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ABSTRACT: This study was performed to compare surgical outcomes of repeat midurethral sling (MUS) with those of tape shortening in patients who underwent failed initial MUS. We assessed 66 patients who underwent failed initial MUS and a second surgical procedure because of recurrent or persistent stress urinary incontinence (SUI), including 36 who underwent repeat MUS and 30 who underwent tape shortening. All patients were followed up for at least 12 months after second surgery. Efficacy was measured by cure rates on the Sandvik questionnaire. Safety was evaluated by assessing maximal urine flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, and procedure-related complications. The cure rate was significantly higher in patients who underwent repeat MUS (72.2 % vs. 46.7 %, p = 0.034). Among patients with a Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) of <60 cmH(2)O or SUI severity of at least moderate, the cure rate was significantly higher in those who underwent repeat MUS than in those who underwent tape shortening (76.5 % vs. 40.0 % and 79.2 % vs. 43.8 %, respectively). Univariate analysis of preoperative factors demonstrated that there were no risk factors associated with the cure rates in either group. One patient who underwent repeat MUS required tape cutting, and one who underwent tape shortening experienced mesh erosion. A limitation of this study is that it was not a randomized, controlled study. Repeat MUS has a higher cure rate than does tape shortening in surgical treatment of patient with persistent or recurrent SUI, especially those with low VLPP or high SUI grade.