[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate new markers for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) dyslipidemia related with LDL and HDL metabolism. Removal from plasma of free and esterified cholesterol transported in LDL and the transfer of lipids to HDL are important aspects of the lipoprotein intravascular metabolism. The plasma kinetics (fractional clearance rate, FCR) and transfers of lipids to HDL were explored in T2DM patients and controls, using as tool a nanoemulsion that mimics LDL lipid structure (LDE).
14C- cholesteryl ester FCR of the nanoemulsion was greater in T2DM than in controls (0.07 ± 0.02 vs. 0.05 ± 0.01 h-1, p = 0.02) indicating that LDE was removed faster, but FCR 3 H- cholesterol was equal in both groups. Esterification rates of LDE free-cholesterol were equal. Cholesteryl ester and triglyceride transfer from LDE to HDL was greater in T2DM (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 3.5 ± 0.7%, p = 0.03 and 6.8 ± 1.6% vs. 5.0 ± 1.1, p = 0.03, respectively). Phospholipid and free cholesterol transfers were not different.
The kinetics of free and esterified cholesterol tended to be independent in T2DM patients and the lipid transfers to HDL were also disturbed. These novel findings may be related with pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetic macrovascular disease.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids.
Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and ³H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions.
The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the ³H-free-cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups.
In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic signaling.