[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To date, knowledge on mechanisms regarding the chronic nanotoxicity is still largely minimal. In the present study, the effect of chronic (10-day) Al(2)O(3)-nanoparticles (NPs) toxicity on locomotion behavior was investigated in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Exposure to 0.01-23.1 mg/L of Al(2)O(3)-NPs induced a decrease in locomotion behavior, a severe stress response, and a severe oxidative stress; however, these effects were only detected in nematodes exposed to 23.1 mg/L of bulk Al(2)O(3). Formation of significant oxidative stress in nematodes exposed to Al(2)O(3)-NPs was due to both the increase in ROS production and the suppression of ROS defense mechanisms. More pronounced increases in ROS, decreases in SOD activity, and decrease in expression of genes encoding Mn-SODs (sod-2 and sod-3) were detected in nematodes exposed to Al(2)O(3)-NPs compared with bulk Al(2)O(3). Moreover, treatment with antioxidants or SOD-3 overexpression not only suppressed oxidative stress but also prevented adverse effects on locomotion behaviors from Al(2)O(3)-NPs exposure. Thus, chronic exposure to Al(2)O(3)-NPs may have adverse effects on locomotion behaviors by both induction of ROS production and disruption of ROS defense mechanisms. Furthermore, sod-2 and sod-3 mutants were more susceptible than the wild-type to chronic Al(2)O(3)-NPs-induced neurotoxicity inhibition.
Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of hazardous materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Here we investigated whether the assay system (10-d) in Caenorhabditis elegans can be used to evaluate chronic toxicity of chromium (Cr(VI)) at environmental relevant concentrations ranging from 5.2 μg L(-1) to 260 μg L(-1). The results indicated that lethality, locomotion behavior as revealed by head thrash, body bend, and forward turn, metabolism as revealed by pumping rate and mean defecation cycle length, intestinal autofluorescence, and ROS production were severely altered in Cr chronically exposed nematodes at environmental relevant concentrations. The most surprising observations were that head thrash, body bend, intestinal autofluorescence, and ROS production in 13 μg L(-1) Cr exposed nematodes were significantly influenced. The observed adverse effects of Cr on survival, locomotion behavior, and metabolism were largely due to forming severe intestinal autofluorescence and ROS production. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the usefulness of chronic toxicity assay system in C. elegans in evaluating the chronic toxicity of toxicants at environmental relevant concentrations.