka · G.G. Raffelt
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    ABSTRACT: In the delayed explosion scenario of a core-collapse supernova, the accretion phase shows pronounced convective over-turns and a low-multipole hydrodynamic instability, the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Neutrino signal variations from the first full-scale three-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations with sophisticated neutrino transport are presented as well as their detection perspectives in IceCube and Hyper-Kamiokande.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Physics Procedia
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    ABSTRACT: Selection and peer review is the responsibility of the Conference lead organizers, Frank Avignone, University of South Carolina, and Wick Haxton, University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The IAXO (International Axion Experiment) is a fourth generation helioscope with a sensitivity, in terms of detectable signal counts, at least 104 better than CAST phase-I, resulting in sensitivity on gaγ one order of magnitude better. To achieve this performance IAXO will count on a 8-coil toroidal magnet with 60 cm diameter bores and equipped with X-ray focusing optics into 0.20 cm2 spots coupled to ultra-low background Micromegas X-ray detectors. The magnet will be on a platform that will allow solar tracking for 12 hours per day. The next short term objectives are to prepare a Technical Design Report and to construct the first prototypes of the hardware main ingredients: demonstration coil, X-ray optics and low background detector while refining the physics case and studying the feasibility studies for Dark Matter axions.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
  • Georg G. Raffelt
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    ABSTRACT: Some recent developments in supernova neutrino physics are introduced where spontaneous symmetry breaking is a common theme. The physics of self-induced flavor conversion has acquired a new complication in that a new class of instabilities breaks axial symmetry of a neutrino stream, the multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability. A completely different new phenomenon, discovered in the first realistic three-dimensional (3D) simulations, is the Lepton-Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry (LESA) during the accretion phase. Here, a neutrino-hydrodynamical instability breaks global spherical symmetry in that the lepton-number flux (νe minus νe) develops a stable dipole pattern such that the lepton flux is almost exclusively emitted in one hemisphere.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Self-induced flavor conversion of supernova (SN) neutrinos is a generic feature of neutrino-neutrino dispersion. The corresponding run-away modes in flavor space can spontaneously break the original symmetries of the neutrino flux and in particular can spontaneously produce small-scale features as shown in recent schematic studies. However, the unavoidable "multi-angle matter effect" shifts these small-scale instabilities into regions of matter and neutrino density which are not encountered on the way out from a SN. The traditional modes which are uniform on the largest scales are most prone for instabilities and thus provide the most sensitive test for the appearance of self-induced flavor conversion. As a by-product we clarify the relation between the time evolution of an expanding neutrino gas and the radial evolution of a stationary SN neutrino flux. Our results depend on several simplifying assumptions, notably stationarity of the solution, the absence of a "backward" neutrino flux caused by residual scattering, and global spherical symmetry of emission.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy as a primary physics goal. It is also capable of observing neutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, as well as exotic searches such as nucleon decays, dark matter, sterile neutrinos, etc. We present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. By detecting reactor antineutrinos from two power plants at 53-km distance, JUNO will determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at a 3-4 sigma significance with six years of running. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum will also lead to the precise determination of three out of the six oscillation parameters to an accuracy of better than 1\%. Neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at 10 kpc would lead to ~5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ~2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton elastic scattering events in JUNO. Detection of DSNB would provide valuable information on the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapsed neutrino energy spectrum. Geo-neutrinos can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ~400 events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrino samples. The JUNO detector is sensitive to several exotic searches, e.g. proton decay via the $p\to K^++\bar\nu$ decay channel. The JUNO detector will provide a unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle and astrophysics. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest to understanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one of the building blocks of our Universe.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Physical Review D
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    A. Kartavtsev · G. Raffelt · H. Vogel
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrinos propagating in media (matter and electromagnetic fields) undergo flavor and helicity oscillations, where helicity transitions are instigated both by electromagnetic fields and matter currents. In addition, it has been shown that correlations between neutrinos and antineutrinos of opposite momentum can build up in anisotropic media. We re-derive the neutrino equations of motion in the mean-field approximation for homogeneous yet anisotropic media, confirming previous results except for a small correction in the Majorana case. Furthermore, we derive the mean-field Hamiltonian induced by neutrino electromagnetic interactions. We also provide a phenomenological discussion of pair correlations in comparison with helicity correlations.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Physical Review D
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    ABSTRACT: The propagation of TeV gamma rays can be strongly modified by B-field induced conversion to axionlike particles (ALPs). We show that, at such high energies, photon dispersion is dominated by background photons - the only example where photon-photon dispersion is of practical relevance. We determine the refractive index for all energies and find that, for fixed energy density, background photons below the pair-production threshold dominate. The cosmic microwave background alone provides an "effective photon mass" of (m_gamma)^2 = -(1.01 neV * E/TeV)^2 for E < 1000 TeV. The extragalactic background light is subdominant, but local radiation fields in the galaxy or the source regions provide significant contributions. Photon-photon dispersion is small enough to leave typical scenarios of photon-ALP oscillations unscathed, but big enough to worry about it case by case.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Physical Review D
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\beta_{\rm m}$) and to photons ($\beta_{\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\,$keV to 400$\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\beta_{\gamma}\!\lesssim\!10^{11}$ for $1<\beta_{\rm m}<10^6$.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We study the potential of a future, large-volume photometric survey to constrain the axion mass $m_a$ in the hot dark matter limit. Future surveys such as Euclid will have significantly more constraining power than current observations for hot dark matter. Nonetheless, the lowest accessible axion masses are limited by the fact that axions lighter than $\sim 0.15$ eV decouple before the QCD epoch, assumed here to occur at a temperature $T_{\rm QCD} \sim 170$ MeV; this leaves an axion population of such low density that its late-time cosmological impact is negligible. For larger axion masses, $m_a \gtrsim 0.15$ eV, where axions remain in equilibrium until after the QCD phase transition, we find that a Euclid-like survey combined with Planck CMB data can detect $m_a$ at very high significance. Our conclusions are robust against assumptions about prior knowledge of the neutrino mass. Given that the proposed IAXO solar axion search is sensitive to $m_a\lesssim 0.2$ eV, the axion mass range probed by cosmology is nicely complementary.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for a -> gamma conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the x-ray refractive mass m(gamma) to the axion search mass m(a). After the vacuum phase (2003-2004), which is optimal for m(a) less than or similar to 0.02 eV, we used He-4 in 2005-2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02-0.39 eV and He-3 in 2009-2011 to scan from 0.39 to 1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to He-4 in 2012 to investigate a narrow m(a) range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39-0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with He-4, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to g(a gamma) < 1.47 x 10(-10) GeV-1 (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to the vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The propagation of TeV gamma rays can be strongly modified by B-field induced conversion to axion-like particles. The conversion rate depends on the photon dispersion relation which, at such high energies, is dominated by the B-field itself through the QED photon-photon interaction. However, ambient photons also contribute and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dominates when B < 3.25 micro-Gauss. We determine the photon-photon refractive index for all energies and find that, in intergalactic space, the CMB dominates for dispersion, whereas for absorption by gamma+gamma->electron+positron it is the extra-galactic background light. Local radiation fields, e.g., the galactic star light, can be more important for dispersion than the CMB.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: During the accretion phase of a core-collapse supernova (SN), the deleptonization flux has recently been found to develop a global dipole pattern (LESA---Lepton Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry). The $\nu_e$ minus $\bar\nu_e$ flux essentially vanishes in one direction, potentially facilitating self-induced flavor conversion. On the other hand, below the stalled shock wave, self-induced flavor conversion is typically suppressed by multi-angle matter effects, preventing any impact of flavor conversion on SN explosion dynamics. In a schematic model of SN neutrino fluxes, we study the impact of modified $\bar\nu_e$-$\nu_e$ flux asymmetries on collective flavor conversion. In the parameter space consisting of matter density and effective neutrino density, the region of instability with regard to self-induced flavor conversion is much larger for a vanishing lepton number flux, yet this modification does not intersect a realistic SN profile. Therefore, it appears that, even in the presence of LESA, self-induced flavor conversion remains suppressed below the shock front.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review D

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The radiative decay of sterile neutrinos with typical masses of 10 keV is investigated in the presence of a strong magnetic field and degenerate plasma. Full account is taken of the strongly modified photon dispersion relation relative to vacuum. The limiting cases of relativistic and non-relativistic plasma are analyzed. The decay rate in a strongly magnetized plasma as a function of the electron number density is compared with the un-magnetized case. We find that a strong magnetic field suppresses the catalyzing influence of the plasma on the decay rate.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Physical Review D
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    ABSTRACT: The neutrino emission characteristics of the first full-scale three-dimensional supernova simulations with sophisticated three-flavor neutrino transport for three models with masses 11.2, 20 and 27 M_sun are evaluated in detail. All the studied progenitors show the expected hydrodynamical instabilities in the form of large-scale convective overturn. In addition, the recently identified LESA phenomenon (lepton-number emission self-sustained asymmetry) is generic for all our cases. Pronounced SASI (standing accretion-shock instability) activity appears in the 20 and 27 M_sun cases, partly in the form of a spiral mode, inducing large but direction and flavor-dependent modulations of neutrino emission. These modulations can be clearly identified in the existing IceCube and future Hyper-Kamiokande detectors, depending on distance and detector location relative to the main SASI sloshing direction.
    Preview · Article · May 2014 · Physical Review D
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    ABSTRACT: The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: During the stalled-shock phase of our 3D hydrodynamical core-collapse simulations with energy-dependent, 3-flavor neutrino transport, the lepton-number flux (nu_e minus anti-nu_e) emerges predominantly in one hemisphere. This novel, spherical-symmetry breaking neutrino-hydrodynamical instability is termed LESA for "Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry." While the individual nu_e and anti-nu_e fluxes show a pronounced dipole pattern, the heavy-flavor neutrino fluxes and the overall luminosity are almost spherically symmetric. LESA seems to develop stochastically from convective fluctuations, it exists for hundreds of milliseconds or more, and it persists during violent shock sloshing associated with the standing accretion shock instability. The nu_e minus anti-nu_e flux asymmetry originates predominantly below the neutrinosphere in a region of pronounced proto-neutron star (PNS) convection, which is stronger in the hemisphere of enhanced lepton-number flux. On this side of the PNS, the mass-accretion rate of lepton-rich matter is larger, amplifying the lepton-emission asymmetry, because the spherical stellar infall deflects on a dipolar deformation of the stalled shock. This deformation persists despite extremely nonstationary convective overturn behind the shock. The increased shock radius in the hemisphere of less mass accretion and minimal lepton-number flux (anti-nu_e flux maximum) is sustained by stronger convection on this side, which is boosted by stronger neutrino heating because the average anti-nu_e energy is higher than the average nu_e energy. While these different elements of the LESA phenomenon form a consistent picture, a full understanding remains elusive at present. There may be important implications for neutrino-flavor oscillations, the neutron-to-proton ratio in the neutrino-heated supernova ejecta, and neutron-star kicks, which remain to be explored.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

19k Citations
1,136.08 Total Impact Points


  • 1986-2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2013
    • Ruđer Bošković Institute
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • Dogus Universitesi
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 2009-2011
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Faculty of Sciences (CIENCIAS)
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain
  • 2010
    • Universität Siegen
      Siegen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2007
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2005
    • CERN
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 1997-2005
    • Aarhus University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2000
    • Max Planck Institute for Informatics
      Saarbrücken, Saarland, Germany
  • 1999-2000
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa, Israel
  • 1987-1995
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1989
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1982
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany