Publications (3)0 Total impact

  • Nitya Vyas · Smita Sood · Babita Sharma · Munesh Kumar
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) infections are among the most frequent infections in HIV/AIDS patients. The intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections in HIV-infected subjects present most commonly as diarrhoea. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of enteric parasitic infections in HIV infected patients with diarrhoea, with different levels of immunity. Methods: This study was carried out at the HIV Lab of the Microbiology Department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan, between June-October 2009 among consecutively enrolled 75 HIV infected patients who presented with diarrhoea. Stool samples were collected and examined for enteric parasites by using microscopy and special staining methods. The CD4 (+) cell counts were estimated by using the FACS count system. Results: Intestinal parasitic pathogens were detected in 38.66% patients, Cryptosporidium species was the most common enteric opportunistic parasite which accounted for 37.93 % of the total parasites, followed by Isospora belli 31.03 %. In the HIV infected patients with CD4 (+) counts of < 200 cells/μl, parasites were identified in 56.25 % patients and in HIV patients with CD4 (+) counts between 200-499 cells /μl, parasites could be identified in 27.5 % of the patients . No parasite was detected in the patients with CD4 (+) counts of >500 cells/ μl. Conclusion: Parasitic infections were detected in 38.66% HIV infected patients with diarrhoea and a low CD4 (+) count was significantly associated with opportunistic infections. Identification of the aetiological agent of diarrhoea in an HIV patient is very important, as it can help in the institution of the appropriate therapy and the reduction of the morbidity and the mortality in these patients.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013
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    Smita Sood
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The extensive use of the β-lactam antibiotics in hospitals and in the community has created major resistance problems which has led to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The use of the β-lactamase inhibitors in combination with the β-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy used for circumventing the resistance mechanisms. Objective: To evaluate the in-vitro activity of six commercially available β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations against Gram Negative Bacilli (GNB). Materials and Methods: A total of 384 non duplicate, consecutive, gram negative bacilli (278 Enterobacteriaceae and 106 non fermenters) isolated from various clinical samples were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity testing by the Kirby-Bauer method. The following β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations were tested: amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoperazonesulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Results: Against the Enterobacteriacae, the sensitivity of Cefepime- tazobactam was 90. 64%, followed by Cefoperazone-sulbactam (84.89%) and Piperacillin - tazobactam (53.95 %). The sensitivity of the non fermenters was the highest for Cefepime- tazobactam (49.04%) and was least for Ampicillin-sulbactam and Amoxycillinclavulanic acid (4.71% each). Cefepime-tazobactam was sensitive for all the extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) isolates. Conclusion: Among the six β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations tested, Cefepime-tazobactam exhibited the best in-vitro activity against the gram negative bacilli isolated at our centre.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2013
  • Smita Sood · Ravi Gupta
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatients setting. A study was conducted to evaluate the uropathogenic bacterial flora and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile among patients presenting to the out-patient clinics of a tertiary care hospital at Jaipur, Rajasthan. 2012 consecutive urine specimens from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the outpatient clinics were processed in the Microbiology lab. Bacterial isolates obtained were identified using biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production was determined by the double disk approximation test and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS) confirmatory method. Pathogens were isolated from 346 (17.16%) of the 2012 patients who submitted a urine sample. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated community acquired uropathogen accounting for 61.84% of the total isolates. ESBL production was observed in 23.83% of E. coli strains and 8.69% of Klebsiella strains. With the exception of Nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empiric oral treatments for UTI was quite high. The study revealed E. coli as the predominant bacterial pathogen for the community acquired UTIs in Jaipur, Rajasthan. An increasing trend in the production ESBLs among UTI pathogens in the community was noted. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for primary, uncomplicated UTIs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Indian Journal of Community Medicine