Shuang Cai

Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China

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Publications (18)40.9 Total impact

  • Taoguang Huo · Zhili Xiong · Xiumei Lu · Shuang Cai
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    ABSTRACT: A metabonomic study on biochemical changes in the urine of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients after the treatment of sulfonylurea (SU) antidiabetic drugs was performed. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) method was used to generate metabolic fingerprints for the metabonomic analysis of urinary samples obtained from 20 T2DM patients without any drug treatment and 20 T2DM patients treated with SU antidiabetic drugs and 20 normal glucose tolerance subjects. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) to investigate the effect of SU antidiabetic drugs on urinary metabolite profiles of T2DM patients. Biomarkers such as xanthine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, hippurate, phenylacetylglutamine, carnitine C8:1, carnitine C10:3, uric acid and citrate were found to be responsible for the separation of T2DM and SU-treated groups, which indicates a potential effect of SU on energy metabolism, Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microflora metabolism and oxidative stress. The study may be helpful to the understanding of the action of mechanism of SU antidiabetic drugs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Biomedical Chromatography
  • Taoguang Huo · Xi Chen · Xiumei Lu · Lianyue Qu · Yang Liu · Shuang Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Valproate sodium is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs. However, valproate sodium has various side effects, especially its toxicity on liver. Current markers for toxicity reflect mostly the late stages of tissue damage; thus, more efficient methods for toxicity evaluation are desired. To evaluate the toxicity of valproate sodium on liver, we performed both UPLC-MS and (1)HNMR-based metabonomics analysis of serum samples from 34 epileptic patients (age: 42.0±18.6, 18 male/16 female) after valproate sodium treatment. Compared to conventional markers, the serum metabolic profiles provided clear distinction of the valproate sodium induced normal liver function and abnormal liver function in epileptic patients. Through multivariate statistical analysis, we identified marker metabolites associated with the hepatotoxicity induced by valproate sodium, such as glucose, lactate, acetoacetate, VLDL/LDL, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, choline, creatine, amino acids, N-acetyl glycoprotein, pyruvate and uric acid. This metabonomics approach may provide effective way to evaluate the valproate sodium-induced toxicity in a manner that can complement current measures. This approach is expected to find broader application in other drug-induced toxicity assessment.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) to enhance the oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble compound 20(S)-25-methoxydammarane-3β;12β;20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD). Optimized SMEDDS formulations for 25-OCH3-PPD contained Cremophor® EL (50%) as the surfactant, glycerin (20%) as the cosurfactant, and Labrafil® M1944 (30%) as the oil. The SMEDDS were characterized by morphological observation and mean droplet size. The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the 25-OCH3-PPD suspension and SMEDDS were evaluated and compared in rats. The plasma concentrations of 25-OCH3-PPD and its main metabolite, 25-OH-PPD, were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The relative bioavailability of SMEDDS was dramatically enhanced by an average of 9.8-fold compared with the suspension. Improved solubility and lymphatic transport may contribute to this enhanced bioavailability. Our studies highlight the promise of SMEDDS for the delivery of 25-OCH3-PPD via the oral route.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
  • Taoguang Huo · Xi Chen · Xiumei Lu · Lianyue Qu · Yang Liu · Shuang Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Valproate sodium is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs. However, valproate sodium has various side effects, especially its toxicity on liver. Current markers for toxicity reflect mostly the late stages of tissue damage; thus, more efficient methods for toxicity evaluation are desired. To evaluate the toxicity of valproate sodium on liver, we performed both UPLC–MS and 1HNMR-based metabonomics analysis of serum samples from 34 epileptic patients (age: 42.0 ± 18.6, 18 male/16 female) after valproate sodium treatment. Compared to conventional markers, the serum metabolic profiles provided clear distinction of the valproate sodium induced normal liver function and abnormal liver function in epileptic patients. Through multivariate statistical analysis, we identified marker metabolites associated with the hepatotoxicity induced by valproate sodium, such as glucose, lactate, acetoacetate, VLDL/LDL, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, choline, creatine, amino acids, N-acetyl glycoprotein, pyruvate and uric acid. This metabonomics approach may provide effective way to evaluate the valproate sodium-induced toxicity in a manner that can complement current measures. This approach is expected to find broader application in other drug-induced toxicity assessment.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Zan Teng · Lei Wang · Jingdong Zhang · Shuang Cai · Yunpeng Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) polymorphism has been proven to be associated with risks of several cancers. However, previous studies on the association between GSTM1 polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population reported controversial results. We performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies which were identified through the literature search in PubMed and Wanfang databases. The strength of the association between GSTM1 polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk was measured by odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Overall, GSTM1 null mutation was significantly associated with a risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese population (OR = 1.37, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.68, P = 0.002). Sensitivity analyses by omitting those studies in turns did not materially alter the overall pooled ORs. The cumulative meta-analyses further showed a trend of an obvious association between GSTM1 null mutation and risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese population as information accumulated by year. The findings from our meta-analysis suggest that GSTM1 null mutation is significantly associated with a risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese population.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Tumor Biology
  • Shuang Cai · Yinghui Chen · Wenjie Zhang · Xixiang Ying
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to characterize the excretion of pure vitexin-4"-O-glucoside (VOG) in mice following oral and intravenous administration at a dose of 30 mg/kg. A sensitive and specific HPLC method with hespridin as internal standard, a Diamonsil C18 column protected with a KR C18 guard column and a mixture consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.1% glacial acetic acid (6:2:18:74, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase was developed and validated for quantitative analysis in biological samples. VOG could be excreted as prototype in excreta including urine and feces after both routes of administration, and the cumulative excretion of VOG was 24.31 ± 11.10% (17.97 ± 5.59% in urinary excretion; 6.34 ± 5.51% in fecal excretion) following oral dosing and 5.66 ± 3.94% (4.78 ± 3.13% in urinary excretion; 0.88 ± 0.81% in fecal excretion) following intravenous dosing. The results showed that the elimination of VOG after the two routes was fairly low, which meant that VOG was metabolized as other forms and the elimination after oral dosing was almost 4.3-fold that after intravenous dosing. For both routes of administration, VOG excreted as prototype in urine was much more than that in feces, nearly 2.83-fold for oral administration and 5.43-fold for intravenous administration, which should be attributed to enterohepatic circulation. Taken together, renal excretion was the dominant path of elimination of VOG for oral and intravenous administration in mice and biliary excretion contributed less. © 2013 The Authors. © 2013 The Authors. Biomedical Chromatography published by Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Biomedical Chromatography
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    Lei Wang · Shuang Cai · Zan Teng · Xin Zhao · Xinyue Chen · Xiaojuan Bai
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    ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiological studies suggest that treatment with insulin may promote cancer growth. The present systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies was conducted to assess the risk of cancer during treatment with insulin.Materials and methodsA compressive search was conducted through MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Chinese Biomedical Literature databases (CBM). Pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. A total of four studies with one case-controls study and three cohort studies comparing the insulin therapy and colorectal cancer susceptibility were identified. When all four studies were analyzed, the summary RRs were 1.61 (95% CI = 1.18--1.35) in a random-effects model for individuals with insulin therapy, compared with individuals without insulin therapy, which suggests a statistically significant association between insulin use and colorectal cancer. Our findings provides the evidence that insulin therapy may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer.Virtual slidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9339731010859509.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    Jing Shi · Jianhua Tong · Shuang Cai · Xiujuan Qu · Yunpeng Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Recent investigations have suggested that common genetic polymorphisms in BRCA1-associated C-terminal helicase 1 (BACH1) are important in the development of breast cancer. However, individually published studies and previous meta-analyses have demonstrated inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to derive a more precise estimation of the correlation between a common polymorphism [proline (Pro) 919 serine (Ser); rs4986764 C>T] in the BACH1 gene and susceptibility to breast cancer. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese BioMedicine (CBM) databases was conducted on articles published prior to March 1, 2013. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Eleven case-control studies were included with a total of 6,903 breast cancer cases and 8,154 healthy controls. The meta-analysis results revealed that the BACH1 919Ser polymorphism may be correlated with a decreased risk of breast cancer among Caucasian populations (Ser allele versus Pro allele: OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.86-0.95; Pro/Ser + Ser/Ser versus Pro/Pro: OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.84-0.98; Ser/Ser versus Pro/Pro + Pro/Ser: OR=0.84, 95% CI=0.76-0.92; Ser/Ser versus Pro/Pro: OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.73-0.91; Ser/Ser versus Pro/Ser: OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.78-0.95), although not among Asian populations. Further subgroup analyses indicated that there were significant correlations between the BACH1 919Ser polymorphism and a decreased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal females, females with a family history of breast cancer and females without BRCA1/2 mutations. Univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses revealed that none of the factors explained the heterogeneity (all P>0.05). The present meta-analysis suggested that the BACH1 919Ser polymorphism may decrease the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian populations, particularly in postmenopausal females with a family history of breast cancer and without BRCA1/2 mutations.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
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    Lei Wang · Zan Teng · Shuang Cai · Difei Wang · Xin Zhao · Kai Yu
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    ABSTRACT: The polymorphism Pro12Ala in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma2 gene (PPARgamma2) has been reported to be associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in some studies, though the results remain inconclusive. To explore this relationship between PPARgamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and the susceptibility for DN, a cumulative meta-analys is was performed in this study. PubMed, Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases have been systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving 3,361 cases and 5,815 controls. The PPARgamma2 Ala12 allele was significantly associated with decreased risk of DN based on dominant model (OR=0.778; 95%CI=0.618-0.981; Pheterogeneity=0.008; P=0.034). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly decreased risks were found among Caucasians for dominant model (OR=0.674; 95%CI=0.500-0.909; Pheterogeneity=0.079; P=0.010), while there was no significant association was found in Asians. The results from the present meta-analysis indicated that the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARgamma2 gene is not a risk factor for DN in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this conclusion. Virtual slides: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7491348341027320.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    Zan Teng · Lei Wang · Shuang Cai · Ping Yu · Jin Wang · Jing Gong · Yunpeng Liu
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    ABSTRACT: The 677C>T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is considered to have a significant effect on colorectal cancer susceptibility, but the results are inconsistent. In order to investigate the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer, a meta-analysis was held based on 71 published studies. Eligible studies were identified through searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) and CNKI database. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with x(2)-based Q-test. Begg's and Egger's test were also carried out to evaluate publication bias. Sensitive and subgroup analysis were also held in this meta-analysis. Overall, 71 publications including 31,572 cases and 44,066 controls were identified. The MTHFR 677 C>T variant genotypes are significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were also found among Caucasians for CC vs TT (OR = 1.076; 95%CI = 1.008-1.150; I(2) = 52.3%), CT vs TT (OR = 1.102; 95%CI = 1.032-1.177; I(2) = 51.4%) and dominant model (OR = 1.086; 95%CI = 1.021-1.156; I(2) = 53.6%). Asians for CC vs TT (OR = 1.226; 95%CI = 1.116-1.346; I(2) = 55.3%), CT vs TT (OR = 1.180; 95%CI = 1.079-1.291; I(2) = 36.2%), recessive (OR = 1.069; 95%CI = 1.003-1.140; I(2) = 30.9%) and dominant model (OR = 1.198; 95%CI = 1.101-1.303; I(2) = 52.4%), and Mixed populations for CT vs TT (OR = 1.142; 95%CI = 1.005-1.296; I(2) = 0.0%). However, no associations were found in Africans for all genetic models. This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism increases the risk for developing colorectal cancer, while there is no association among Africans found in subgroup analysis by ethnicity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Shuang Cai · Lei Wang
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    ABSTRACT: A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the determination of 4-p-anisamidobutyric acid (ABA; or N-anysoyl-γ-aminobutiryc acid, N-anisoyl-GABA), a major active metabolite of aniracetam, in human plasma. After protein precipitation of plasma sample with methanol, ABA and the internal standard lisinopril were separated on a Venusil ASB C₁₈ column at 25 °C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-ammonium acetate (10 mmol/L) (30:70, v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with an ESI source in negative ion mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the precursor→product ion combinations of m/z 235.8→m/z 106.6, and m/z 403.8→m/z 113.6 was used to quantify ABA and lisinopril, respectively. This is the first LC-MS/MS method for ABA with advantages of short analysis time (4.5 min per sample run) and high selectivity attributable to the MRM detection and optimized HPLC conditions. The response was linear in a concentration range of 0.0485-19.4 μg/mL in plasma. The extraction recovery of ABA was between 89.1% and 100.7%. The precision (RSD) and accuracy (RE) of the method were evaluated to be within 7.3% and from 2.5% to 6.9%. The validated method has been applied to the pharmacokinetic study after a single oral administration of aniracetam dispersible tablets to human beings.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Mitiglinide is a new insulinotropic agent of the glinide class and its precise mechanism is not very clear yet. In this study, a urinary metabonomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed to study the effect mechanism of mitiglinide on type 2 diabetes mellitus. With pattern recognition analysis of urinary metabolite profiles, a clear separation between Streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats and those treated with mitiglinide was achieved. Some significantly changed metabolites like citrate, creatinine, phenylalanine and bile acids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid) have been identified and used to explain the mechanism. This work shows that metabonomics method is a valuable tool in drug mechanism study.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
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    ABSTRACT: A rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method is developed for the qualitative identification of constituents in the flower buds of seven Lonicera species. The optimal condition of separation and detection were achieved on an AcQuity UPLC BEH C18 column with a gradient elution with acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid within 17 min. Among the 33 constituents detected, 6 caffeoylquinic acids (including caffeic acid), 8 flavonoids and 8 iridoid glycosides were characterized based on their fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments and/or by comparison with standard compounds. In addition, to statistically establish the correlation and discrimination of the Lonicera species, principle component analysis (PCA) was applied in this study. Lonicera samples were divided into well-defined groups directly related to their species based on PCA in terms of the log transformed relative contents of the major caffeoylquinic acids (including caffeic acid) as the variables. All of results indicated that the method presented here is able to classify the sample species and to reveal characteristic details of the chemical constituents of different Lonicera species.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica
  • Shuang Cai · Taoguang Huo · Ning Li · Zhili Xiong · Famei Li
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    ABSTRACT: An UPLC/MS/MS based metabonomic method was developed and applied to the elucidation of biomarker of metformin action. The plasma metabolite profiling in healthy volunteers before and after per os metformin was determined with UPLC/MS/MS and analyzed by using multivariate statistics. Significant difference in endogenous metabolite profiles was revealed before and after administration of metformin. Four biomarkers found were lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs), and their structures were tentatively identified to be 16:0 LPC, 18:0 LPC, 18:1 LPC and 18:2 LPC according to the molecular ions information and corresponding fragments of product ion scan. Lysophosphatidylcholine in blood may be involved in metformin treatment.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Biomedical Chromatography
  • Taoguang Huo · Shuang Cai · Xiumei Lu · Yi Sha · Mingyang Yu · Famei Li
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    ABSTRACT: A metabonomic study on biochemical changes in the serum of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after the treatment of metformin hydrochloride was performed. (1)H NMR and UPLC/MS were used to generate metabolic fingerprints for the metabonomic analysis of serum samples obtained from 20 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without any drugs treatment and 15 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with metformin hydrochloride for 3 months. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) to investigate the effect of metformin hydrochloride on serum metabolite profiles of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed increased trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) and decreased glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein (NAC), lipoprotein, lactate, acetoacetate and unsaturated lipids in serum from metformin treated patients compared to untreated ones. UPLC/MS in positive electrospray ionization detected increased tryptophan and decreased lysophosphatidylcholines (C16:0 LPC, C18:0 LPC and C18:2 LPC) as well as phenylalanine in treated group. Both analytical techniques used in this study were able to detect biochemical changes in the serum of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after the treatment of metformin hydrochloride, which may be helpful to the understanding of action mechanism of metformin hydrochloride.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
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    ABSTRACT: A selective, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of mitiglinide in human plasma. With nateglinide as internal standard, sample pretreatment involved a one-step extraction with diethyl ether of 0.2 mL plasma. The separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLCtrade mark BEH C(18) column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, i.d., 1.7 microm) with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The detection was carried out by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1.080-5400 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantification of 1.080 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD) values were below 15% and accuracy (RE) was from -3.5% to 7.3% at all QC levels. The method was fully validated and successfully applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study of mitiglinide in 10 healthy volunteers following oral administration.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Chromatography B
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    ABSTRACT: Vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (VOR) presents the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major which plays a role in preventing human pathologies related to oxidative stress, but as the principal component in the leaves, little attention has been devoted to its study of antioxidation of VOR. A simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) in ECV304 cell culture medium induced by tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (TBHP). The preparation of analyzed samples involved a one-step derivatization with thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The separation was achieved using the Synergi Hydro-RP, a polar endcapped C18 column (250×4.6mm, 4μm pore size) with a linear gradient elution of acetonitrile and 10mmolL−1 of ammonium acetate aqueous solution (pH 6.8). The calibration curve was linear over the ranges 0.0125–1.25μmolL−1 MDA (r=0.9962). The lower limit of quantification of MDA was 0.0125μmolL−1. Relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 5.2 and 4.4%. The method with high recovery (95.4±1.3%) was successfully applied to the investigation of antioxidation of VOR by determining MDA in ECV304 cell culture medium.
    No preview · Article · May 2008 · Chromatographia
  • Xiaohong Sun · Xiaoqin Li · Shuang Cai · Feng Qin · Xiumei Lu · Famei Li
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    ABSTRACT: A novel, selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) method has been developed for the determination of isosorbide 5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) in human plasma. With acetaminophen as internal standard, sample pretreatment involved one-step extraction with diethyl ether of 0.5 mL plasma. Analysis was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column (100 mm x 2.1mm, 1.7 microm) with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (20:80, v/v). The detection was carried out by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative ion mode with selected ion recording (SIR). Standard curves were linear (r(2)> or =0.99) over the concentration range of 1.04-1040 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1.04 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSDs) were less than 8.6% and 13.4%, respectively, and the accuracy (RE) was within +/-0.45%. The method herein described was fully validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of 5-ISMN in compound extended-release tablets in 18 healthy male volunteers after oral administration.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Chromatography B

Publication Stats

194 Citations
40.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
      • • Department of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Analytical Chemistry
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2014
    • Guangzhou Medical University
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2012-2014
    • China Medical University (PRC)
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2013
    • Southern Medical University
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China