[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large case/control Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) often include groups of related individuals with known relationships. When testing for associations at a given locus, current methods incorporate only the familial relationships between individuals. Here, we introduce the chromosome-based Quasi Likelihood Score (cQLS) statistic that incorporates local Identity-By-Descent (IBD) to increase the power to detect associations. In studies robust to population stratification, such as those with case/control sibling pairs, simulations show that the study power can be increased by over 50%. In our example, a GWAS examining late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, the p-values among the most strongly associated SNPs in the APOE gene tend to decrease, with the smallest p-value decreasing from 1.23×10−8 to 7.70×10−9. Furthermore, as a part of our simulations, we reevaluate our expectations about the use of families in GWAS. We show that, although adding only half as many unique chromosomes, genotyping affected siblings is more efficient than genotyping randomly ascertained cases. We also show that genotyping cases with a family history of disease will be less beneficial when searching for SNPs with smaller effect sizes.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The Annals of Applied Statistics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new method to estimate the predictive performance of polygenic models for risk prediction and assess predictive performance for ten complex traits or common diseases. Using estimates of effect-size distribution and heritability derived from current studies, we project that although 45% of the variance of height has been attributed to SNPs, a model trained on one million people may only explain 33.4% of variance of the trait. Models based on current studies allow for identification of 3.0%, 1.1% and 7.0% of the populations at twofold or higher than average risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and prostate cancer, respectively. Tripling of sample sizes could elevate these percentages to 18.8%, 6.1% and 12.2%, respectively. The utility of polygenic models for risk prediction will depend on achievable sample sizes for the training data set, the underlying genetic architecture and the inclusion of information on other risk factors, including family history.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis
of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated
single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus
methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic
cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case–control studies (PanScan). We compiled
23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic
cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10−6, 1.6 × 10−5, 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways
(NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10−5), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H.
pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer
and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic
risk variants in cancer.