Guillermo Torres

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (424)1788.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present new ALMA observations of CO $J$=2$-$1 line emission from the DQ Tau circumbinary disk. These data are used to tomographically reconstruct the Keplerian disk velocity field in a forward-modeling inference framework, and thereby provide a dynamical constraint on the mass of the DQ Tau binary of $M_\ast = 1.27_{-0.27}^{+0.46} \,M_\odot$. Those results are compared with an updated and improved orbital solution for this double-lined system based on long-term monitoring of its stellar radial velocities. Both of these independent dynamical constraints on the binary mass are in excellent agreement: taken together, they demonstrate that the DQ Tau system mass is $1.21\pm0.26\,M_\odot$ and that the disk and binary orbital planes are aligned within $3^\circ$ (at 3$\sigma$ confidence). The predictions of various theoretical models for pre-main sequence stellar evolution are also consistent with these masses, although more detailed comparisons are difficult due to lingering uncertainties in the photospheric properties of the individual components. DQ Tau is the third nearly equal-mass double-lined spectroscopic binary with a circumbinary disk that has been dynamically "weighed" with these two independent techniques: all show consistent results, validating the overall accuracy of the disk-based approach and demonstrating that it can be robustly applied to large samples of young, single stars as ALMA ramps up to operations at full capacity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system KOI-2939 has a very long orbital period (~1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, KOI-2939b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06+/-0.01 RJup it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light-curve of KOI-2939 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass to be 1.52+/-0.65 MJup. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two Solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric (e_bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth's, KOI-2939b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of HAT-P-57b, a P = 2.4653 day transiting planet around a V = 10.465 +- 0.029 mag, Teff = 7500 +- 250 K main sequence A8V star with a projected rotation velocity of v sin i = 102.1 +- 1.3 km s^-1. We measure the radius of the planet to be R = 1.413 +- 0.054 R_J and, based on RV observations, place a 95% confidence upper limit on its mass of M < 1.85 M_J . Based on theoretical stellar evolution models, the host star has a mass and radius of 1.47 +- 0.12 M_sun, and 1.500 +- 0.050 R_sun, respectively. Spectroscopic observations made with Keck-I/HIRES during a partial transit event show the Doppler shadow of HAT-P-57b moving across the average spectral line profile of HAT-P- 57, confirming the object as a planetary system. We use these observations, together with analytic formulae that we derive for the line profile distortions, to determine the projected angle between the spin axis of HAT-P-57 and the orbital axis of HAT-P-57b. The data permit two possible solutions, with -16.7 deg < lambda < 3.3 deg or 27.6 deg < lambda < 57.4 deg at 95% confidence, and with relative probabilities for the two modes of 26% and 74%, respectively. Adaptive optics imaging with MMT/Clio2 reveals an object located 2.7" from HAT-P-57 consisting of two point sources separated in turn from each other by 0.22". The H and L -band magnitudes of the companion stars are consistent with their being physically associated with HAT-P-57, in which case they are stars of mass 0.61 +- 0.10 M_sun and 0.53 +- 0.08 M_sun. HAT-P-57 is the most rapidly rotating star, and only the fourth main sequence A star, known to host a transiting planet.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Astronomers commonly quote the properties of celestial objects in units of parameters for the Sun, Jupiter, or the Earth. The resolution presented here was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy and passed by the XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts a set of nominal solar, terrestrial, and jovian conversion constants for stellar and (exo)planetary astronomy which are defined to be exact SI values. While the nominal constants are based on current best estimates (CBEs; which have uncertainties, are not secularly constant, and are updated regularly using new observations), they should be interpreted as standard values and not as CBEs. IAU 2015 Resolution B3 adopts five solar conversion constants (nominal solar radius, nominal total solar irradiance, nominal solar luminosity, nominal solar effective temperature, and nominal solar mass parameter) and six planetary conversion constants (nominal terrestrial equatorial radius, nominal terrestrial polar radius, nominal jovian equatorial radius, nominal jovian polar radius, nominal terrestrial mass parameter, and nominal jovian mass parameter).