[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationships between uric acid and chronic disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been studied in adults. However, whether these relationships exist in adolescents is unknown. We randomly selected 8,005 subjects who were between 10 to 15 years old at baseline. Measurements of uric acid were used to predict the future occurrence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In total, 5,748 adolescents were enrolled and followed for a median of 7.2 years. Using cutoff points of uric acid for males and females (7.3 and 6.2 mg/dl, respectively), a high level of uric acid was either the second or third best predictor for hypertension in both genders (hazard ratio: 2.920 for males, 5.222 for females; p<0.05). However, uric acid levels failed to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, and only predicted metabolic syndrome in males (hazard ratio: 1.658; p<0.05). The same results were found in multivariate adjusted analysis. In conclusion, a high level of uric acid indicated a higher likelihood of developing hypertension in both genders and metabolic syndrome in males after 10 years of follow-up. However, uric acid levels did not affect the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in both genders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in children aged 4-48 months with atopic dermatitis.
The design of this study was a two-center, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of L. rhamnosus in children aged 4-48 months with atopic dermatitis diagnosed using Hanifin and Rajka criteria and with a Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) ≥ 15 at enrollment. The duration of this study was 8 weeks with a total of five visits. The enrolled patients were allocated into either a treatment group (one ComProbi capsule containing L. rhamnosus a day) or a control group (one capsule of placebo a day) at a ratio of 1:1. The primary endpoint was to compare the mean change from baseline in SCORAD after 8 weeks of treatment. The other secondary end points were to compare the following: the mean changes from baseline in SCORAD at postbaseline visits, the frequency and total amount of the use of corticosteroids during the 8-week treatment, the frequency of atopic dermatitis and the symptom-free duration, the mean changes from baseline in Infant Dermatitis Quality of Life Questionnaire at Week 4 and Week 8, and the mean changes from baseline in the Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaire at Week 4 and Week 8.
The mean changes in SCORAD from baseline at Week 8 was -21.69 ± 16.56 in the L. rhamnosus group and -12.35 ± 12.82 in the placebo group for the intent-to-treat population (p = 0.014). For the per-protocol population, the mean change of SCORAD from baseline was -23.20 ± 15.24 in the L. rhamnosus group and -12.35 ± 12.82 in the placebo group (p = 0.003). Significant differences were demonstrated between groups at Week 8 in intensity in the intent-to-treat population and per-protocol population. Throughout the period, the amount of topical corticosteroids used showed no difference between groups. No significant difference was noted in the overall symptom-free durations compared with the placebo group. Infant Dermatitis Quality of Life Questionnaires and Dermatitis Family Impact Questionnaires scores improved significantly at Week 4 and Week 8 but did not reach statistical significance. Adverse events were documented in 14/33 patients in the L. rhamnosus group (42.42%, 35 events) and in 15/33 placebo patients (45.45%, 37 events).
The results of this study indicated that L. rhamnosus was effective in decreasing symptoms of atopic dermatitis after an 8-week treatment by comparing the mean change of SCORAD from baseline with a placebo (p < 0.05). The reduction in SCORAD resulted from a consistent decrease in all components of SCORAD. Patients who took L. rhamnosus for 8 weeks expressed less SCORAD in the three components: area of affected skin, intensity of atopic dermatitis, and patient symptoms, with a significant decrease in the mean change of intensity from baseline compared with placebo.
Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/purpose:
House dust mite (HDM) is well known as one of the major indoor allergens that trigger allergic inflammation, especially asthma, and accounts for 85% of all cases. So far, asthma has been thought of as a condition of imbalance between T helper (Th)1 and Th2. Fungal immunomodulatory protein-Flammulina velutipes (FIP-fve) has been seemingly demonstrated to modulate the response to Th1 cytokine production. The aim of this study was to investigate if the oral administration of FIP-fve can inhibit HDM-induced asthma inflammation in the mouse model.
We divided the mice (female BALB/c, 4-6 weeks) into four groups: the prevention group, which consisted of mice sensitized by HDM (intraperitoneally on Day 1, Day 7, and Day 14, and intranasally on Day 14, Day 17, Day 21, Day 24, and Day 27) fed with FIP-fve from Day 1 to Day 14; the treatment group, which comprised mice that received treatment from Day 14 to Day 28; the positive control (PC, sensitized by HDM fed without FIP-fve) group; and the negative control group (NC, nonsensitized). Airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine challenge was determined using whole-body barometric plethysmography. In addition, cytokines were analyzed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum. Histopathological studies and Liu's staining method in mice lungs were also performed.
The results showed that both pre- and posttreated FIP-fve groups had significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness compared with the PC group after methacholine challenge. In addition, a significantly decreased level of HDM-specific immunoglobulin E in serum and decreased production of Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were observed in these two FIP-fve fed groups. Moreover, more decreased amounts of infiltrating inflammatory cells were present in the lungs of FIP-fve fed groups than those of the PC group.
Oral FIP-fve had an anti-inflammatory effect on the acute phase of the airway inflammatory process induced by HDM in the mouse model and might have a potentially therapeutic role for allergic airway diseases.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes bronchiolitis in children followed by inflammation and asthma-like symptoms. The development of preventive therapy for this virus continues to pose a challenge. Fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) exhibit anti-inflammatory function. FIP-fve is an immunomodulatory protein isolated from Flammulina velutipes. To determine whether FIP-fve affects the infection or consequence of immunity of RSV, we investigated viral titers of RSV and inflammatory cytokine levels in vivo and in vitro. Oral FIP-fve decreased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and IL-6 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of BALB/c mice. RSV replication and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in RSV-infected HEp-2 cells were compared before and after FIP-fve treatment. FIP-fve inhibited viral titers on plaque assay and Western blot, as well as inhibited RSV-stimulated expression of IL-6 on ELISA and RT-PCR. The results of this study suggested that FIP-fve decreases RSV replication, RSV-induced inflammation and respiratory pathogenesis. FIP-fve is a widely used, natural compound from Flammulina velutipes that may be a safe agent for viral prevention and even therapy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Antiviral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nationwide asthma survey on the effects of air pollution is lacking in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time trend and the relationship between air pollution and health care services for asthma in Taiwan.
Health care services for asthma and ambient air pollution data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research database and Environmental Protection Administration from 2000 through 2009, respectively. Health care services, including those related to the outpatient and inpatient visits were compared according to the concentration of air pollutants.
The number of asthma-patient visits to health-care facilities continue to increase in Taiwan. Relative to the respective lowest quartile of air pollutants, the adjusted relative risks (RRs) of the outpatient visits in the highest quartile were 1.10 (P-trend = 0.013) for carbon monoxide (CO), 1.10 (P-trend = 0.015) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 1.20 (P-trend <0.0001) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≦10µm (PM10) in the child group (aged 0-18). For adults aged 19-44, the RRs of outpatient visits were 1.13 (P-trend = 0.078) for CO, 1.17 (P-trend = 0.002) for NO2, and 1.13 (P-trend <0.0001) for PM10. For adults aged 45-64, the RRs of outpatient visits were 1.15 (P-trend = 0.003) for CO, 1.19 (P-trend = 0.0002) for NO2, and 1.10 (P-trend = 0.001) for PM10. For the elderly (aged≥ 65), the RRs of outpatient visits in were 1.12 (P-trend = 0.003) for NO2 and 1.10 (P-trend = 0.006) for PM10. For inpatient visits, the RRs across quartiles of CO level were 1.00, 1.70, 1.92, and 1.86 (P-trend = 0.0001) in the child group. There were no significant linear associations between inpatient visits and air pollutants in other groups.
There were positive associations between CO levels and childhood inpatient visits as well as NO2, CO and PM10 and outpatient visits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study evaluates the association between neonatal jaundice and childhood allergic rhinitis (AR).
Eleven thousand three hundred twenty-eight children were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Their claims data were evaluated from birth to 10 years of age, and they were assigned to either the study (with neonatal jaundice) or the control (without neonatal jaundice) group. The diagnostic criteria for AR were at least three diagnoses of AR at outpatient services, one diagnosis of AR during an admission, or one diagnosis of AR in an emergency department. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjustment for the following confounders: preterm/low birth weight, neonatal infection, other respiratory conditions, other birth conditions, and gender. AR rate, AR onset time, the use of oral antihistamines/nasal corticosteroids, outpatient visit frequency for AR, lower respiratory infection (LRI) rates, sinusitis/otitis media/conjunctivitis rates, and the effect of phototherapy were evaluated.
After adjustment for the confounding factors, the rate of AR was higher in icteric children (OR, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.24∼1.72). There was a higher incidence of AR in children <4 years old with icterus. The use of oral antihistamines, LRI rates, sinusitis rates, and otitis media rates were higher in the icteric children. There was no association between phototherapy and childhood AR.
Neonatal jaundice increased the rate and complications of childhood AR in subjects aged up to 10 years and may be a risk factor for childhood AR.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for predicting dilating (grades III-V) vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection.
Children ≤2 years of age with a first febrile urinary tract infection were prospectively evaluated. Serum samples were tested for PCT at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. All children underwent renal ultrasonography (US), Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan, and voiding cystourethrography. The diagnostic characteristics of PCT test for acute pyelonephritis and dilating VUR were calculated.
Of 272 children analyzed (168 boys and 104 girls; median age, 5 months), 169 (62.1%) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR demonstrated in 97 (35.7%), including 70 (25.7%) with dilating VUR. The median PCT value was significantly higher in children with VUR than in those without (P < 0.001). Using a PCT cutoff value of ≥1.0 ng/mL, the sensitivity and negative predictive value for predicting dilating VUR were 94.3% and 95.4%, respectively, for PCT, and 97.1% and 97.8%, respectively, for the combined PCT and US studies, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.03 and 0.107, respectively, for PCT, and 1.72 and 0.067, respectively, for the combined studies. By multivariate analysis, high PCT values and abnormalities on US were independent predictors of dilating VUR.
PCT is useful for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and predicting dilating VUR in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. A voiding cystourethrography is indicated only in children with high PCT values (≥1.0 ng/mL) and/or abnormalities found on a US.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Various studies have investigated the efficacies of mometasone furoate monohydrate (MFM) and fluticasone propionate (FP) nasal sprays for adults. However, research on their effectiveness for children is limited. This study compares the efficacies of MFM and FP nasal sprays in pediatric patients with perennial-allergic rhinitis.
Materials and methods:
For this study, 94 perennial allergic rhinitis patients aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: an MFM group and an FP group. Treatment was provided for 4 weeks. The effects of the two agents were compared using the Pediatric Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire and total symptom scores (TSSs). Nasal-peak expiratory flow rates and eosinophil percentage in nasal smears were also compared between the two groups.
Patients in the MFM group exhibited significant improvement in their TSS (t = -2.65, p < 0.05). A detailed TSS analysis showed MFM to be more effective for relieving nasal symptoms, whereas FP was more effective for relieving non-nasal symptoms. Patient questionnaire scores suggested a significant reduction in symptoms for both the MFM (t = -7.23, p < 0.01) and FP (t = -5.43, p < 0.01) groups. The flow rate test results indicated significant improvements in the MFM group (t = 2.27, p < 0.05).
Following the 4-week therapy, MFM provided greater improvement compared to FP for symptoms of childhood perennial-allergic rhinitis. Based on their TSSs, the MFM group experienced more effective relief of nasal symptoms, whereas the FP group experienced more effective relief of non-nasal symptoms.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Pediatrics & Neonatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The allergy is dependent on the balance between Th1 and Th2. The fungal immunodulatory protein (FIP-fve) was isolated from Flammulina velutipes. FIP-fve has been demonstrated to skew the response to Th1 cytokine production. We investigated whether oral administrations of FIP-fve inhibited allergen (OVA)-induced chronic airway inflammation in the mouse asthma model. After intranasal challenge with OVA, the airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were determined by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis and ELISA assay. Both pre-treated and post-treated with FIP-fve suppressed the airway hyperresponsiveness by methacholine challenge and significantly decreased the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells and Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum compared with the OVA sensitized mice. In addition, FIP-fve reduced OVA-specific IgE levels in serum. FIP-fve markedly alleviated the OVA-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled methacholine. Based on lung histopathological studies using hematoxylin and Liu's staining, FIP-fve inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the OVA-sensitized mice. Oral FIP-fve had an anti-inflammatory effect on OVA-induced airway inflammations and might posses the potential for alternative therapy for allergic airway diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The association between neonatal jaundice and childhood asthma is a new finding of two reports. The purpose of the study was to verify their results.
Methods: Data from 11,321 children were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Their claims data were evaluated from birth to 10 yr old. Children were analyzed as case (those with neonatal jaundice) and controls (those without neonatal jaundice). The diagnostic criteria for asthma were as follows: at least four asthma diagnoses at outpatient services and emergency department (ED), or one asthma diagnosis during an admission. In children fitting the asthma criteria, those with no asthma diagnosis after 1 yr of age were excluded. Mantel–Haenszel’s odds ratios were calculated after adjustment for the following confounders: preterm/low birth weight, neonatal infection, other respiratory conditions, other birth conditions, and gender. Asthma rate, onset time, the use of drugs, upper respiratory infection and lower respiratory infection (LRI) rates, hospital admission/ED visit rates, and the effect of phototherapy were evaluated.
Results: After adjustment for the confounding factors, the rate of asthma was higher in icteric children (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.36–1.98, p < 0.001), and the influence in females was stronger. There still was an association between neonatal jaundice and late onset asthma (asthma onset after 3 yr of age). In asthmatic children, those with neonatal jaundice have increased asthma onset rate before age 6, increased use of inhalant steroids, LRI rates, and ED visits for respiratory disease.
Conclusions: Neonatal jaundice increased the rate and severity of childhood asthma in subjects aged up to 10 yr and may be a risk factor for childhood asthma.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on hospital admissions for children under 5 years old, concerning the admission rate, leading diagnoses, categories of disease, average hospitalization days, costs and between-year differences are scarce. Our study aims to investigate such admission profiles.
Five percent of admission data for children under 5 years old in 2000 and 2009 was collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We calculated the admission rate in regards to total admission, the patients' gender, the ten leading diagnoses, the ten most systemic common categories of disease, and the average hospitalization days and costs. The differences of the rates between 2000 and 2009 were evaluated by incidence rate ratios (IRR).
The admission rate per thousand children (population) was higher in 2009 (172.9) than 2000 (153.1). The ten most common systemic categories of disease were similar in both years. Furthermore, it was observed that the hospitalization days decreased by 3.7% in 2009, while medical expenditures increased by 10.9%.
Efforts should be made to decrease the admission rate and hospitalization days in Taiwan to the levels of well-developed countries. Our data may serve as baseline data for future evaluations of child morbidity.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Pediatrics & Neonatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) play a major role in the pathogenic changes of airway inflammation in asthma treatment. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family, especially MMP-9 and MMP-2 levels, can reflect the status of airway remodeling. This study was undertaken to determine the role of a specific CysLT receptor antagonist in inhibition of airway inflammation and reversal of airway remodeling.
Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c mice were fed with a specific leukotriene receptor antagonist (MK-679), prednisolone or placebo from Days 15 to 27. Airway hyperreactivity, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and sera were analyzed. Pulmonary histology was obtained, and the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in BALF were measured.
The OVA-sensitized mice developed significant airway inflammatory responses, including extensive eosinophils trafficking into BALF and lung interstitium, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucus hypersecretion, elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, and decreased level of serum IgG2a. Administration of MK-679 could reduce airway inflammation but was not as effective as prednisolone. However, MK-679 was more effective than prednisolone for reversing subepithelial fibrotic and myofibrotic reactions of airway remodeling. The levels of MMP-2 and -9 in BALF were proportional to the extent of airway remodeling, which can reflect the effects of treatment. Both prednisolone and MK-679 reverse airway hyperresponsiveness induced by OVA-sensitized mice.
Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor plays a more important role than CysLT in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation. MMP-2 and -9 may be more sensitive indicators of airway remodeling.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Pediatrics & Neonatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death.
Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro.
Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells.
Conclusion and implications:
We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FIP-fve is a protein that is isolated from Flammulina velutipes . Its known immunomodulatory activities are elicitation of the production of type II interferon from human peripheral mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and hemagglutination. How the target receptors mediate activation of FIP-fve-induced immunomodulatory effects remains to be elucidated. This study postulates the three-dimensional structures to determine whether the carbohydrate binding module family 34 (CBM-34) on FIP-fve is conserved to site N of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 α-amylase I. Experimental site-directed mutagenesis data as well as ligand-specific binding competition assay are adopted to identify the key residues W24, T28, D34, T90, I91, and W111 of FIP-fve that participate in binding to polysaccharides that are linked to the membrane of immune cells. Treatments of hPBMCs with tunicamycin and deglycosylation enzymes that removed the carbohydrate moieties reduced the secretion of IFN-γ induction from hPBMCs. In conclusion, the experiments herein demonstrated the ligand-binding CBM-34 on FIP-fve and ligand-like glycoproteins on the surface of hPBMCs must be required to induce physiological immunomodulatory effects.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Epidemiological research underpins the importance of effective health-care strategies for adolescents. This descriptive study compares the 10 most common diseases among Taiwanese adolescents for 2000 and 2009.
Methods: Data for a total of 69 594 visits in 2000 and 65 802 visits in 2009 by adolescents aged between 10 and 20 years were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. A maximum of three outpatient diagnostic codes (International Classification of Disease, ninth revision) could be listed for every visit. The data categories were: principal diagnosis, patient age, and physician specialty.
Results: The middle adolescent age group utilized the least amount of medical services. Respiratory (46.2% in 2000, 40.5% in 2009) and digestive (16.5% in 2000 and 16.9% in 2009) tracts were the leading two diagnostic categories for adolescent ambulatory visits. Teeth (6.8%, 6.1%) and eye (4.0%, 3.1%) problems were also among the top 10 diseases. Family practitioners, ear-nose-throat specialists, and traditional Chinese medicine physicians were the major health-care providers for Taiwanese adolescents, especially in the middle and late groups. Although noted as the first option for consultation in the early group, the role of pediatricians with regard to adolescent health care declined in importance with age.
Conclusions: Nearly 99% of the population in Taiwan is covered under the national health insurance system. The different disease patterns and major health-care providers between Taiwan and other countries are compared.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Pediatrics International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary consumption of probiotics may temporarily alter the intestinal microflora of infants and children, thereby preventing and treating allergic disorders.
To compare the clinical efficacy of levocetirizine with that of levocetirizine plus Lactobacillus johnsonii EM1 (Lj EM1) for treating perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in children.
Sixty-three children aged 7-12 years fulfilled the entry criteria for the study and had moderate to severe PAR of at least 1 year's duration. The treatment followed a randomized, open-label crossover design: all subjects were randomized to 2 crossover treatment regimens of levocetirizine with Lj EM1 (group 1) or levocetirizine alone (group 2) for 12 weeks; subsequently, treatments were reversed for a further 12 weeks. The effects of the 2 regimens were compared using the Pediatric Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ) and the total symptom score (TSS) from diary cards. The parameters evaluated were nasal peak expiratory flow rate (nPEFR), FVC, FEV1, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), mite-specific IgE, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), resistin, blood eosinophils, eosinophil percentage in nasal smears, IL-4, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).
After the first 12 weeks of treatment, TSS in both groups had improved progressively compared with that in the run-in period. Both groups had improved TSS at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (P<0.05), and group 1 was more efficacious than group 2 at week 4 (P=0.014), week 8 (P=0.011), and week 12 (P<0.009). During the second 12-week period, group 2 showed continual and progressive improvement, while group 1 did not. The PRQLQ scores were significantly decreased in both groups (P<0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.446). The eosinophil percentage in nasal smears decreased in both groups compared with that in the run-in period, and significant differences were detected in groups 2 and 1at 16 and 24 weeks of treatment, respectively (P<0.05). Both groups showed significant improvement in nPEFR at weeks 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 (P<0.01), and the treatment for group 1 appeared to be more efficacious than that for group 2 at weeks 12, 16, and 20 (P<0.05). FVC and FEV1 were improved in both groups at weeks 8 through 24 (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. In cytokine measurements, IFN-γ and IL-10 increased significantly and IL-4 decreased significantly in both groups, while elevation of TGF-β was seen only in group 1 at 12 weeks (P<0.001). However, the difference in TGF-β disappeared after 24 weeks treatment. There was no difference in serum resistin levels. No serious adverse events were recorded in either treatment group.
The 24-week, 2-phase, crossover treatment program showed that levocetirizine plus Lj EM1 was more effective for PAR than levocetirizine and that this difference persisted for at least 3 months after discontinuation of Lj EM1.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atopic march hypothesis suggests that allergy diseases often progress from atopic dermatitis to allergic asthma, and allergic rhinitis. How often can the classic progression of allergic diseases be observed in the pediatric patient population? This study aimed to observe the pattern
of allergic diseases progression, onset age, disease intervals, and frequency of the allergic march. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in the period 1996‐2008 were used to obtain a cohort of children with allergic disease. Physician's diagnosis was used to confirm
the allergic disease based on the international disease coding. The age of disease onset was compared. There were 10,729 children aged
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinitis and sinusitis are very common medical conditions and have been shown to be frequently associated. The role of allergies in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis has been confirmed; however, the role of allergies in acute rhinosinusitis is debatable. Nonetheless, allergies are an important factor in the development of rhinosinusitis.
To evaluate the incidence of allergic rhinitis in patients with acute rhinosinusitis and identify the clinical spectrum in Taiwan.
This study randomly recruited 69 participants between 3 and 12 years of age with acute rhinosinusitis over the period of one and a half years. All participants underwent a nasal peak expiratory flow rate (nPEFR) test, skin-Prick test (SPT), nasal smear examination, nasal culture, radiography (Water's projection) and were requested to complete the Pediatric Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ) as well as provide their allergic history.
Among the 69 participants in the study, 27 (39.1%) participants were shown to have allergic rhinitis. The most troublesome symptoms among the 69 participants with acute rhinosinusitis were postnasal drip (3.00 ± 1.29), nasal obstruction (2.94 ± 1.39) and cough (2.67 ± 1.42). The most troublesome symptoms among the 27 participants with acute rhinosinusitis combined with allergic rhinitis were nasal obstruction (3.33 ± 1.24), postnasal drip (3.22 ± 1.09) and itchy eyes (2.74 ± 1.43) and with the higher values. In addition, the participants (≧ 6 y/o) with acute rhinosinusitis combined with allergic rhinitis had significantly lower nPEFR values compared with the nonatopic children (75.2 ± 18.2 vs 96.6 ± 21.4, p<0.05). If nPEFR is below 75 mL/min, the positive predict value in the patients of acute rhinosinusitis is 75.0% combined with allergic rhinitis (sensitivity 63.2%; specificity 85.7%). Streptococcus pneumoniae (29.0%), Haemophilus influenzae (20.3%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (17.4%) were the major isolated pathogens in this study. The prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the 69 participants with acute rhinosinusitis was 23.2%, and 15.9% for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA).
This study demonstrated that the bacteriological properties of acute rhinosinusitis among children in Taiwan are the same as those in other parts of the world; however, the prevalence of colonization by MRSA was higher than among healthy children. Second, atopic children were more likely to develop acute rhinosinusitis than nonatopic children. Third, most Taiwanese children with acute rhinosinusitis complained of postnasal drip, nasal obstruction and cough. If a child suffering from acute rhinosinusitis complained of severe nasal obstruction (nPEFR≦75 mL/min), the doctor should be alerted to atopic conditions requiring further treatment. The issues dealt with in this study may require further research with a larger sample population over an extended period of time to verify these conclusions.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence of positive correlations between asthma (AS) and obesity in adults and children. Leptin is an obesity gene product secreted by white adipose tissue; elevated serum levels are found in obese adults and children. Recently, leptin has also been found to be associated with allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the links between serum leptin, atopic AS, and AR remained undetermined. Because AS and AR share common allergic inflammatory mechanisms, our aim was to determine if there were any differences in serum leptin levels between asthmatic children and nonasthmatic children with AR.
We studied 114 children (67 boys and 47 girls): 68 with mild intermittent-to-moderate persistent atopic AS (AS children) and 46 with mild-to-moderate persistent AR without AS (AR children; overall mean age, 8.51 years; range, 5-18 years). Body mass index (BMI), serum leptin, pulmonary function, and atopy parameters (serum IgE and eosinophil levels) were measured.
Compared with AR children, AS children had higher body weights (kg), body mass indices (kg/cm²), and serum leptin levels (ng/mL). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum leptin concentrations differed significantly for girls, being overweight and between disease groups (AS and AR children).
Our results indicate that a higher serum leptin level has stronger association with mild-to-moderate persistent AS compared with AR. Hence, serum leptin may be a stronger predictor for childhood AS compared with AR. Among the asthmatic children, higher serum leptin levels also showed stronger associations with female gender and being overweight.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Nasal irrigation has been used as adjunctive therapy for sinonasal disease but is under-researched in children. The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of nasal irrigation with normal saline in the management of acute sinusitis in atopic children.
We enrolled 60 atopic children with acute sinusitis, of whom 29 received nasal irrigation with normal saline and 31 did not receive nasal irrigation. All participants underwent a nasal peak expiratory flow rate (nPEFR) test, a nasal smear examination, and radiography (Water's projection) and were requested to complete a Pediatric Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ) during the baseline visit. All participants were requested to record symptoms in a daily diary and were followed up at 1-week intervals. A physical examination, nasal smear, and nPEFR were performed at each visit, and all daily diaries were collected. At the final visit (after 3 weeks), the symptom diaries were reviewed and participants were requested to complete the PRQLQ again. nPEFR, radiography, and a nasal smear were also repeated.
There were significant improvements in mean PRQLQ and nPEFR values (p < 0.05) for the irrigation compared to the non-irrigation group. There was no significant difference in radiographic findings between the groups (p > 0.05). The irrigation group recorded significant improvements in eye congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, sneezing, and cough symptoms compared with the non-irrigation group.
Nasal irrigation is an effective adjunctive treatment for acute sinusitis in atopic children.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology