Claire L Townsend

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (29)118.24 Total impact

  • Ian Simms · Tookey PA · Goh BT · Lyall H · Evans B · Townsend CL · Fifer H · Ison C
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate the incidence of congenital syphilis in the UK. Design Prospective study Setting and population United Kingdom Methods Children born between February 2010 and January 2015 with a suspected diagnosis of congenital syphilis were reported through an active surveillance system. Main outcome measures Number of congenital syphilis cases and incidence. Results For all years reported incidence was below the WHO threshold for elimination (<0.5/1000 live births). 17 cases (male=12, female=5) were identified. About 50% of infants (8/17) were born preterm (<37 weeks gestation): median birth weight 2000g (865g - 3170g). Clinical presentation varied from asymptomatic to acute disease, including severe anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, rhinitis, thrombocytopaenia, skeletal damage, and neurosyphilis. One infant was deaf and blind. Median maternal age was 20 years (17 - 31) at delivery. Where maternal stage of infection was recorded, 6/10 had primary, 3/10 secondary and 1/10 early latent syphilis. Most mothers were white (13/16). Country of birth was recorded for 12 mothers: UK (6), Eastern Europe (3), Middle East (1), and SE Asia (2). Social circumstances of mothers varied and included drug use and sex work. Some experienced difficulty accessing health care. Conclusions The incidence of congenital syphilis is controlled and monitored by healthcare services and related surveillance systems, and is now below the WHO elimination threshold. However, reducing the public health impact of this preventable disease in the UK is highly dependent on the successful implementation of WHO elimination standards across Europe.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. Methods The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specifi c questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Findings Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs WHO stage 1), and being in the most socially deprived group (1·38, 1·11-1·71). Small size for gestational age was associated with history of injecting drug use (adjusted RR 1·39, 95% CI 1·16-1·65), most socially deprived (1·32, 1·09-1·61), no ART (1·60, 1·32-1·94 vs zidovudine monotherapy), and antenatal combination ART (1·33, 1·12-1·60 vs zidovudine monotherapy). Interpretation Some risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes were directly associated with HIV and treatment and others were shared with the general antenatal population. Monitoring of pregnancy outcomes in Ukraine will be important as use of antenatal combination ART increases. Funding European Union Seventh Framework Programme, Wellcome Trust.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Lancet HIV
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the association between duration of rupture of membranes (ROM) and mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).DesignThe National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) undertakes comprehensive population-based surveillance of HIV in pregnant women and children.SettingUK and Ireland.PopulationA cohort of 2398 singleton pregnancies delivered vaginally, or by emergency caesarean section, in women on cART in pregnancy during the period 2007–2012 with information on duration of ROM; HIV infection status was available for 1898 infants.Methods Descriptive analysis of NSHPC data.Main outcome measuresRates of MTCT.ResultsIn 2116 pregnancies delivered at term, the median duration of ROM was 3 hours 30 minutes (interquartile range, IQR 1–8 hours). The overall MTCT rate for women delivering at term with duration of ROM ≥4 hours was 0.64% compared with 0.34% for ROM <4 hours, with no significant difference between the groups (OR 1.90, 95% CI 0.45–7.97). In women delivering at term with a viral load of <50 copies/ml, there was no evidence of a difference in MTCT rates with duration of ROM ≥4 hours, compared with <4 hours (0.14% for ≥4 hours versus 0.12% for <4 hour; OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.07–18.27). Among infants born preterm with infection status available, there were no transmissions in 163 deliveries where the maternal viral load was <50 copies/ml.Conclusions No association was found between duration of ROM and MTCT in women taking cART.Tweetable abstractRupture of membranes of more than 4 hours is not associated with MTCT of HIV in women on effective ART delivering at term.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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    ABSTRACT: Results: Of 185 antenatal participants and 102 postnatal participants, median ages were 27.5 and 29.5 years respectively: 28% (50/180) and 27% (26/98) reported an unplanned pregnancy, and 13% (24/179) and 17% (17/98) an illicit drug-use history (excluding marijuana). One quarter (49/180 antenatally, 27/101 postnatally) screened positive for depression. The proportion reporting 'low' ART-related self-efficacy (i.e. unable to do ≥1/5 ART-taking activities) was 20% (28/141) antenatally and 17% (11/66) postnatally. Antenatally, 14% (95% CI 10-21%) had a CASE score ≤11 and 35% (95% CI 28-42%) reported missing ≥1 dose. Factors associated with a CASE score ≤11 were unplanned pregnancy (25% (12/48) vs. 11% (13/120) where planned, p = 0.03) and living with extended family (23% (13/57) vs. 10% (12/125) living with partner/alone, p = 0.04). Self-report of ≥1 missed dose antenatally was additionally associated with younger age (p = 0.03) and lower self-efficacy (50% (14/28) reported ≥1 missed dose vs. 28% (30/108) of those with high self-efficacy, p = 0.04). Of 102 postnatal participants, 8% (95% CI 4-15%) had a CASE score ≤11 and 31% (95% CI 22-41%) reported ≥1 missed dose. Of 11 women with low self-efficacy, 3 (27%) had a CASE score ≤11 compared with 3/55 (5%) of those with high self-efficacy (p = 0.05). Current smokers more commonly reported ≥1 missed dose postnatally (50% (13/26) vs. 25% (18/72) of non-smokers, p = 0.03).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Public Health
  • C Townsend · K Harding · H Peters · A De Ruiter · K Francis · G Taylor · P Tookey
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    ABSTRACT: Most HIV-positive women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with undetectable HIV viral load now deliver vaginally. Studies from the pre-cART era showed an association between duration of rupture of membranes (ROM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Here, we investigate the impact of ROM duration on MTCT rates in the cART era.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates over time in light of changes in management, demographic, and pregnancy characteristics. Population-based surveillance data on diagnosed HIV-positive women and their infants are routinely collected in the UK and Ireland. A total of 12 486 singleton pregnancies delivered in 2000-2011 were analyzed. HIV infection status was available for 11 515 infants (92.2%). The rate of MTCT declined from 2.1% (17/816) in 2000-2001 to 0.46% (nine of 1975, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.86%) in 2010-2011 (trend, P = 0.01), because of a combination of factors including earlier initiation of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Excluding 63 infants who were breastfed or acquired HIV postnatally, MTCT risk was significantly higher for all modes of delivery in women with viral load of 50-399 copies/ml (1.0%, 14/1349), compared with viral load of less than 50 copies/ml (0.09%, six of 6347, P <0.001). Among the former (viral load 50-399 copies/ml), the risk of MTCT was 0.26% (two of 777) following elective cesarean section and 1.1% (two of 188) following planned vaginal delivery (P = 0.17), excluding in-utero transmissions. MTCT probability declined rapidly with each additional week of treatment initially, followed by a slower decline up to about 15 weeks of cART, with substantial differences by baseline viral load. MTCT rates in the UK and Ireland have continued to decline since 2006, reaching an all-time low of 5 per 1000 in 2010-2011. This was primarily because of a reduction in transmissions associated with late initiation or nonreceipt of antenatal cART, and an increase in the proportion of women on cART at conception.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · AIDS (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the scale-up of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Ukraine since this became part of the national policy for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: Data on 3535 HIV-positive pregnant women who were enrolled into the Ukraine European Collaborative Study in 2008-2010 were analysed. Factors associated with receipt of zidovudine monotherapy (AZTm) - rather than cART - and rates of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV were investigated. Findings: cART coverage increased significantly, from 22% of deliveries in 2008 to 61% of those in 2010. After adjusting for possible confounders, initiation of antenatal AZTm - rather than cART - was associated with cohabiting (versus being married; adjusted prevalence ratio, aPR: 1.09; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02-1.16), at least two previous live births (versus none; aPR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.11-1.35) and a diagnosis of HIV infection during the first or second trimester (versus before pregnancy; aPR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). The overall MTCT rate was 4.1% (95% CI: 3.4-4.9); 42% (49/116) of the transmissions were from the 8% (n = 238) of women without antenatal ART. Compared with AZTm, cART was associated with a 70% greater reduction in the risk of MTCT (adjusted odds ratio: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16-0.56). Conclusion: Between 2008 and 2010, access to antenatal cART improved substantially in Ukraine, but implementation of the World Health Organization's Option-B policy was slow. For MTCT to be eliminated in Ukraine, improvements in the retention of women in HIV care and further roll-out of Option B are urgently needed.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Bulletin of the World Health Organisation
  • Heather Bailey · Claire L. Townsend · Mario Cortina-Borja · Claire Thorne
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    ABSTRACT: Among 396 HIV-infected women conceiving on cART and enrolled in the European Collaborative Study in 2000-11, the proportion with virological failure (>200 copies/ml after ≥24 weeks of treatment) declined substantially from 34% in 2000-01 to 3% in 2010-11. In adjusted analyses, younger women and those with ≥2 children were at increased risk of virological failure, highlighting the importance of close monitoring and adherence support.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · AIDS (London, England)
  • L. Byrne · C. Townsend · C. Thorne · P. Tookey

    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · HIV Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of neurological problems, particularly sensorineural hearing loss, but data on long-term sequelae and the impact of nonprimary maternal infection are limited. We report updated findings on childhood outcomes from 2 large prospective studies. Methods: Pregnant women in Malmö, Sweden, and London, United Kingdom, were included between 1977 and 1986, and newborns were screened for CMV (virus culture of urine or saliva). Cases and matched controls underwent regular, detailed developmental assessments up to at least age 5 years. Results: One hundred seventy-six congenitally infected infants were identified among >50 000 screened (Malmö: 76 [4.6/1000 births]; London: 100 [3.2/1000 births]); 214 controls were selected. Symptoms were recorded in 11% of CMV-infected neonates (19/176) and were mostly mild; only 1 neonate had neurological symptoms. At follow-up, 7% of infants (11/154) were classified as having mild, 5% (7/154) moderate, and 6% (9/154) severe neurological sequelae. Four of 161 controls (2%) had mild impairment. Among children symptomatic at birth, 42% (8/19) had sequelae, versus 14% (19/135) of the asymptomatic infants (P = .006). All moderate/severe outcomes were identified by age 1; mild sequelae were first identified at age 2-5 years in 6 children, and age 6-7 years in 3. Among the 16 children with moderate/severe outcomes, 2 had mothers with confirmed and 7 with presumed nonprimary infection. Conclusions: Moderate or severe outcomes were reported in 11% of children with congenital CMV identified through population screening, all by 1 year; all impairment detected after this age was mild. Nonprimary infections contributed substantially to the burden of childhood congenital CMV disease.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Background: HIV-infected women not requiring treatment for their own health usually receive short-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy. Little is known about the effect of this on response to HAART in subsequent pregnancies. Methods: We analysed data from the UK and Ireland's National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood for 2000-2010. Analyses were restricted to live births among women not on ART at conception but receiving antenatal HAART. We compared risk of detectable viral load at delivery and mother-to-child transmission in two pregnancy groups: 'ART-naive' and 'HAART-experienced' (≥7 days of HAART during previous pregnancy). Multivariable analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results: There were 5,372 pregnancies in the ART-naive group and 605 in the HAART-experienced group. Overall, there was weak evidence of an increased risk of detectable viral load in the HAART-experienced group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.27; 95% CI 1.01, 1.60); however, the increased risk was apparent only among women who previously received non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HAART (aOR 1.81; 95% CI 1.25, 2.63), and not among those with previous protease-inhibitor-based HAART exposure (aOR 1.08; 95% CI 0.81, 1.45). There was no difference in mother-to-child transmission risk between the ART-naive and HAART-experienced groups (aOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.10, 1.78), although the number of transmissions was small. Conclusions: We found no increased risk of detectable viral load at delivery among women exposed to short-course, protease-inhibitor-based HAART during a previous pregnancy. However, women with prior exposure to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HAART appeared to be at increased risk of not adequately suppressing the virus. These findings highlight the need for careful management of HIV-infected women presenting with repeat pregnancies.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Antiviral therapy
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    Claire Thorne · Claire L Townsend

    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe. Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored. Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75 p<0.01 for 1(st)/2(nd) trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.63 p<0.01 for 3(rd) trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07-3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11-5.76 respectively). In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV-positive women. Bacterial vaginosis testing and treatment may reduce vulnerability to cervical abnormalities.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · PLoS ONE
  • Claire L Townsend · Catherine S Peckham · Claire Thorne
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of HIV-1 transmission from mother to infant through breastfeeding is well established, but less attention has been paid to the implications of other viruses present in breast milk. Acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) through breastfeeding has been reported, but the risk of transmission appears to be lower than for HIV-1. For other viruses, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), transmission through breastfeeding is common and well documented, and infection can result in short- or long-term consequences in the infant. For hepatitis B and C viruses, although mother-to-child transmission occurs, breastfeeding does not appear to be a major route of transmission. In this chapter, the implications of these viruses identified in breast milk are described.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and predictors of switching and interrupting treatment among infants starting ART across Europe. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Nine cohorts from 13 European countries contributed data on HIV-infected infants born 1996-2008 and starting ART before age 12 months. Logistic and linear regression, and competing risks methods were used to assess predictors of virological (viral load <400 copies/ml) and immunological (change in CD4 Z-score) response, switching to second-line ART and treatment interruptions with viral load less than 400 copies/ml. RESULTS: A total of 437 infants were followed for median 5.9 (interquartile range 2.3-7.6) years after starting ART; 30% had an AIDS diagnosis prior to ART initiation. 53% had suppressed viral load <400 copies/ml at 12 months in 1996-1999, increasing to 77% in 2004-2008. Virological and immunological responses at 12 months varied by initial ART type (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively), with four-drug nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens being superior [virological response <400 copies/ml adjusted odds ratio = 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-7.23; mean increase in CD4 Z-score coefficient = 0.64, 95% CI 0.10-1.17] to both three-drug NNRTI-based (reference) and boosted protease inhibitor regimens which were similar. Rates of switching to second-line ART were lower among children starting four-drug NNRTI-based and boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens compared with three-drug NNRTI regimens (P = 0.03). Sixty five percent of infants remained on first-line ART without treatment interruption after 5 years. CONCLUSION: Effective and prolonged responses to first-line ART can now be achieved in infants starting early ART outside trial settings. Superior responses to four-drug NNRTI compared with boosted protease inhibitor or three-drug NNRTI regimens need further evaluation, as does treatment interruption following early ART.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · AIDS
  • S. Tariq · C. L. Townsend · M. Cortina-Borja

    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of women in resource-rich settings are prescribed zidovudine (ZDV)-sparing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in pregnancy. We compare ZDV-sparing with ZDV-containing HAART in relation to maternal viral load at delivery, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, and congenital abnormality. This is an analysis of data from the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood and the European Collaborative Study. Data on 7573 singleton births to diagnosed HIV-infected women between January 2000 and June 2009 were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Overall, 15.8% (1199 of 7573) of women received ZDV-sparing HAART, with increasing use between 2000 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Nearly a fifth (18.4%) of women receiving ZDV-sparing HAART in pregnancy had a detectable viral load at delivery compared with 28.6% of women on ZDV-containing HAART [AOR 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72 to 1.14, P = 0.4]. MTCT rates were 0.8% and 0.9% in the ZDV-sparing and ZDV-containing groups, respectively (AOR 1.81; 95% CI: 0.77 to 4.26, P = 0.2). The congenital abnormality rate was the same in both groups (2.7%, AOR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.66 to 1.45, P = 0.9), with no significant difference between the groups in a subanalysis of pregnancies with first trimester HAART exposure (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.30, P = 0.4). We found no difference in risk of detectable viral load at delivery, MTCT, or congenital abnormality when comparing ZDV-sparing with ZDV-containing HAART. With increasing use of ZDV-sparing HAART, continued monitoring of pregnancy outcomes and long-term consequences of in utero exposure to these drugs is required.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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    ABSTRACT: In the United Kingdom (UK), the number of pregnancies in HIV-infected women has increased dramatically over the last decade, but attitudes towards childbearing among infected women have not been previously described. The aim of this survey was to explore fertility intentions among HIV-infected women and to assess the effect of HIV treatment and interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) on these intentions. HIV-infected women, aged between 16 and 49 years, attending one of seven HIV clinics in the UK between July 2003 and January 2004 were asked to complete a questionnaire. Information on demographic factors, HIV test history, pregnancy history and fertility intentions (i.e., desire for children) was collected. Eighty-six per cent of eligible women (450/521) completed the questionnaire. Three quarters of women (336/450) reported that they wanted (more) children. Forty-five per cent (201/450) reported that HIV diagnosis did not affect their fertility intentions, 11% (50/450) that it made them want children sooner, and 10% (44/450) did not know or reported other views. About one third of women (155/450) decided they no longer wanted children after their HIV diagnosis, but 41% of these (59/144) had changed their mind following advances in HIV management and treatment. Factors associated with an increase in fertility intentions after advances in HIV management and treatment were being in a partnership and having fewer than two children. In this survey of HIV-infected women, the majority wanted children and women were more likely to want children after improvements in HIV management and treatment. These findings highlight the need for specialised family planning and reproductive health services targeting this population.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · AIDS Care
  • Claire L Townsend · Catherine S Peckham · Pat A Tookey
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the presentation and management of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) identified through routine clinical investigations, and ascertain outcome in early childhood. Active population-based surveillance. UK and Ireland. Infants born in 2001-2002 with confirmed or suspected congenital CMV infection were reported through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, and clinicians completed questionnaires on presentation, diagnosis, management and subsequent outcome. 86 confirmed and 70 possible cases of congenital CMV infection were reported. Over a third (27/72) of singleton infants with confirmed and 44% (27/61) with possible congenital infection were preterm (<37 weeks gestation). Among confirmed cases, 75% (64/85) presented with neonatal manifestations compatible with congenital CMV, over half (34/64) of whom had neurological signs; 17 infants were treated with gancyclovir. Among confirmed cases with information on outcome, 31% (24/78) were developing normally, 18% (14/78) had mild, 24% (19/78) moderate and 14% (11/78) severe sequelae, and 13% (10/78) had died. Median age at follow-up among survivors was 18 months (IQR 15-22 months). Children with neonatal CMV manifestations were significantly more likely than those without to have moderate or severe outcomes (including death) (60%, 36/60, vs 22%, 4/18, p=0.001). 27% of survivors (17/63) had bilateral hearing loss. The number of confirmed cases of diagnosed congenital CMV reported in this study was lower than expected, highlighting the need for early and appropriate investigations when congenital infection is suspected. Due to the unexpectedly high proportion of preterm infants, resulting from differential case ascertainment, it was difficult to distinguish prematurity and CMV-related symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition
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    ABSTRACT: Although mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates are at an all-time low in Western Europe, potentially preventable transmissions continue to occur. Duration of antenatal combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with MTCT risk. Data on pregnant HIV-infected women enrolled in the Western and Central European sites of the European Collaborative Study between January 2000 and July 2009 were analysed. The proportion of women receiving no antenatal ART or 1-13 days of treatment was investigated, and associated factors explored using logistic regression models. Of 2,148 women, 142 (7%) received no antenatal ART, decreasing from 8% in 2000-2003 to 5% in 2004-2009 (χ(2)=8.73; P<0.01). A further 41 (2%) received 1-13 days of ART. One-third (64/171) of women with 'insufficient' (0 or 1-13 days) antenatal ART had a late HIV diagnosis (in the third trimester or intrapartum), but half (85/171) were diagnosed before conception. Pre-term delivery <34 weeks was associated with receipt of no and 1-13 days antenatal ART (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 2.9 [P<0.01] and 4.5 [P<0.01], respectively). History of injecting drug use was associated with an increased risk of no ART (adjusted OR 2.9; P<0.01) and severe symptomatic HIV disease with a decreased risk (adjusted OR 0.2; P<0.01). MTCT rates were 1.1% (15/1,318) among women with ≥14 days antenatal ART and 7.4% (10/136) among those with insufficient ART. Over the last 10 years, around one in 11 women in this study received insufficient antenatal ART, accounting for 40% of MTCTs. One-half of these women were diagnosed before conception, suggesting disengagement from care.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Antiviral therapy

Publication Stats

821 Citations
118.24 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2014
    • University College London
      • Institute of Child Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Ukraine
      Kievo, Kyiv City, Ukraine
  • 2008-2011
    • Institute for Child Health Policy (ICHP)
      • MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health
      Колумбия, Tennessee, United States