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The XXIXth IAU General Assembly in Honolulu adopted IAU 2015 Resolution B2 on recommended zero points for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. The resolution was proposed by the IAU Inter-Division A-G Working Group on Nominal Units for Stellar and Planetary Astronomy after consulting with a broad spectrum of researchers from the astronomical community. Resolution B2 resolves the long-standing absence of an internationally-adopted zero point for the absolute and apparent bolometric magnitude scales. Resolution B2 defines the zero point of the absolute bolometric magnitude scale such that a radiation source with $M_{\rm Bol}$ = 0 has luminosity L$_{\circ}$ = 3.0128e28 W. The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale ($m_{\rm Bol}$ = 0) corresponds to irradiance $f_{\circ}$ = 2.518021002e-8 W/m$^2$. The zero points were chosen so that the nominal solar luminosity (3.828e26 W) adopted by IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to $M_{\rm Bol}$(Sun) = 4.74, the value most commonly adopted in recent literature. The nominal total solar irradiance (1361 W/m$^2$) adopted in IAU 2015 Resolution B3 corresponds approximately to apparent bolometric magnitude $m_{\rm bol}$(Sun) = -26.832. Implicit in the IAU 2015 Resolution B2 definition of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale is an exact definition for the parsec (648000/$\pi$ au) based on the IAU 2012 Resolution B2 definition of the astronomical unit.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A radial-velocity monitoring of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 0017+0055 over 8 years with the Nordic Optical Telescope and Mercator telescopes reveals variability with a period of 384 d and amplitude of 540$\pm27$ m s$^{-1}$, superimposed on a nearly linear long-term decline of $\sim$1 m s$^{-1}$ day$^{-1}$. High-resolution HERMES/Mercator and Keck/HIRES spectra have been used to derive elemental abundances using 1-D LTE MARCS models. A metallicity of [Fe/H] $\sim -2.4$ is found, along with s-process overabundances on the order of 2 dex (with the exception of [Y/Fe] $\sim+0.5$), and most notably overabundances of r-process elements like Sm, Eu, Dy, and Er in the range 0.9 - 2.0 dex. With [Ba/Fe] $ > 1.9$ dex and [Eu/Fe] = 2.3 dex, HE 0017+0055 is a CEMP-rs star. It appears to be a giant star below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). The s-process pollution must therefore originate from mass transfer from a companion formerly on the AGB, now a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD). If the 384 d velocity variations are attributed to the WD companion, its orbit must be seen almost face-on, with $i \sim 2.3^\circ$, because the mass function is very small: $f(M_1,M_2) = (6.1\pm1.1)\times10^{-6}$ Msun. Alternatively, the WD orbital motion could be responsible for the long-term velocity variations, with a period of several decades. The 384 d variations should then be attributed either to a low-mass inner companion (perhaps a brown dwarf, depending on the orbital inclination), or to stellar pulsations. The latter possibility is made likely by the fact that similar low-amplitude velocity variations, with periods close to 1 yr, have been reported for other CEMP stars in a companion paper (Jorissen et al., 2015). A definite conclusion about the origin of the 384 d velocity variations should however await the detection of synchronous low-amplitude photometric variations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report extensive high-resolution spectroscopic observations and V-band differential photometry of the slightly eccentric 7.02-day detached eclipsing binary V501 Mon (A6m+F0), which we use to determine its absolute dimensions to high precision (0.3% for the masses and 1.8% for the radii, or better). The absolute masses, radii, and temperatures are M(A) = 1.6455 +/- 0.0043 M(Sun), R(A) = 1.888 +/- 0.029 R(Sun), and T(A) = 7510 +/- 100 K for the primary, and M(B) = 1.4588 +/- 0.0025 M(Sun), R(B) = 1.592 +/- 0.028 R(Sun), and T(B) = 7000 +/- 90 K for the secondary. Apsidal motion has been detected, to which General Relativity contributes approximately 70%. The primary star is found to be a metallic-line A star. A detailed chemical analysis of the disentangled spectra yields abundances for more than a dozen elements in each star. Based on the secondary, the system metallicity is near solar: [Fe/H] = +0.01 +/- 0.06. Lithium is detected in the secondary but not in the primary. A comparison with current stellar evolution models shows a good match to the measured properties at an age of about 1.1 Gyr.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    DESCRIPTION: We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust in the disk orbiting the pre-main sequence (pre-MS) binary AK Sco. By forward-modeling the disk velocity field traced by CO J = 2–1 line emission, we infer the mass of the central binary, M_star =2.49+/- 0.10 M_sun, a new dynamical measurement that is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Assuming the disk and binary are co-planar within ∼2°, this disk-based binary mass measurement is in excellent agreement with constraints from radial velocity monitoring of the combined stellar spectra. These ALMA results are also compared with the standard approach of estimating masses from the location of the binary in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, using several common pre-MS model grids. These models predict stellar masses that are marginally consistent with our dynamical measurement (at ∼2σ), but are systematically high (by ∼10%). These same models consistently predict an age of 18 ± 1 Myr for AK Sco, in line with its membership in the Upper Centaurus–Lupus association but surprisingly old for it to still host a gas-rich disk. As ALMA accumulates comparable data for large samples of pre-MS stars, the methodology employed here to extract a dynamical mass from the disk rotation curve should prove extraordinarily useful for efforts to characterize the fundamental parameters of early stellar evolution.
    Full-text · Research · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of Kepler-453 b, a 6.2 R' planet in a low-eccentricity, 240.5 day orbit about an eclipsing binary. The binary itself consists of a 0.94 and 0.195 M pair of stars with an orbital period of 27.32 days. The plane of the planet's orbit is rapidly precessing, and its inclination only becomes sufficiently aligned with the primary star in the latter portion of the Kepler data. Thus three transits are present in the second half of the light curve, but none of the three conjunctions that occurred during the first half of the light curve produced observable transits. The precession period is 103 years, and during that cycle, transits are visible only ∼8.9% of the time. This has the important implication that for every system like Kepler-453 that we detect, there are ∼11.5 circumbinary systems that exist but are not currently exhibiting transits. The planet's mass is too small to noticeably perturb the binary, and consequently its mass is not measurable with these data; however, our photodynamical model places a 1δ upper limit of 16 M. With a period 8.8 times that of the binary, the planet is well outside the dynamical instability zone. It does, however, lie within the habitable zone of the binary, making i the third of 10 Kepler circumbinary planets to do so. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery and validation of Kepler-452b, a transiting planet identified by a search through the 4 years of data collected by NASA's Kepler Mission. This possibly rocky 1.63$^{+0.23}_{-0.20}$ R$_\oplus$ planet orbits its G2 host star every 384.843$^{+0.007}_{0.012}$ days, the longest orbital period for a small (R$_p$ < 2 R$_\oplus$) transiting exoplanet to date. The likelihood that this planet has a rocky composition lies between 49% and 62%. The star has an effective temperature of 5757$\pm$85 K and a log g of 4.32$\pm$0.09. At a mean orbital separation of 1.046$^{+0.019}_{-0.015}$ AU, this small planet is well within the optimistic habitable zone of its star (recent Venus/early Mars), experiencing only 10% more flux than Earth receives from the Sun today, and slightly outside the conservative habitable zone (runaway greenhouse/maximum greenhouse). The star is slightly larger and older than the Sun, with a present radius of 1.11$^{+0.15}_{-0.09}$ R$_\odot$ and an estimated age of 6 Gyr. Thus, Kepler-452b has likely always been in the habitable zone and should remain there for another 3 Gyr.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new transiting extrasolar planet, HAT-P-55b. The planet orbits a V = 13.207 +/- 0.039 sun-like star with a mass of 1.013 +/- 0.037 solar masses, a radius of 1.011 +/- 0.036 solar radii and a metallicity of -0.03 +/- 0.08. The planet itself is a typical hot Jupiter with a period of 3.5852467 +/- 0.0000064 days, a mass of 0.582 +/- 0.056 Jupiter masses and a radius of 1.182 +/- 0.055 Jupiter radii. This discovery adds to the increasing sample of transiting planets with measured bulk densities, which is needed to put constraints on models of planetary structure and formation theories.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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    Guillermo Torres · Antonio Claret · Kresimir Pavlovski · Aaron Dotter
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the chemical composition and absolute masses of Capella are key to understanding the evolutionary state of this benchmark binary system comprising two giant stars. Previous efforts, including our own 2009 study, have largely failed to reach an acceptable agreement between the observations and current stellar evolution models, preventing us from assessing the status of the primary. Here we report a revision of the physical properties of the components incorporating recently published high-precision radial velocity measurements, and a new detailed chemical analysis providing abundances for more than 20 elements in both stars. We obtain highly precise (to about 0.3%) masses of 2.5687 +/- 0.0074 and 2.4828 +/- 0.0067 solar masses, radii of 11.98 +/- 0.57 and 8.83 +/- 0.33 solar radii, effective temperatures of 4970 +/- 50 K and 5730 +/- 60 K, and independently measured luminosities based on the orbital parallax (78.7 +/- 4.2 and 72.7 +/- 3.6 solar luminosities). We find an excellent match to stellar evolution models at the measured composition of [Fe/H] = -0.04 +/- 0.06. Three different sets of models place the primary star firmly at the end of the core helium-burning phase (clump), while the secondary is known to be evolving rapidly across the Hertzprung gap. The measured lithium abundance, the C/N ratio, and the 12C/13C isotopic carbon abundance ratio, which change rapidly in the giant phase, are broadly in agreement with expectations from models. Predictions from tidal theory for the spin rates, spin-orbit alignment, and other properties do not fare as well, requiring a 40-fold increase in the efficiency of the dissipation mechanisms in order to match the observations.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present spatially and spectrally resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of gas and dust in the disk orbiting the pre-main sequence binary AK Sco. By forward-modeling the disk velocity field traced by CO J=2-1 line emission, we infer the mass of the central binary, $M_\ast = 2.49 \pm 0.10~M_\odot$, a new dynamical measurement that is independent of stellar evolutionary models. Assuming the disk and binary are co-planar within $\sim$2{\deg}, this disk-based binary mass measurement is in excellent agreement with constraints from radial velocity monitoring of the combined stellar spectra. These ALMA results are also compared with the standard approach of estimating masses from the location of the binary in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, using several common pre-main sequence model grids. These models predict stellar masses that are marginally consistent with our dynamical measurement (at $\sim 2\,\sigma$), but are systematically high (by $\sim$10%). These same models consistently predict an age of $18\pm1$ Myr for AK Sco, in line with its membership in the Upper Centaurus-Lupus association but surprisingly old for it to still host a gas-rich disk. As ALMA accumulates comparable data for large samples of pre-main sequence stars, the methodology employed here to extract a dynamical mass from the disk rotation curve should prove extraordinarily useful for efforts to characterize the fundamental parameters of early stellar evolution.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the properties of both components of the RS CVn binary sigma Geminorum (sigma Gem), we directly detect the faint companion, measure the orbit, obtain model-independent masses and evolutionary histories, detect ellipsoidal variations of the primary caused by the gravity of the companion, and measure gravity darkening. We detect the companion with interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC) at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array with a primary-to-secondary H-band flux ratio of 270+/-70. A radial velocity curve of the companion was obtained with spectra from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO). We additionally use new observations from the Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic and Photometric Telescopes (AST and APT, respectively). From our orbit, we determine model-independent masses of the components (M_1 = 1.28 +/- 0.07 M_Sun, M_2 = 0.73 +/- 0.03 M_Sun), and estimate a system age of 5 -/+ 1 Gyr. An average of the 27-year APT light curve of sigma Gem folded over the orbital period (P = 19.6027 +/- 0.0005 days) reveals a quasi-sinusoidal signature, which has previously been attributed to active longitudes 180 deg apart on the surface of sigma Gem. With the component masses, diameters, and orbit, we find that the predicted light curve for ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential matches well with the observed average light curve, offering a compelling alternative explanation to the active longitudes hypothesis. Measuring gravity darkening from the light curve gives beta < 0.1, a value slightly lower than that expected from recent theory.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report accurate measurements of the physical properties (mass, radius, temperature) of components of the G+M eclipsing binary V530 Ori. The M-type secondary shows a larger radius and a cooler temperature than predicted by standard stellar evolution models, as has been found for many other low-mass stars and ascribed to the effects of magnetic activity and/or spots. We show that models from the Dartmouth series that incorporate magnetic fields are able to match the observations with plausible field strengths of 1-2 kG, consistent with a rough estimate we derive for that star.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a survey of 41 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) for exomoons using Bayesian photodynamics, more than tripling the number of KOIs surveyed with this technique. We find no compelling evidence for exomoons although thirteen KOIs yield spurious detections driven by instrumental artifacts, stellar activity and/or perturbations from unseen bodies. Regarding the latter, we find seven KOIs exhibiting >5 sigma evidence of transit timing variations, including the 'mega-Earth' Kepler-10c, likely indicating an additional planet in that system. We exploit the moderately large sample of 57 unique KOIs surveyed to date to infer several useful statistics. For example, although there is a diverse range in sensitivities, we find that we are sensitive to Pluto-Charon mass-ratio systems for ~40% of KOIs studied and Earth-Moon mass-ratios for 1 in 8 cases. In terms of absolute mass, our limits probe down to 1.7 Ganymede masses, with a sensitivity to Earth-mass moons for 1 in 3 cases studied and to the smallest moons capable of sustaining an Earth-like atmosphere (0.3 Earth masses) for 1 in 4. Despite the lack of positive detections to date, we caution against drawing conclusions yet, since our most interesting objects remain under analysis. Finally, we point out that had we searched for the photometric transit signals of exomoons alone, rather than using photodynamics, we estimate that 1 in 4 KOIs would have erroneously been concluded to harbor exomoons due to residual time correlated noise in the Kepler data, posing a serious problem for alternative methods.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: V1094 Tau is bright eclipsing binary star with an orbital period close to 9 days containing two stars similar to the Sun. Our aim is to test models of Sun-like stars using precise and accurate mass and radius measurements for both stars in V1094 Tau. We present new spectroscopy of V1094 Tau which we use to estimate the effective temperatures of both stars and to refine their spectroscopic orbits. We also present new, high-quality photometry covering both eclipses of V1094 Tau in the Stroemgren uvby system and in the Johnson V-band. The masses, radii and effective temperatures of the stars in V1094 Tau are found to be M$_A$ = 1.0964 $\pm$ 0.0040 M$_{\odot}$, R$_A$ = 1.4129 $\pm$ 0.0058 R$_{\odot}$, T$_{\rm eff,A}$ = 5850 $\pm$ 100 K, and M$_B$ = 1.0120 $\pm$ 0.0028 M$_{\odot}$, R$_B$ = 1.0913 $\pm$ 0.0066 R$_{\odot}$, T$_{\rm eff,B}$ = 5700 $\pm$ 100 K. An analysis of the times of mid-eclipse and the radial velocity data reveals apsidal motion with a period of 14500 $\pm$ 3700 years. The observed masses, radii and effective temperatures are consistent with stellar models for an age $\approx$ 6 Gyr if the stars are assumed to have a metallicity similar to the Sun. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with our estimate of the metallicity derived using Stroemgren photometry and treating the binary as a single star ([Fe/H] $= -0.09 \pm 0.11$). The rotation velocities of the stars suggest that V1094 Tau is close to the limit at which tidal interactions between the stars force them to rotate pseudo-synchronously with the orbital motion.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery and characterization of four transiting exoplanets by the HATNet survey. The planet HAT-P-50b has a mass of 1.35 M_J and a radius of 1.29 R_J, and orbits a bright (V = 11.8 mag) M = 1.27 M_sun, R = 1.70 R_sun star every P = 3.1220 days. The planet HAT-P-51b has a mass of 0.31 M_J and a radius of 1.29 R_J, and orbits a V = 13.4 mag, M = 0.98 M_sun, R = 1.04 R_sun star with a period of P = 4.2180 days. The planet HAT-P-52b has a mass of 0.82 M_J and a radius of 1.01 R_J, and orbits a V = 14.1 mag, M = 0.89 M_sun, R = 0.89 R_sun star with a period of P = 2.7536 days. The planet HAT-P-53b has a mass of 1.48 M_J and a radius of 1.32 R_J, and orbits a V = 13.7 mag, M = 1.09 M_sun, R = 1.21 R_sun star with a period of P = 1.9616 days. All four planets are consistent with having circular orbits and have masses and radii measured to better than 10% precision. The low stellar jitter and favorable R_P/R_star ratio for HAT-P-51 make it a promising target for measuring the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for a Saturn-mass planet.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) NASA's Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates, yet only a small subset have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) amongst the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 microns. We use these observations to measures the candidate's transit depths and infrared magnitudes. A bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false-positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5-40%, depending on the KOIs. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3 sigma. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated by the Kepler observations, provides an independent indication that Kepler's false positive rate is low.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present first results of a long-term study: Searching for OB-type runaway stars inside supernova remnants (SNRs). We identified spectral types and measured radial velocities by optical spectroscopic observations and we found an early type runaway star inside SNR S147. HD 37424 is a B0.5V-type star with a peculiar velocity of 74 ± 8 km s−1. Tracing back the past trajectories via Monte Carlo simulations, we found that HD 37424 was located at the same position as the central compact object, PSR J0538+2817, 30 ± 4 kyr ago. This position is only ∼4 arcmin away from the geometrical centre of the SNR. So, we suggest that HD 37424 was the pre-supernova binary companion to the progenitor of the pulsar and the SNR. We found a distance of 1333${^{+103}_{-112}}$ pc to the SNR. The zero-age main sequence progenitor mass should be greater than 13 M⊙. The age is 30 ± 4 kyr and the total visual absorption towards the centre is 1.28 ± 0.06 mag. For different progenitor masses, we calculated the pre-supernova binary parameters. The Roche lobe radii suggest that it was an interacting binary in the late stages of the progenitor.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,788.26 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995-2015
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2014
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • Georgia State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1998-2012
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2011
    • SETI Institute
      Mountain View, California, United States
  • 2002
    • San Diego State University
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989-1994
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel