[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on TaqMan was established and evaluated for quantitative detection of porcine teschoviruses (PTVs). A pair of primers and a TaqMan probe targeting on the highly conserved sequence of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of one to 11 serotypes of PTV were designed. Standard plasmid DNA containing PCR amplification of the 5'-UTR were constructed and used to develop the real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that the real-time RT-PCR was specific for detection of PTV with a detection limit of 10 copies/μL, but not for porcine parvovirus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, pseudorabies virus, classical swine fever virus. The coefficient of variation of inter-assay and intra-assay were less than 3 %. A total of 91 clinical samples were tested by the real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation (OIE 2008) and positive rates were 79.12 % (72/91) and 57.14 % (48/91), respectively. In conclusion, the developed real-time RT-PCR assay was an effective method for detection and quantification of PTV in fields or organs of infected pigs.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Tropical Animal Health and Production
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A detailed analysis of the Ns1/Vp1Vp2 genome region of Porcine parvovirus (PPV) strains isolated from vaccinated animals was performed. We found many inconsistencies in the phylogenetic trees of these viral isolates, such as low statistical support and strains with long branches. Thus, we used distance-based and phylogenetic methods to distinguish de facto recombinants from spurious recombination signals. We found a mosaic virus in which the Ns1 gene was acquired from one PPV clade and the Vp1Vp2 gene was acquired from a distinct phylogenetic clade. We also described the interclade mosaic structure of the Vp1Vp2 gene of a reference strain. If recombination is an adaptive mechanism over the course of PPV evolution, we would likely observe increasing numbers of chimeric strains over time. However, when PPV sequences isolated from 1964 to 2011 were analyzed, only two chimeric strains were detected. Thus, PPV recombination is an independent event resulting from close contact between animals housed in high-density conditions.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A real-time polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green was developed for the detection and quantification of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in porcine tissues; the method uses two primers specific for the 3D gene. The detection limit of this assay was 22 gene copies/reaction, equivalent to 0.001 TCID(50)/ml. The assay was linear over a 10(7) dilution range of template concentrations and was specific for EMCV; it did not amplify other porcine pathogens (porcine circovirus 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory virus, classical swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus, or porcine teschovirus). This assay detected EMCV titers at least 10(4) smaller than the routine PCR assay. To increase our understand of EMCV pathogenesis, the new method was used to quantify levels of EMCV genome in various tissues of artificially challenged sows and piglets. The virus was found mainly in the heart, lung, spleen, kidney, and endometrium of sows, and mainly in the heart, spleen, lung, and testis of fetuses. The real-time PCR method described here should be useful for the study of EMCV infection and distribution in pigs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A rapid detection assay based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been developed for detecting caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAEV) proviral DNA. The LAMP assay utilized a set of five primers designed against highly conserved sequences located within the p25 gene region. The assay successfully detected CAEV proviral DNA in total DNA extracts originating from cell culture, whole blood samples and separated PBMCs. There was no cross-reaction with the negative control. Amplification was monitored using a Loopamp real-time turbidimeter; turbidity and the corresponding time were recorded. Amplification from CAEV-Shanxi DNA was detected as early as 17 min, with a maximum sensitivity of 0.0001 TCID(50), reached at 32 min. Sixty-eight animal blood samples were tested using AGID, PCR and LAMP assay, and the positive rates were 30.9 %, 33.8 % and 47.1 %, respectively. Whole blood can be used directly, eliminating the need for separation of PBMCs and nucleic acid extraction, reducing the overall procedure time to approximately 80 min. Therefore, the LAMP assay provides a specific and sensitive means for detecting CAEV proviral DNA in a simple, fast, and cost-effective manner and should be useful in eradication programs and epidemiological studies. Furthermore, the LAMP assay can be performed in less-well-equipped laboratories as well as in the field.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) can cause myocarditis, respiratory failure, reproductive failure, and mortality in pregnant sows, fetuses, and ablactating piglets. Diseases caused by EMCV currently affect the swine industry worldwide. A virus was isolated from organs of dead piglets that presented with acute myocarditis in northern China. The production of a specific cytopathic effect on susceptible cells and the results of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, PCR, electron microscopy (EM), and sequencing indicated that the pathogen was EMCV; the strain was named HB10. Other pathogenic agents causing myocarditis and death were excluded as possible pathogenic agents. Phylogenetic analyses of the capsid coding region and the VP3/VP1 genes using the neighbour-joining method revealed that EMCV isolates cluster into two groups (groups 1 and 2) with two sub-clusters within group 1 (group 1a and b). HB10 belongs to group 1a, along with strains CBNU, GX0601, BJC3, NJ08, and BEL-2887A/91. Five strains isolated from Sus scrofa belong to group 2. The results of this and previous studies indicate that HB10 and other EMCV strains cause myocarditis of pigs in China.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases