Michiie Sakamoto

Keio University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (299)1240.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis progresses from dysplastic nodules to early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) and to advanced HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed histopathological features of eHCC. We investigated 66 small vaguely nodular lesions resected from 40 patients. The degree of cellular and structural atypia and stromal invasion were assessed. The immunohistochemical expression of HCC-related markers adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), Bmi-1, CD34, and h-caldesmon were evaluated. Of the 66 nodules, 10 were diagnosed as low-grade dysplastic nodules (LGDN), 10 as high-grade dysplastic nodules (HGDN), and 46 as eHCC. Among the 46 eHCCs, 18 nodules (39.1%) showed marked stromal invasion and/or the presence of the scirrhous component and were subclassified as high-grade eHCC (HGeHCC). The remaining 28 eHCCs, which lacked these features, were subclassified as low-grade eHCC (LGeHCC) and were examined further. HGeHCC showed high levels of cellular and structural atypia and large tumor size. The immunohistochemical expression of CAP2 and the area of sinusoidal vascularization showed increases from LGDN to HGeHCC. The density of arterial tumor vessels was high in HGeHCC compared with other nodule types. Cluster analysis of these parameters subclassified 65 nodules into HGeHCC-dominant, LGeHCC and HGDN-dominant, and LGDN-dominant groups. These results indicate the increased malignant potential of HGeHCC and suggest that it is already a transitional stage to advanced HCC. We consider that our grading classification system may be valuable for considering treatment strategies for eHCCs around 2 cm in diameter. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cancer Science
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    ABSTRACT: Neoplastic cancer cells and cancer stroma (including infiltrating immune cells) determine the biology and prognosis of cancer. Various types of adaptive and innate immune cells are known to infiltrate the cancer stroma. However, the patterns and spatial distribution of immune cell infiltration as well as their association with tumor histology remain poorly understood. To address these issues, we comprehensively analyzed the infiltrating immune cells present in lung adenocarcinoma. The principal types of both adaptive and innate infiltrating immune cells were immunohistochemically evaluated in the predominant histological components of 111 lung adenocarcinomas. The same analysis was also carried out on 143 samples of histological subtypes making up more than 20% of tumors. As a result, plasma cells and B cells with interfollicular distribution were almost exclusively observed in invasive histological subtypes, while increased number of mast cells were observed in noninvasive histological subtypes. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct immunosubtypes (CD8, mast cell, macrophage/dendritic cell, and plasma cell subtypes) based on the infiltrating immune cell profiles. These immunosubtypes correlated with histological subtypes, and univariate and multivariate analyses identified the plasma cell subtype as an independent negative prognostic factor. These plasma cells may be one of the major producers of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL35 in cancer stroma.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Most biliary atresia (BA) patients suffer from liver fibrosis and often require liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel fibrosis marker for BA patients aged <1 year-the infant BA liver fibrosis (iBALF) score-subsequent to the previously reported fibrosis marker for BA patients aged ≥1 year. Methods: From three institutions for pediatric surgery, BA patients and their native liver histology examinations performed at the age of <1 year were retrospectively identified and assigned to a development cohort (58 patients and 73 examinations) or validation cohort (92 patients and 117 examinations) according to their institutions. Histological fibrosis stages (F0-F4), blood test results, and clinical information at the time of liver histology examination were reviewed. The iBALF score was determined using multivariate ordered logistic regression analysis and was assessed for its associations with histological fibrosis stages. Results: The iBALF score equation was composed of natural logarithms, including serum total bilirubin level, blood platelet counts, and days of age. The score revealed a strong correlation with fibrosis stage (r=0.80 and 0.73 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively; P<0.001). The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves for diagnosing each fibrosis stage were 0.86-0.94 in the development cohort and 0.86-0.90 in the validation cohort (P<0.001), indicating good diagnostic power. In addition, no patient with an iBALF score >6 (equivalent to F4) at the initial surgery survived with their native liver at 1 year of age (n=9). Conclusions: The iBALF score that was developed was a good noninvasive marker of native liver fibrosis for BA patients aged <1 year.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Histopathological parameters and molecular markers are widely accepted as useful predictors of tumor aggressiveness in hepatocellular carcinoma. However, few studies have analyzed immunohistochemical profiles comprehensively in one series, a fact that has resulted in fragmentation of information that could be applied in clinical practice. We conducted immunohistochemical expression analysis of biliary/stem cell markers (cytokeratin 19, sal-like protein 4, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, CD133), Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related molecules (β-catenin, glutamine synthetase), p53, and cell proliferation markers (Ki67, mitosis) in 162 hepatocellular carcinomas surgically resected from 142 patients and analyzed the results with respect to clinicopathological features. Immunohistochemical analysis broadly identified three groups: the biliary/stem cell marker-positive group, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related marker-positive group, and the biliary/stem cell marker- and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related marker-negative group. p53 was frequently positive in the biliary/stem cell marker-positive group, but it was rarely positive in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related marker-positive group. The biliary/stem cell marker-positive group exhibited poor tumor differentiation, increased frequency of portal vein invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis, and highly proliferative activity. In contrast, the biliary/stem cell marker- and Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related marker-negative group exhibited better tumor differentiation, a decreased frequency of portal vein invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis, and less proliferative activity. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related marker-positive group showed neither tendency. The biliary/stem cell marker-positive group had the shortest time to recurrence among the three groups. Immunohistochemical profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma reflects tumor aggressiveness and suggests the potential efficacy of immunohistochemistry-based subclassification of hepatocellular carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Human pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Current novel imaging techniques in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the latest evidence in this field, was discussed at the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE) meeting held in Taipei, Taiwan, in July 2014. Based on their expertise in a specific area of research, the novel imaging group comprised 12 participants from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and China and it included 10 abdominal radiologists, one hepatologist, and one pathologist. The expert participants discussed topics related to HCC imaging that were divided into four categories: (i) detection method, (ii) diagnostic method, (iii) evaluation method, and (iv) functional method. Consensus was reached on 10 statements; specific comments on each statement were provided to explain the rationale for the voting results and to suggest future research directions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the current American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer staging system (seventh edition) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), tumor size was excluded, and periductal invasion was added as a new tumor classification-defining factor. The objective of the current report was to propose a new staging system for ICC that would be better for stratifying the survival of patients based on data from the nationwide Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan database. Methods: Of 756 patients who underwent surgical resection for ICC between 2000 and 2005, multivariate analyses of the clinicopathologic factors of 419 patients who had complete data sets were performed to elucidate relevant factors for inclusion in a new tumor classification and staging system. Results: Overall survival data were best stratified using a cutoff value of 2 cm using a minimal P value approach to discriminate patient survival. The 5-year survival rate of 15 patients who had ICC measuring ≤2 cm in greatest dimension without lymph node metastasis or vascular invasion was 100%, and this cohort was defined as T1. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for 267 patients with lymph node-negative and metastasis-negative (N0M0) disease indicated that the number of tumors, the presence arterial invasion, and the presence major biliary invasion were independent and significant prognostic factors. The proposed new system, which included tumor number, tumor size, arterial invasion, and major biliary invasion for tumor classification, provided good stratification of overall patient survival according to disease stage. Macroscopic periductal invasion was associated with major biliary invasion and an inferior prognosis. Conclusions: The proposed new staging system, which includes a tumor cutoff size of 2 cm and major biliary invasion, may be useful for assigning patients to surgery. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma is one of the lethal malignant tumors worldwide. Previously we reported that adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2), which is a well-conserved actin regulator, was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma; however, CAP2 expression in other clinical cancers remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to clarify the clinicopathological significance of CAP2 overexpression in malignant melanoma. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that many melanoma cells exhibited diffuse cytoplasmic expression of CAP2, whereas no normal melanocytes showed detectable immunostaining for CAP2. A high level of CAP2 expression was seen in 14 of 50 melanomas and was significantly correlated with greater tumor thickness and nodular melanoma subtypes. In addition, a high level of CAP2 expression was associated with poor overall survival in univariate and multivariate analyses. For 13 patients, samples of primary and metastatic melanoma tissue were available: four patients exhibited higher levels of CAP2 expression in metastatic tumor compared to the primary site, whereas no patient showed lower levels of CAP2 expression in metastatic melanomas. Our findings show that CAP2 overexpression is a novel prognostic marker in malignant melanoma and that CAP2 expression seems to increase stepwise during tumor progression, suggesting the involvement of CAP2 in the aggressive behavior of malignant melanoma.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pathology International

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (MS) provides secondary ion images that reflect distributions of substances with sub-micrometer spatial resolution. To evaluate the use of time-of-flight secondary ion MS to capture subcellular chemical changes in a tissue specimen, we visualized cellular damage showing a three-zone distribution in mouse liver tissue injured by acetaminophen-overdose. First, we selected two types of ion peaks related to the hepatocyte nucleus and cytoplasm using control mouse liver. Acetaminophen-overdosed mouse liver was then classified into three areas using the time-of-flight secondary ion MS image of the two types of peaks, which roughly corresponded to established histopathology features. The ion peaks related to the cytoplasm decreased as the injury became more severe, and their origin was assumed to be mostly glycogen, based on comparison with periodic acid-Schiff staining images and reference compound spectra. This indicated that the time-of-flight secondary ion MS image of the acetaminophen-overdosed mouse liver represented the chemical changes mainly corresponding to glycogen depletion on a subcellular scale. In addition, this technique also provided information on lipid species related to the injury. These results suggest that time-of-flight secondary ion MS has potential utility in histopathological applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Analytical Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NACRT) is increasingly used in patients with a potentially or borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and it has been shown to improve survival and reduce locoregional metastatic disease. It is rare for patients with PDA to have a pathological complete response (pCR) to NACRT, but such patients reportedly have a good prognosis. We report the clinicopathological findings of two cases of pCR to NACRT in PDA. Both patients underwent pancreatectomy after NACRT (5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, cisplatin, and radiation). Neither had residual invasive carcinoma and both showed extensive fibrotic regions with several ducts regarded as having pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 3/carcinoma in situ in their post-therapy specimens. It is noteworthy that both patients had a history of a second primary cancer. They both had comparatively good outcomes: one lived for 9 years after the initial pancreatectomy and the other is still alive without recurrence after 2 years.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Keio Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Liver-specific MRI is a fast-growing field, with technological and protocol advancements providing more robust imaging and allowing a greater depth of information per examination. This article reports the evidence for, and expert thinking on, current challenges in liver-specific MRI, as discussed at the 7th International Forum for Liver MRI, which was held in Shanghai, China, in October 2013. Topics discussed included the role of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in the differentiation of focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma and small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from small intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (in patients with chronic liver disease), the differentiation of low-grade dysplastic nodule (DN) from pre-malignant high-grade DN and early HCC, and treatment planning and assessment of treatment response for patients with HCC and colorectal liver metastasis. Optimization of the gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI protocol to gain robust arterial and hepatobiliary phase images was also discussed. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrates added value for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and shows promise in a number of new indications, including regional liver functional assessment and patient monitoring after therapy; however, more data are needed in some areas, and further developments are needed to translate cutting-edge techniques into clinical practice. • Liver-specific MRI is a fast-growing field, with many technological and protocol advancements. • Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrates value for detecting and characterizing focal liver lesions. • Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI shows promise in regional functional assessment and patient monitoring. • Further developments are needed to translate cutting-edge techniques into clinical practice.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · European Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Region of interest (ROI) coding is a useful function for many applications. JPEG2000 supports ROI coding and can decode ROIs preferentially regardless of the shape and number of the regions. However, if the number of regions is quite large, the ROI coding performance of JPEG2000 declines because the code-stream includes many useless non-ROI codes. This paper proposes a wavelet-based ROI coding method suited for multiple ROIs. The proposed wavelet transform does not access any non-ROIs when transforming the ROIs. Additionally, the proposed method eliminates the need for unnecessary coding of the bits in the higher bit planes of non-ROI regions by adding an ROI map to the code-stream. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a higher peak signal-to-noise ratio than the ROI coding of JPEG2000. The proposed method can be applied to both max-shift and scaling-based ROI coding.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics Communications and Computer Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated our new strategy for treating suspected T2 gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) using a laparoscopic approach. We examined 19 patients with suspected T2 GBC who were treated laparoscopically (LS group) between December 2007 and December 2013; these patients were compared with 14 patients who underwent open surgery (OS group). Laparoscopic staging was initially performed to exclude factors making the patients ineligible for curative resection. Intraoperative pathological examination of the surgical margin of the cystic duct was performed prior to laparoscopic gallbladder bed resection, and pathological examination was again performed to confirm the presence of carcinoma and the depth of tumor invasion. Surgery was completed when the pathological findings indicated that the patient was cancer free. Lymph node dissection was performed according to the depth of tumor invasion. None of the patients required conversion to laparotomy. For three patients with benign lesions, only gallbladder bed resection was required. Additional regional lymph node dissection was performed in 16 patients in the LS group. The mean operative time (309 vs. 324 min, p = 0.755) and mean number of dissected lymph nodes (12.6 vs. 10.2, p = 0.361) were not significantly different between the LS and OS groups. The intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower (104 vs. 584 mL, p = 0.002) and the postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter (9.1 vs. 21.6 days, p = 0.002) for LS patients than for those in the OS group. In the LS group, one patient developed postoperative pneumonia, but all patients survived without recurrence after a mean follow-up of 37 months. Our strategy for suspected T2 gallbladder GBC is safe and useful, avoids unnecessary procedures, and is associated with similar oncologic outcomes as the open method.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during gastric carcinogenesis. Single-CpG-resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Infinium assay was performed on 109 samples of non-cancerous gastric mucosa (N) and 105 samples of tumorous tissue (T). DNA methylation alterations in T samples relative to N samples were evident for 3,861 probes. Since N can be at the precancerous stage according to the field cancerization concept, unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on DNA methylation levels was performed on N samples (βN) using the 3,861 probes. This divided the 109 patients into three clusters: A (n=20), B1 (n=20) and B2 (n=69). Gastric carcinomas belonging to Cluster B1 showed tumor aggressiveness more frequently than those belonging to Clusters A and B2. The recurrence-free and overall survival rates of patients in Cluster B1 were lower than those of patients in Clusters A and B2. Sixty hallmark genes for which βN characterized the epigenetic clustering were identified. We then focused on DNA methylation levels in T samples (βT) of the 60 hallmark genes. In 48 of them, including the ADAM23, OLFM4, AMER2, GPSM1, CCL28, DTX1 and COL23A1 genes, βT was again significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness, and the recurrence-free and/or overall survival rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that βT was a significant prognostic factor, being independent of clinicopathological parameters. These data indicate that DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous stage may be inherited by gastric carcinomas themselves, thus determining tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of new digital imaging technologies including high-throughput slide scanners is making a very compelling case as part of the clinical workflow. Tools developed for morphometric image analysis are accelerating the transition of pathology into a more quantitative science. The system for detection of regions suspected to be cancerous in gastric and colorectal tissue is already available. There is a real need for not only cancer detection but also quantification of histological features, because quantitative morphological characteristics can include important diagnostic and prognostic information. If an association between quantitative features and clinical findings is indicated, quantification of morphological features would be extremely useful to select the best treatment. Image measurement technology also has the potential for investigative pathology. We have developed a prototype system for both quantification of morphological features and automated identification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within whole slide images (WSI) of liver biopsy based on image recognition and measurement techniques. Our system displays quantified cell and tissue features as histogram, bar graph, and heat map on the screen. Displaying all features in such a unified visualization makes it easy to interpret quantitative feature. In this paper, we present a prototype designed specifically for morphological feature visualization in an easy-to-understand manner.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
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    ABSTRACT: Recent breakthroughs in computer vision and digital microscopy have prompted the application of such technologies in cancer diagnosis, especially in histopathological image analysis. Earlier, an attempt to classify hepatocellular carcinoma images based on nuclear and structural features has been carried out on a set of surgical resected samples. Here, we proposed methods to enhance the process and improve the classification performance. First, we segmented the histological components of the liver tissues and generated several masked images. By utilizing the masked images, some set of new features were introduced, producing three sets of features consisting nuclei, trabecular and tissue changes features. Furthermore, we extended the classification process by using biopsy resected samples in addition to the surgical samples. Experiments by using support vector machine (SVM) classifier with combinations of features and sample types showed that the proposed methods improve the classification rate in HCC detection for about 1-3%. Moreover, detection rate of low-grades cancer increased when the new features were appended in the classification process, although the rate was worsen in the case of undifferentiated tumors. The masking process increased the reliability of extracted nuclei features. The additional of new features improved the system especially for early HCC detection. Likewise, the combination of surgical and biopsy samples as training data could also improve the classification rates. Therefore, the methods will extend the support for pathologists in the HCC diagnosis.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
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    ABSTRACT: Histological evaluation of fibrosis after a liver biopsy is crucial for evaluating the pathology of patients with chronic liver disease. We have reported image analysis allowing quantification of liver fibrosis using Elastica van Gieson (EVG) stained whole slide images (WSIs) of liver biopsy specimens [1]. In this paper, a whole slide image analysis system for quantification of liver fibrosis was developed to apply a large number of cases in routine practice.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam)
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    ABSTRACT: High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has recently been identified as an important mediator of various kinds of acute and chronic inflammation. The protein encoded by the box-A domain of the HMGB1 gene is known to act as a competitive inhibitor of HMGB1. In this study, we investigated whether box-A gene transfer results in box-A protein production in rats and assessed therapeutic efficacy in vivo using an acute liver failure (ALF) model. Three types of adenovirus vectors were constructed-a wild type and two mutants-and a mutant vector was then selected based on the secretion from HeLa cells. The secreted protein was subjected to a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production inhibition test in vitro. The vector was injected via the portal vein in healthy Wistar rats to confirm box-A protein production in the liver. The vector was then injected via the portal vein in rats with ALF. Western blot analysis showed enhanced expression of box-A protein in HeLa cells transfected with one of the mutant vectors. The culture supernatant from HeLa cells transfected with the vector inhibited TNF-α production from macrophages. Expression of box-A protein was confirmed in the transfected liver at 72 h after transfection. Transfected rats showed decreased hepatic enzymes, plasma HMGB1, and hepatic TNF-α messenger RNA levels, and histologic findings and survival were significantly improved. HMGB1 box-A gene transfer results in box-A protein production in the liver and appears to have a beneficial effect on ALF in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Surgical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims In the current era of emerging molecular targeted drugs, it is necessary to identify before treatment the specific subclass to which a tumour belongs. Gadoxetic acid is a liver-specific contrast agent that is preferentially taken up by hepatocytes. Therefore, gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) should provide precise molecular information about hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the transporters of gadoxetic acid in HCC comprehensively and to analyse the molecular regulatory mechanism of such transporters. Methods Expression levels of transporters, transcriptional factors and Wnt target genes in clinical samples were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. LiCl treatment of the HCC cell line KYN-2 was conducted in vitro to assess the effects of Wnt signalling activity. Results Comprehensive analyses of transporter mRNAs and protein expressions revealed that the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) had the strongest correlation with tumour enhancement in hepatobiliary-phase images of EOB-MRI. Association analysis with OATP1B3 expression revealed significant correlation with the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Further, LiCl treatment induced OATP1B3 mRNA expression in KYN-2 cells, indicating a strong association between OATP1B3 expression and Wnt/β-catenin signalling. The sensitivity and specificity to predict Wnt/β-catenin-activated HCC using tumour enhancement in EOB-MRI were 78.9% and 81.7%, respectively. Conclusions OATP1B3 was confirmed as the most important transporter mediating HCC enhancement in EOB-MRI. OATP1B3 expression showed a strong association with the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes, therefore, OATP1B3-upregulated HCC likely represents a specific subclass of Wnt/β-catenin-activated HCC.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We have been developing a prototype system for the automatic detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from whole slide images (WSIs) of liver biopsy based on image analysis techniques. In this paper, we present two color-related topics of this system: color correction and the calculation of color-related features of cytoplasm. A WSI-basis color correction method was implemented for the prototype system. We tested the color correction using more than 300 WISs, and it was confirmed that the color correction works well and stably. In addition, it was found that the success rate of nuclei detection significantly increaseed due to color correction. As for color-related features, we propose a method to calculate the representative color of cytoplasm and the clearness of cytoplasm. It was found that there was slight difference between the distributions of the representative colors of HCC and non-cancer tissues. In addition, there was slight correlation between the clearness of cytoplasm and nuclei density, which implies a promising role of the clearness index in a nuclei-based HCC detection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,240.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992-2015
    • Keio University
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Surgery
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2012
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      • Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2010
    • Kinki University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2002
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Pathology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1989-2001
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      • Center for Cancer Control and Information Services
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2000
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Division of Surgery
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1990
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Surgery
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan