[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
Twelve tagging SNPs in GST genes (including GSTA1, GSTA4, GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTO1, GSTO2 and GSTP1) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping method in a cohort of 214 Chinese patients with resected HCC. The Cox proportional hazards model and log-rank test were performed to determine the SNPs related to outcome. Additionally, stratified analysis was performed at each level of the demographic and clinical variables. An SNP-gene expression association model was further established to investigate the correlation between SNP and gene expression.
Two SNPs (GSTO2: rs7085725 and GSTP1: rs4147581) were significantly associated with overall survival in HCC patients (P = 0.035 and 0.042, respectively). In stratified analysis, they were more significantly associated with overall survival in patients with younger age, male gender and cirrhosis. We further investigated cumulative effects of these two SNPs on overall survival in HCC patients. Compared with the patients carrying no unfavorable genotypes, those carrying 2 unfavorable genotypes had a 1.70-fold increased risk of death (P < 0.001). The cumulative effects were more significant in those patients with younger age, male gender and cirrhosis (HR = 2.00, 1.94 and 1.97, respectively; all P < 0.001). Additionally, we found that heavy smoking resulted in a significantly worse overall survival in those patients carrying variant alleles of rs7085725 (HR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.13-3.76, P = 0.018). The distributions of GSTO2: rs7085725 and GSTP1: rs4147581 genotypes were associated with altered gene expression and contributed to influences on overall survival.
Our study provides the first evidence that GSTO2 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms may serve as independent prognostic markers for HCC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prognostic significance of estrogen receptor 1 (ER1) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) to identify new prognostic markers for this malignancy.
Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated ER1 and VEGF-A expression in 78 GBC and 78 cholelithiasis (CS) tissues. The results were correlated with clinicopathological features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between ER1 and VEGF-A expression and patients' prognosis. Further Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed.
ER1 and VEGF-A expression was significantly higher in GBC compared with CS (47/78 vs 28/78, P < 0.05; 51/78 vs 33/78, P < 0.05). ER1 expression was correlated with gender (P < 0.05) and VEGF-A expression was correlated with tumor differentiation in GBC patients (P < 0.05). In univariate analysis, age and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were factors associated with GBC prognosis (P < 0.05). Although there was no statistical difference between the expression of ER1 or VEGF-A and overall survival, the high expression of ER1 combined with VEGF-A predicted a poor prognosis for GBC patients (16.30 ± 1.87 vs 24.97 ± 2.09, log-rank P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A and TNM stage were independent prognostic factors for GBC patients (P < 0.05).
Combined expression of ER1 and VEGF-A is a potential prognostic marker for GBC patients. Clinical detection of ER1 and VEGF-A in surgically resected GBC tissues would provide an important reference for decision-making of postoperative treatment programs.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of the hydrogen-rich water (HRW) in the prevention of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.
Forty male rats were allocated into four groups: normal control group, HRW group, aspirin group, and HRW plus aspirin group. The protective efficacy was tested by determining the gastric mucosal damage score. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin (IL)-06 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in gastric tissues were evaluated. The serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were also detected. Histopathology of gastric tissues and localization of Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were detected using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
Pretreatment with HRW obviously reduced aspirin-induced gastric damage scores (4.04 ± 0.492 vs 2.10 ± 0.437, P < 0.05). The oxidative stress levels of MDA and MPO in the gastric tissues increased significantly in the aspirin-treated group compared with the HRW group (2.43 ± 0.145 vs 1.79 ± 0.116 nmol/mg prot, P < 0.05 and 2.53 ± 0.238 vs 1.40 ± 0.208 U/g tissue, P < 0.05, respectively). HRW could obviously elevated the SOD levels in the gastric tissues (37.94 ± 8.44 vs 59.55 ± 9.02 nmol/mg prot, P < 0.05). Pretreatment with HRW significantly reduced IL-06 and TNF-α in the gastric tissues (46.65 ± 5.50 vs 32.15 ± 4.83 pg/mg, P < 0.05 and 1305.08 ± 101.23 vs 855.96 ± 93.22 pg/mg, P < 0.05), and IL-1β and TNF-α in the serum (505.38 ± 32.97 vs 343.37 ± 25.09 pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 264.53 ± 28.63 vs 114.96 ± 21.79 pg/mL, P < 0.05) compared to treatment with aspirin alone. HRW could significantly decrease the COX-2 expression in the gastric tissues (staining score: 8.4 ± 2.1 vs 2.9 ± 1.5, P < 0.05).
HRW pretreatment alleviated the aspirin-induced gastric lesions by inhibiting the oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and reducing the COX-2 in the gastric tissues.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence as one of the important steps against tumor is observed in many cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and is related to chemotherapeutic response. To investigate the effect of cisplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma, we treated HepG2 cells exhibiting wild-type TP53 with gradient concentrations of cisplatin.
The inhibitory effects of cisplatin on human hepatoma HepG2 cells were detected by MTT assay and colony formation test. The changes in cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry, and cellular senescence was detected with senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) staining. The relative mRNA expression levels of TP53, P21 and P19 was estimated using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of P53 and P21 were detected using Western blotting.
Cisplatin induced irreversible proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest of HepG2 cells. Elevated levels of senescence-associated β-galactosidase was observed in HepG2 cells exposed to low doses of cisplatin. P19 expression immediately increased following cisplatin exposure and reached the maximum level at 48 h, followed then by a rapid decrease to the baseline level, whereas the expressions levels of TP53 and P21 mRNA increased continuously. Western blotting confirmed P53 and P21 expression changes similar to their mRNA expressions during cisplatin-induced cellular senescence in HepG2 cells.
Our results revealed a functional link between cisplatin and hepatocellular senescence. Cellular senescence induced by cisplatin as a stabile senescent cellular model can be used for further research.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the prognostic value in the monitoring of treatment efficacy of serial α-fetoprotein (AFP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and COCHRANE LIBRARY through April 21, 2012, to find qualifying articles. Our overall search strategy included terms for HCC, AFP, treatment response, and prognosis. Literature was limited to English-language, human studies. Studies reporting cumulative survival rates were summarized qualitatively. For the prognostic meta-analysis, we undertook a series of meta-analyses that summarised the Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) by assuming a random effects model. With regards to the correlation of AFP change with radiologic response, the categorical dichotomous variables were assessed using Poisson relative risks (RRs), which were incorporated into the random effects model meta-analysis of accuracy prediction. Between-study heterogeneity was estimated by use of the I² statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using the Begg funnel plot and Egger plot. Sensitivity analyses were conducted first by separating systemic treatment estimates from locoregional therapy estimates, evaluating different AFP response cut-off point effects, and exploring the impact of different study sizes.
Of 142 titles identified in our original search, 11 articles (12 clinical studies) met our criteria. Six studies investigated outcome in a total of 464 cases who underwent systemic treatment, and six studies investigated outcome in a total of 510 patients who received locoregional therapy. A random-effects model meta-analysis showed that AFP response was associated with an mortality HR of 0.55 (95%CI, 0.47-0.65) across HCC in overall survival (OS) and 0.50 (95%CI, 0.38-0.65) in progression-free survival. Restricting analysis to the six eligible analyses of systemic treatment, the pooled HRs were 0.64 (95%CI, 0.53-0.77) for OS. Limiting analysis to the six analyses of locoregional therapy, the pooled HRs for OS was 0.39 (95%CI, 0.29-0.53). We showed a larger pooled HR in the 50% definition studies (HR, 0.67, 95%CI, 0.55-0.83) compared with that from the 20% definition studies (HR, 0.41, 95%CI, 0.32-0.53). Restricting analysis to the four studies including over 100 patients individually, the pooled HR was 0.65 (95%CI, 0.54-0.79), with a pooled HR for OS of 0.35 (95%CI, 0.23-0.46) in the studies of less than 100 patients. As to radiological imaging, 43.1% (155/360) of the patients in the AFP response group presented with a radiological overall response, while the response rate decreased to 11.5% (36/313) in the patients from the AFP nonresponse group. The RR of having no overall response was significantly lower in the AFP response group than the AFP nonresponse group (RR, 0.67; 95%CI, 0.61-0.75). In terms of disease control rate, 86.9% (287/330) in the AFP response group and 51.0% (153/300) in the AFP nonresponse group showed successful disease control, respectively. The RR of disease control failure, similarly, was significantly lower in the AFP response group (RR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.23-0.58). But these ﬁndings could be overestimates because of publication and reporting bias.
HCC patients presenting with an AFP response are at decreased risk of mortality. In addition, patients with an AFP response also present with a higher overall response rate and disease control rate.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary tract cancers, broadly described as malignancies that arise from the biliary tract epithelia, are usually divided into two major clinical phenotypes: cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, differing in etiopathogenesis, risk factors, and perhaps molecular and genetic signatures. Atypical symptoms and lack of tumor biomarkers make it difficult to diagnose in early stages. At the time of presentation, few patients are candidates for potentially curative surgical resection. We here assessed and compared features of a total of 150 cases divided into extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and gallbladder cancers (GBC). Althought there were no significant differences in serum tumour marker levels, GBC patients had the poorest prognosis. Furthermore, gallbladder cancer respond poorly to chemotherapy or radiation therapy and approximately half of untreated patients died within 10 months. Therefore, treatment for patients with gallbladder cancer is still in challenge. Outcomes and survival of these patients had improved little over the past three decades - a period in which new successful treatments have greatly contributed to the prolonged patient survival for many other cancers.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the diagnosis of primary gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) with/without hepatic metastases by analyzing our experience of different GBC treatment in our patients.
A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the clinical data of the 139 patients with GBC who underwent hepatic resection in our unit from January 2003 to December 2007. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they demonstrated hepatic invasion. Tumor presentation, surgical modes, and prognosis of each patient were retrospectively reviewed. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were employed to compare the survival rates of those patients undergoing different surgical procedures.
Of the 139 patients, 46 were men and 93 were women with the male to female ratio of 1:2.0. Their ages were ranged from 35 to 86 years with a mean age of 62.8±10.4 years. There were 73 patients complicated with hepatic invasion (group A), and no hepatic invasion occurred in the other 66 patients (group B). Compared with the group B, the patients with hepatic invasion suffered lower differentiation of tumor (p=0.000), more advanced Nevin staging (p=0.008) and poorer prognosis (p=0.013). Radical resection were more frequently performed in group B (75.76%) than in group A (45.20%) with better outcomes (p=0.000).
GBC patients complicated with hepatic invasion had poorer prognosis than those without invasion in long-term follow-ups. Radical resection might result in a satisfied prognosis in patients without hepatic invasion, but appears less favorable than palliative resection in those who were complicated with hepatic invasion.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a significant marker for clinical diagnosis and prognosis evaluation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, some proportion of liver cancer patients are AFP-negative (AFP ≤20 ng/ml). In order to study the differences between clinicopathological factors and prognosis of alpha-fetoprotein negative and positive patients, a total of 114 cases (41 AFP-negative and 73 AFP-positive) were selected for our research. By systematically statistical analysis, the results demonstrated that compared with AFP-negative patients, AFP-positive examples were more likely to feature cirrhosis nodules, non-complete neoplasm capsules, and a poor Edmondson-steiner grade. Furthermore, AFP-negative patients demonstrated a favorable long-term prognosis. By univariate analysis and multivariate analysis with Cox's proportional hazards model, multiple tumors were found to be independent risk factors for worse survival of AFP negative patients; however, less tumor-free margins, multiple tumors and Edmondson-steiner grades III/IV, proved to be independent risk factors leading to a poor prognosis of AFP positive cases. Finally, we can infer that high levels of AFP signify a highly malignant tumor and unfavorable prognosis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP