Nicola D Ridgers

Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (109)235.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) assesses young children's perceptions of movement skill competence: 12 perceived Fundamental Movement skills (FMS; based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition TGMD-2) and six Active Play activities (e.g. cycling). The main study purpose was to assess whether children's movement perception scores fit within the imposed constructs of Active Play and FMS by testing the latent structure and construct validity of the PMSC. Design: Construct validation study. Methods: Participants were part of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT). The latent structure of the PMSC responses was tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling (BSEM). Internal consistency was conducted using polychoric correlation-based alphas. Results: The 303 children (boys 53.1%, n = 161) were aged 4-5 years (M = 4.7, SD = 0.46). The final model had an 18 item 3-factor solution with good fit indices (using CFA and BSEM). Factors were: Active Play (Bike, Board Paddle, Climb, Skate/Blade, Scooter, and Swim), Object Control - Hand Skills (Bounce, Catch, Hit, Throw), and FMS skills with a leg action (Gallop, Hop, Jump, Leap, Run, Step Slide, Kick, Roll). Alpha reliability values were: Active Play (0.78), Object Control-Hand Skills (0.76) and FMS-Dynamic Leg (0.84). Conclusion: Young children can distinguish between movement perceptions. The factors reflect the hypothesized structure in terms of FMS being distinguished from Active Play. Further research should investigate how and if these constructs change in children over time.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Psychology of Sport and Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: -Active video games (AVGs) may be useful for movement skill practice. This study examined children's skill execution while playing Xbox Kinect™ and during movement skill assessment. Nineteen children (10 boys, 9 girls; M age = 7.9 yr., SD = 1.4) had their skills assessed before AVG play and then were observed once a week for 6 wk. while playing AVGs for 50 min. While AVG play showed evidence of correct skill performance (at least 30-50% of the time when playing table tennis, tennis, and baseball), nearly all skills were more correctly performed during skill assessment (generally more than 50% of the time). This study may help researchers to better understand the role AVGs could play in enhancing real life movement skills.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
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    ABSTRACT: Children spend between 50 and 70 % of their time sitting while at school. Independent of physical activity levels, prolonged sitting is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood. While there is mixed evidence of health associations among children and adolescents, public health guidelines in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada now recommend young people should break up long periods of sitting as frequently as possible. A potentially effective approach for reducing and breaking up sitting throughout the day is changing the classroom environment. This paper presents an overview of a relatively new area of research designed to reduce youth sitting time while at school by changing the classroom environment (n = 13 studies). Environmental changes included placement of height-adjustable or stand-biased standing desks/workstations with stools, chairs, exercise balls, bean bags or mats in the classroom. These 13 published studies suggest that irrespective of the approach, youth sitting time was reduced by between ~44 and 60 min/day and standing time was increased by between 18 and 55 min/day during classroom time at school. Other benefits include increased energy expenditure and the potential for improved management of students' behaviour in the classroom. However, few large trials have been conducted, and there remains little evidence regarding the impact on children's learning and academic achievement. Nevertheless, with an increasing demand placed on schools and teachers regarding students' learning outcomes, strategies that integrate moving throughout the school day and that potentially enhance the learning experience and future health outcomes for young people warrant further exploration.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Sports Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Physical activity reduces cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends children engage in 60 min daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The effect of compliance with this recommendation on childhood cardiovascular risk has not been empirically tested. To evaluate whether achieving recommendations results in reduced composite-cardiovascular risk score (CCVR) in children, and to examine if vigorous PA (VPA) has independent risk-reduction effects. Methods: PA was measured using accelerometry in 182 children (9-11 years). Subjects were grouped according to achievement of 60 min daily MVPA (active) or not (inactive). CCVR was calculated (sum of z-scores: DXA body fat %, blood pressure, VO2peak, flow mediated dilation, left ventricular diastolic function; CVR score ≥1SD indicated 'higher risk'). The cohort was further split into quintiles for VPA and odds ratios (OR) calculated for each quintile. Results: Active children (92 (53 boys)) undertook more MVPA (38 ± 11 min, P < 0.001), had greater VO2peak (4.5 ± 0.8 ml/kg/min P < 0.001), and lower fat % (3.9 ± 1.1 %, P < 0.001) than inactive. No difference were observed between active and inactive for CCVR or OR (P > 0.05). CCVR in the lowest VPA quintile was significantly greater than the highest quintile (3.9 ± 0.6, P < 0.05), and the OR was 4.7 times higher. Conclusion: Achievement of current guidelines has positive effects on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness, but not CCVR. Vigorous physical activity appears to have beneficial effects on CVD risk, independent of moderate PA, implying a more prescriptive approach may be needed for future VPA guidelines.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    Sarah Robinson · Robin M Daly · Nicola D Ridgers · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine whether the amount of time spent in screen-based behaviors (SBBs; television viewing, computer use, and playing electronic games) is independently associated with individual and clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among elementary school children. Study design: Baseline data were used from 264 children (age 7-10 years) participating in the Transform-Us! cluster-randomized controlled trial. Time (h/d) spent in SBBs was obtained using a parent proxy-report questionnaire. Anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP), and lipids were measured using standard techniques. A clustered CVD risk score was calculated as the average of the standardized values of the subcomponents (waist circumference [WC], systolic BP, diastolic BP, and lipids). Results: After adjusting for sex, parent education, physical activity (accelerometry), diet, and WC (when adiposity was not the outcome), television viewing time was positively associated with body mass index z-score (P = .002), WC (P = .02), and systolic BP (P = .05). Electronic games was positively associated with low density lipoprotein levels (P = .05), and total screen-time was positively associated with body mass index (P = .02). Conclusions: Differential associations were observed between types of SBBs and CVD risk factors, indicating that not all SBBs are adversely associated with obesity and CVD risk. There is a need to differentiate between types of SBBs when evaluating the CVD risk associated with screen behaviors in children. Trial registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial: ISRCTN83725066; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000715279.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of pediatrics
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    Nicola D Ridgers · Anna Timperio · Ester Cerin · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to examine whether increased levels of sitting time and physical activity in one period (within-day) or on one day (between-day) were predictive of lower levels in these behaviours in the following period or day among children. Methods: Children aged 8-11 years from 8 primary schools located in Melbourne, Australia, wore an activPAL for 7 consecutive days (n = 235; 53 % boys). Sitting, standing and stepping time were derived for each day and for specific periods on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel analyses were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models to estimate associations between temporally adjacent values (i.e. pairs of days; pairs of periods within-days) between the outcome variables. Results: Significant associations were observed between temporally adjacent days and periods of the day. On any given day, an additional 10 min of stepping was associated with fewer minutes of stepping (~9 min; 95 % CI: -11.5 to -6.2 min) and standing (15 min; 95 % CI: -18.8 to -11.1 min) the following day. Greater time spent sitting during one period, regardless of being a weekday or weekend day, was associated with less time sitting and more time standing and stepping in the following period. Conclusions: The direction of the results suggest that children appeared to compensate for increased sitting, standing, and stepping time both within- and between-days. The implications of such associations for the design and delivery of interventions require consideration.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study examined fundamental movement skill competency among deprived preschool children in Northwest England and explored sex differences. A total of 168 preschool children (ages 3-5 yr.) were included in the study. Twelve skills were assessed using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Motor Skills Protocol and video analysis. Sex differences were explored at the subtest, skill, and component levels. Overall competence was found to be low among both sexes, although it was higher for locomotor skills than for object-control skills. Similar patterns were observed at the component level. Boys had significantly better object-control skills than girls, with greater competence observed for the kick and overarm throw, while girls were more competent at the run, hop, and gallop. The findings of low competency suggest that developmentally appropriate interventions should be implemented in preschool settings to promote movement skills, with targeted activities for boys and girls.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
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    Lisa M. Barnett · Nicola D. Ridgers · John Reynolds · Lisa Hanna · Jo Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and 'real life' activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the associations between young children's actual and perceived object control and locomotor skills and physical activity and whether associations differ by sex. Cross sectional study. A total of 136 children consented. Children had actual skill (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), perceived skill (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometers) assessed. Independent t-tests assessed sex differences. A regression (with MVPA as the outcome) was performed with all predictor variables (i.e. Actual Object Control, Actual Locomotor, Perceived Object Control, and Perceived Locomotor). Model 2 also adjusted for age, sex, accelerometer wear time and whether the child was from an English speaking background. Interaction terms between the respective actual or perceived skill factor and sex were added to assess sex differences. Analyses were conducted on 109 children (59 boys, 50 girls; mean age=6.5 years, SD=1.0). Boys had higher actual and perceived object control skill and were more active by an average of 19min per day. There were no sex differences in locomotor skills. There were no associations between skill factors and MVPA, except for girls, where locomotor skill was a significant predictor of MVPA (B=3.66, p=0.016). Actual rather than perceived skill competence was more important to MVPA in this sample. Locomotor skill competence may be more important than object control skill competence for girls as they may engage in types of physical activity that do not require object control mastery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    Nicola D Ridgers · Jo Salmon · Anna Timperio
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal variations may influence children's physical activity patterns. The aim of this study was to examine how children's objectively-measured physical activity differed across seasons, and whether different seasonal patterns were observed for boys and girls. Three hundred and twenty-six children aged 8-11 years from nine primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study. Physical activity was measured every 15-s using hip-mounted GT3X+ ActiGraph accelerometers for seven consecutive days in the Winter (n = 249), Spring (n = 221), Summer (n = 174) and Autumn (n = 152) school terms. Time spent in moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) at each time point was derived using age-specific cut-points. Meteorological data (maximum temperature, precipitation, daylight hours) were obtained daily during each season. Longitudinal data were analysed using multilevel analyses, adjusted for age, sex, accelerometer wear time, number of valid days, and meteorological variables. Compared to Winter, children engaged in significantly less MPA (-5.0 min) and MVPA (-7.8 min) in Summer. Girls engaged in less MVPA in Spring (-18 min) and Summer (-9.2 min) and more MVPA in Autumn (9.9 min) compared to Winter. Significant changes in MPA and VPA bout frequency and duration were also observed. Significant decreases in VPA bout frequency (3.4 bouts) and duration (2.6 min) were observed for girls in Spring compared to Winter. No significant seasonal changes were observed for boys for all intensities and physical activity accumulation. Physical activity decreased in Summer compared to Winter, contrasting previous research that typically reports that children are most active in summer. Greater fluctuations were observed for girls' activity levels. In addition, girls' activity duration and bouts appeared to be more susceptible to seasonal changes compared to boys. The results suggest that strategies to promote physical activity may be needed in Australia during the hot summer months, particularly for girls.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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    ABSTRACT: Investigate associations of TV viewing time and accelerometry-derived sedentary time with inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers in children. Cross-sectional analysis of 164 7-10-year-old children. TV viewing time was assessed by parental proxy report and total and patterns of sedentary time accumulation (e.g. prolonged bouts) were assessed by accelerometry. C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, interleukin-2, -6, -8, -10, tumour necrosis factor alpha, adiponectin, resistin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, soluble intercellular and vascular adhesion molecule 1, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and soluble E-selectin were assessed. Generalised linear models assessed the associations of TV viewing and sedentary time with biomarkers, adjusting for sex, waist circumference, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and diet density. Each additional h week(-1) of TV viewing was associated with 4.4% (95% CI: 2.1, 6.7) greater CRP and 0.6% (0.2, 1.0) greater sVCAM-1 in the fully adjusted model. The association between frequency and duration of 5-10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP was positive after adjustment for sex and waist circumference but attenuated after adjustment for diet density. This study suggests that TV viewing was unfavourably associated with several markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The detrimental association between 5 and 10 min bouts of sedentary time and CRP approached significance, suggesting that further research with a stronger study design (longitudinal and/or experimental) is needed to better understand how the accumulation of sedentary time early in life may influence short and longer term health. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Pediatric Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the influence of sit-to-stand desks on classroom sitting time in primary school children. Pilot controlled trials with similar intervention strategies were conducted in primary schools in Melbourne, Australia, and Bradford, UK. Sit-to-stand desks replaced all standard desks in the Australian intervention classroom. Six sit-to-stand desks replaced a bank of standard desks in the UK intervention classroom. Children were exposed to the sit-to-stand desks for 9-10 weeks. Control classrooms retained their normal seated desks. Classroom sitting time was measured at baseline and follow-up using the activPAL3 inclinometer. Thirty UK and 44 Australian children provided valid activPAL data at baseline and follow-up. The proportion of time spent sitting in class decreased significantly at follow-up in both intervention groups (UK: -9.8 ± 16.5% [-52.4 ± 66.6 min/day]; Australian: -9.4 ± 10% [-43.7 ± 29.9 min/day]). No significant changes in classroom sitting time were observed in the UK control group, while a significant reduction was observed in the Australian control group (-5.9 ± 11.7% [-28.2 ± 28.3 min/day]). Irrespective of implementation, incorporating sit-to-stand desks into classrooms appears to be an effective way of reducing classroom sitting in this diverse sample of children. Longer term efficacy trials are needed to determine effects on children's health and learning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mothers’ self-efficacy for limiting their children’s television viewing is an important correlate of this behaviour in young children. However, no studies have examined how maternal self-efficacy changes over time, which is potentially important during periods of rapid child development. This study examined tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting young children’s television viewing over 15-months and associations with children’s television viewing time. Methods In 2008 and 2010, mothers (n = 404) from the Melbourne InFANT Program self-reported their self-efficacy for limiting their child’s television viewing at 4- and 19-months of age. Tertiles of self-efficacy were created at each time and categorised into: persistently high, persistently low, increasing or decreasing self-efficacy. Weighted kappa and multinomial logistic regression examined tracking and demographic and behavioural predictors of change in self-efficacy. A linear regression model examined associations between tracking categories and children’s television viewing time. Results Tracking of maternal self-efficacy for limiting children’s television viewing was low (kappa = 0.23, p < 0.001). Mothers who had persistently high or increasing self-efficacy had children with lower television viewing time at 19-months (β = −35.5; 95 % CI = −54.4,-16.6 and β = 37.0; 95 % CI = −54.4,-19.7, respectively). Mothers of children with difficult temperaments were less likely to have persistently high self-efficacy. Mothers who met adult physical activity guidelines had 2.5 greater odds of increasing self-efficacy. Conclusions Interventions to increase and maintain maternal self-efficacy for limiting children’s television viewing time may result in lower rates of this behaviour amongst toddlers. Maternal and child characteristics may need to be considered when tailoring interventions.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Actual and perceived object control (commonly ball) skill proficiency is associated with higher physical activity in children and adolescents. Active video games (AVGs) encourage whole body movement to control/play the electronic gaming system and therefore provide an opportunity for screen time to become more active. The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing sports AVGs has a positive influence on young children's actual and perceived object control skills. Two group pre/post experimental design study. Thirty-six children aged 6-10 years old from one school were randomly allocated to a control or intervention condition. The Test of Gross Motor Development-3 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence for Young Children assessed perceived object control skill. The intervention consisted of 6×50min lunchtime AVG sessions on the Xbox Kinect. Two to three sport games were chosen for participants to play each session. General linear models with either perceived object control or actual object control skill as the outcome variables were conducted. Each base model adjusted for intervention status and pre-score of the respective outcome variable. Additional models adjusted for potential confounding variables (sex of child and game at home). No significant differences between the control and intervention groups were observed for both outcomes. This study found that playing the Xbox Kinect does not significantly influence children's perceived or actual object control skills, suggesting that the utility of the Xbox Kinect for developing perceived and actual object control skill competence is questionable. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2015
  • S. McKenzie · S. Bangay · L.M. Barnett · N.D. Ridgers · J. Salmon
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    ABSTRACT: A mobile video game designed to encourage physical activity in children in an organized outdoor setting is presented. Game elements of narrative based treasure hunt game: Pirate Adventure are designed by a team of IT and Health professionals to encourage primary school aged children to engage in physical activity. The mobile phone platform uses several sensor technologies; accelerometers, camera and Wi-Fi to integrate gameplay with the physical environment. Key game locations in the real world environment are tracked using 2-dimensional codes (QR codes) and activity is tracked using accelerometers. The design is evaluated during several organized play session. Telemetry collected demonstrates that the treasure hunt mechanic encourages players to be physically active during each game, and validates that player actions are consistent with the game design elements. QR code scanning is effective as a location tracking mechanism. Additional insight is provided into the issue of sensor suitability and mobile device reliability when used in games for this age group. The results of this study can inform other mobile active games for children.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    Grace H E Liong · Nicola D Ridgers · Lisa M Barnett
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    ABSTRACT: -Given that children with low movement skill competence engage in less physical activity, it is important to understand how children's perceptions relate to actual movement competence. This study examined relationships between (i) children's self-perception and objective assessments of their movement skills (object control and locomotor) and (ii) parents' perceptions of the children's movement skills and objective assessment. Children's skill perceptions were assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children. Parent perceptions of their child's skills were assessed using a modified version of this instrument. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd edition assessed children's skills objectively. Participants were 136 Australian children (51% boys; M = 6.5 yr., SD = 1.1) and 133 parents. Regression analyses (by sex) examined the relationship between perceptions and children's scores for actual skilled performance. Boys' perceptions were associated with their actual object control ability. Parents accurately perceived boys' object control ability and girls' locomotor ability, but not the reverse. This suggests interventions aiming to improve children's movement skills could target parents and be designed to teach parents how to recognize good and poor skill performance in their children.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
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    ABSTRACT: Light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) accounts for much of adults' waking hours (≈40%) and substantially contributes to overall daily energy expenditure. Encompassing activity behaviours of low intensity (standing with little movement) through to those with a higher intensity (slow walking), LIPA is ubiquitous, yet little is known about how associations with health may vary depending on its intensity. We examined the associations of objectively assessed LIPA, categorized as either low- or high- LIPA, and MVPA, with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. Cardiometabolic biomarkers were measured in 4614 US adults (47±17 yrs) who participated in the 2003-04 and 2005-06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles. Multiple linear regression analyses examined associations of three accelerometer-derived physical activity (SD increment/day) intensity categories (low-LIPA [LLPA: 100-761 counts·min]; high-LIPA [HLPA: 762-1951 counts·min]; moderate [MPA: 1952-5724 counts·min] and, vigorous [VPA: ≥5725 counts·min]) with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and medical confounders. All intensities of physical activity were beneficially associated with waist circumference, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, fasting insulin, β-cell function and insulin sensitivity (P<0.05); only some activity intensities showed significant associations with systolic blood pressure (LLPA), body mass index, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose (HLPA, MPA, VPA). Generally, size of effect increased with PA intensity. Overall, further adjustment for waist circumference attenuated associations with MPA and VPA to a greater extent than with LLPA and HLPA. These cross-sectional findings provide novel evidence for the potential benefits of increasing both LLPA and HLPA; they further reinforce the established importance of MVPA - the mainstay of public health recommendations.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: Physical Activity is important for maintaining healthy lifestyles. Recommendations for physical activity levels are issued by most governments as part of public health measures. As such, reliable measurement of physical activity for regulatory purposes is vital. This has lead research to explore standards for achieving this using wearable technology and artificial neural networks that produce classifications for specific physical activity events. Applied from a very early age, the ubiquitous capture of physical activity data using mobile and wearable technology may help us to understand how we can combat childhood obesity and the impact that this has in later life. A supervised machine learning approach is adopted in this paper that utilizes data obtained from accelerometer sensors worn by children in free-living environments. The paper presents a set of activities and features suitable for measuring physical activity and evaluates the use of a Multilayer Perceptron neural network to classify physical activities by activity type. A rigorous reproducible data science methodology is presented for subsequent use in physical activity research. Our results show that it was possible to obtain an overall accuracy of 96 % with 95 % for sensitivity, 99 % for specificity and a kappa value of 94 % when three and four feature combinations were used.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015

Publication Stats

2k Citations
235.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2016
    • Deakin University
      • • School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
      • • Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  • 2012-2015
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2014
    • University of Queensland
      • Cancer Prevention Research Centre
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2005-2011
    • Liverpool John Moores University
      • • Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences (RISES)
      • • School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom