Roberto Giugliani

Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre, Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (477)1194.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Despite being reported for the first time almost one century ago, only in the last few decades effective have treatments become available for the mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), a group of 11 inherited metabolic diseases that affect lysosomal function. These diseases are progressive, usually severe, and, in a significant number of cases, involve cognitive impairment. Areas covered: This review will not cover established treatments such as bone marrow/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and classic intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), whose long-term outcomes have already been published (MPS I, MPS II, and MPS VI), but it instead focuses on emerging therapies for MPSs. That includes intravenous ERT for MPS IVA and VII, intrathecal ERT, ERT with fusion proteins, substrate reduction therapy, gene therapy, and other novel approaches. Expert opinion: The available treatments have resulted in improvements for several disease manifestations, but they still do not represent a cure for these diseases; thus, it is important to develop alternative methods to approach the unmet needs (i.e. bone disease, heart valve disease, corneal opacity, and central nervous system (CNS) involvement). The work in progress with novel approaches makes us confident that in 2017, when MPS will commemorate 100 years of its first report, we will be much closer to an effective cure for these challenging conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
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    ABSTRACT: and Aims . The use of bone marrow cells has been suggested as an alternative treatment for acute liver failure. In this study, we investigate the effect of encapsulated whole bone marrow cells in a liver failure model. Methods . Encapsulated cells or empty capsules were implanted in rats submitted to 90% partial hepatectomy. The survival rate was assessed. Another group was euthanized at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after hepatectomy to study expression of cytokines and growth factors. Results . Whole bone marrow group showed a higher than 10 days survival rate compared to empty capsules group. Gene expression related to early phase of liver regeneration at 6 hours after hepatectomy was decreased in encapsulated cells group, whereas genes related to regeneration were increased at 12, 24, and 48 hours. Whole bone marrow group showed lower regeneration rate at 72 hours and higher expression and activity of caspase 3. In contrast, lysosomal- β -glucuronidase activity was elevated in empty capsules group. Conclusions . The results show that encapsulated whole bone marrow cells reduce the expression of genes involved in liver regeneration and increase those responsible for ending hepatocyte division. In addition, these cells favor apoptotic cell death and decrease necrosis, thus increasing survival.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Stem cell International
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: CDKN2A is the main high-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, but it has been poorly assessed in Latin America. We sought to analyze CDKN2A and MC1R in patients from Latin America with familial and sporadic multiple primary melanoma (SMP) and compare the data with those for patients from Spain to establish bases for melanoma genetic counseling in Latin America. Methods: CDKN2A and MC1R were sequenced in 186 Latin American patients from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay, and in 904 Spanish patients. Clinical and phenotypic data were obtained. Results: Overall, 24 and 14% of melanoma-prone families in Latin America and Spain, respectively, had mutations in CDKN2A. Latin American families had CDKN2A mutations more frequently (P = 0.014) than Spanish ones. Of patients with SMP, 10% of those from Latin America and 8.5% of those from Spain had mutations in CDKN2A (P = 0.623). The most recurrent CDKN2A mutations were c.-34G>T and p.G101W. Latin American patients had fairer hair (P = 0.016) and skin (P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of MC1R variants (P = 0.003) compared with Spanish patients. Conclusion: The inclusion criteria for genetic counseling of melanoma in Latin America may be the same criteria used in Spain, as suggested in areas with low to medium incidence, SMP with at least two melanomas, or families with at least two cases among first- or second-degree relatives.Genet Med advance online publication 17 December 2015Genetics in Medicine (2015); doi:10.1038/gim.2015.160.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FFL) and polysomnography (PSG) findings in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI and to describe upper airway anatomical findings and abnormal PSG results in these patients. In this cross-sectional study, all MPS VI patients followed up at the genetic division of a hospital in southern Brazil were included. Overnight PSG was performed, and the results were classified as normal or mildly, moderately, or severely abnormal. FFL was performed between 7 days before and 7 days after PSG. FFL findings were classified as (1) no obstruction, (2) mild obstruction, (3) moderate obstruction, or (4) severe obstruction of the airways, using the highest score obtained in all the regions.Eleven patients with MPS VI were included. FFL detected severe airway obstruction in eight (72.7%) patients, moderate obstruction in two (18.2%), and mild obstruction in one (9.1%). PSG revealed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in nine (81.8%) patients. Among these, mild OSAS was observed in five (45.5%) patients, moderate OSAS in three (27.2%), and severe OSAS in one (9.1%). Moderate to severe hypertrophy of the nasal turbinates was found in 81.8% of the patients, and 64% had severe infiltration in the supraglottic region. There was no association between FFL and PSG findings (p = 0.454; κ = -0.09; 95%CI = -0.34 to 0.17), indicating no agreement between the two methods. In the present study, all patients with MPS showed some degree of airway obstruction. We suggest performing PSG in MPS patients to determine disease severity.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a group of almost 50 monogenic diseases characterized by mutations causing deficiency of lysosomal enzymes or non-enzyme proteins involved in transport across the lysosomal membrane, protein maturation or lysosomal biogenesis. Usually, affected patients are normal at birth and have a progressive and severe disease with high morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The overall incidence of LSDs is usually estimated as 1:5000, but newborn screening studies are indicating that it could be much higher. Specific therapies were already developed for selected LSDs, making the timely and correct diagnosis very important for successful treatment and also for genetic counseling. In most LSD cases the biochemical techniques provide a reliable diagnosis. However, the identification of pathogenic mutations by genetic analysis is being increasingly recommended to provide additional information. In this paper we discuss the conventional methods for genetic analysis used in the LSDs (restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP], amplification-refractory mutation system [ARMS], single strand conformation polymorphism [SSCP], denaturing high performance liquid chromatography [dHPLC], real-time polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR], high resolution melting [HRM], multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification [MLPA], Sanger sequencing) and also the newer approaches (massive parallel sequencing, array comparative genomic hybridization [CGH]).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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    ABSTRACT: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare genetic diseases caused by a deficiency of specific enzymes involved in catabolism of glycosaminoglycans, which causes multisystem abnormalities. Quality of life (QoL) is directly associated with physical, mental, and psychological well-being and with social relationships, including family and friends.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ARSB gene, which lead to deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme ASB. This enzyme is important for the breakdown of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which accumulate in body tissues and organs of MPS VI patients. The storage of GAGs (especially dermatan sulfate) causes bone dysplasia, joint restriction, organomegaly, heart disease, and corneal clouding, among several other problems, and reduced life span. Despite the fact that most cases are severe, there is a spectrum of severity and some cases are so attenuated that diagnosis is made late in life. Although the analysis of urinary GAGs and/or the measurement of enzyme activity in dried blood spots are useful screening methods, the diagnosis is based in the demonstration of the enzyme deficiency in leucocytes or fibroblasts, and/or in the identification of pathogenic mutations in the ARSB gene. Specific treatment with enzyme replacement has been available since 2005. It is safe and effective, bringing measurable benefits and increased survival to patients. As several evidences indicate that early initiation of therapy may lead to a better outcome, newborn screening is being considered for this condition, and it is already in place in selected areas where the incidence of MPS VI is increased. However, as enzyme replacement therapy is not curative, associated therapies should be considered, and research on innovative therapies continues. The management of affected patients by a multidisciplinary team with experience in MPS diseases is highly recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Application of Clinical Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of 11 inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) which are part of the lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). The MPS are multisystemic conditions that affect the entire body, with variations in the clinical presentation, having specific treatments available depending on the type of MPS. Nearly all MPS disorders compromise the osteoarticular system in different ways, and virtually all patients have abnormal urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS are rare diseases that are underdiagnosed due to health-care professionals' lack of awareness, to poor access to screening and diagnostic methods, and to their extensive clinical heterogeneity. Attenuated forms may occur, which can make diagnosis of MPS even more difficult. This study was conducted prospectively from March 2012 to January 2014 and included 55 patients at rheumatology and/or orthopedic services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The screened patients presented with articular manifestations with no defined etiology. These patients were screened by quantitative and qualitative assessment of urinary GAGs. Among the 55 cases investigated, one 15-year-old patient exhibited increased urinary GAG excretion; this patient was subsequently diagnosed with an attenuated form of MPS II, which was previously undetected. Although the proportion of patients with MPS identified in the study sample was small (1/55), this study shows that these diseases are underdiagnosed and that systematic screening can help identify patients who may benefit from specific treatments already available for several MPS types.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Gene

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · La Revue de Médecine Interne
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    ABSTRACT: The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of community genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. MLD is caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ARSA), a lysosomal enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the degradation of sulfated glycolipids, which are essential components of the myelin sheet. Notably, between 7% and 15% of healthy individuals show in vitro deficiency of ARSA, a condition called ARSA pseudodeficiency (ARSA-PD). To date, 151 ARSA-MLD mutations have been reported in the gene encoding ARSA (ARSA), among which IVS2+1G>A and P426L occur at high frequencies in most of the studied populations. The aim of this work was to identify ARSA mutant alleles in a cohort of 27 unrelated Brazilian MLD patients. The most frequent ARSA-MLD mutation, IVS2+1G>A, and the ARSA-PD polymorphisms, N350S and 1524+95A>G, were detected using real-time PCR, while the remaining mutations were detected using direct sequencing of ARSA. In concordance with previous reports, IVS2+1G>A and P426L were the most common ARSA-MLD mutations in our cohort of MLD patients, found at frequencies of 0.05 and 0.08, respectively. Interestingly, two mutations previously reported as rare, 103_110del8 and 1190_1191insC, were found at higher frequencies in our cohort of MLD patients, 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. Additionally, 11 other rare ARSA-MLD mutations were found at lower frequencies in our cohort of MLD patients. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic genotypic characterization of MLD patients from Latin America. This work highlights the genetic heterogeneity of MLD, and supports genotype-phenotype associations, which become more important as specific treatments are being developed for this devastating disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Gene
  • M Camelier · J De Mari · M Burin · G Civallero · R Giugliani
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    ABSTRACT: Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of genetic conditions which could present a vast spectrum of abnormalities that may include skeletal abnormalities, organ dysfunction, neuronal involvement, and tissue accumulation of complex molecules, among other manifestations. Definitive diagnosis of LSDs is generally obtained by specific enzyme assays performed in leukocytes, fibroblasts, or more recently, dried-blood filter paper (DBFP) samples. We recently introduced dried-leukocytes filter paper (DLFP) as an alternative source of enzyme to assay heparan sulfamidase and galactocerebrosidase activities, which could not be measured in DBFP samples using fluorometric methods. We present a new fluorometric methods on DLFP samples, for evaluation of α-glucosidase (GAA), β-glucosidase (GBA), and N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) activities, key enzyme assays for the identification of patients with Pompe disease (PD), Gaucher disease (GD), and Morquio A disease (MD), respectively. We show a clear discrimination between confirmed PD, GD, and MD patients and healthy controls. We conclude that the assays of GAA, GBA, and GALNS on DLFP are reliable and useful methods for the identification of PD, GD, and MD diseases, respectively. As sample preparation is feasible in standard biochemical laboratories and transportation is very simple, it could enable patients living in remote areas to be investigated, diagnosed and eventually treated with the specific therapies available for these diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with loss of activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. In addition to accumulation of α-galactosidase A substrates, other mechanisms may be involved in FD pathophysiology, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher levels of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in Fabry patients were previously reported. However, DNA damage by oxidative species in FD has not yet been studied. We investigated basal DNA damage, oxidative DNA damage, DNA repair capacity, and reactive species generation in Fabry patients and controls. To measure oxidative damage to purines and pyrimidines, the alkaline version of the comet assay was used with two endonucleases, formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (FPG) and endonuclease III (EndoIII). To evaluate DNA repair, a challenge assay with hydrogen peroxide was performed. Patients presented significantly higher levels of basal DNA damage and oxidative damage to purines. Oxidative DNA damage was induced in both DNA bases by H2O2 in patients. Fabry patients presented efficient DNA repair in both assays (with and without endonucleases) as well as significantly higher levels of oxidative species (measured by dichlorofluorescein content). Even if DNA repair be induced in Fabry patients (as a consequence of continuous exposure to oxidative species), the repair is not sufficient to reduce DNA damage to control levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated wi
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative lipid storage disorder with heterogeneous clinical presentation and challenging diagnostic procedures. Recently oxysterols have been reported to be specific biomarkers for NP-C but knowledge on the intra-individual variation and on reference intervals in children and adolescents are lacking. We established a LC-MS/MS assay to measure Cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) following Steglich esterification. To assess reference intervals and intra-individual variation we determined oxysterols in 148 children and adolescents from 0-18 years and repeat measurements in 19 of them. The reported method is linear (r >0.99), sensitive (detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL [0.07 nM] for C-triol, and 0.54 ng/mL [1.35 nM] for 7-KC) and precise, with an intra-day imprecision of 4.8% and 4.1%, and an inter-day imprecision of 7.0% and 11.0% for C-triol (28 ng/ml, 67 nM) and 7-KC (32 ng/ml, 80 nM), respectively. Recoveries for 7-KC and C-triol range between 93 % and 107 %. The upper reference limit obtained for C-triol is 40.4 ng/mL (95% CI:26.4-61.7 ng/mL, 96.0 nM, 95% CI:62.8-146.7 nM) and 75.0 ng/mL for 7-KC (95% CI:55.5-102.5 ng/mL, 187.2 nM, 95% CI:138.53-255.8 nM), with no age or gender dependency. Both oxysterols have a broad intra-individual variation of 46%±23% for C-triol and 52%±29% for 7-KC. Nevertheless, all Niemann-Pick patients showed increased C-triol levels including Niemann Pick type A and B patients. The LC-MS/MS assay is a robust assay to quantify C-triol and 7-KC in plasma with well documented reference intervals in children and adolescents to screen for NP-C in the pediatric population. In addition our results suggest that especially the C-triol is a biomarker for all three Niemann-Pick diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The recent progress in genome editing technology using the engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN), and more recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system have enabled the possibility of precisely modifying target sites in the genome. This technology brings hope of a cure for many genetic diseases. With this review, our goal is to discuss how targeted genome editing can be combined with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and other approaches to be used for the treatment of a particular group of genetic diseases, the lysosomal storage disorders. We also highlight which diseases within this group would potentially benefit from this treatment and what are the main problems to be addressed to transform this promising technology into reality.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Outcomes from 5 years of treatment with agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease in patients enrolled in the Fabry Outcome Survey (FOS) were compared with published findings for untreated patients with Fabry disease. Data were extracted from FOS, a Shire-sponsored database, for comparison with data from three published studies. Outcomes evaluated were the annualized rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular mass indexed to height (LVMI) as well as time to and ages at a composite morbidity endpoint and at death. FOS data were extracted for 740 treated patients who were followed for a median of ~ 5 years. Compared with no treatment, patients treated with agalsidase alfa demonstrated slower decline in renal function and slower progression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Treated male patients with baseline eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a mean (standard error of the mean [SEM]) annualized change in eGFR of − 2.86 (0.53) mL/min/1.73 m2/y compared with − 6.8 (1.5) in the published untreated cohort. The mean (SEM) rate of LVMI increase with treatment was 0.33 (0.10) g/m2.7/y in males and 0.48 (0.09) in females, compared with 4.07 (1.03) in untreated males and 2.31 (0.81) in untreated females. Morbidity occurred later in treated patients, with ~ 16% risk of a composite morbidity event (26% in males) after 24 months with ERT versus ~ 45% without treatment, with first events and deaths also occurring at older ages in patients administered ERT (e.g., estimated median survival in treated males was 77.5 years versus 60 years in untreated males). Findings from these retrospective comparisons of observational data and published literature support the long-term benefits of ERT with agalsidase alfa for Fabry disease in slowing the progression of renal impairment and cardiomyopathy. Treatment also appeared to delay the onset of morbidity and mortality. Interpretation of these findings should take into account that they are based on retrospective comparisons with previously published data.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,194.63 Total Impact Points


  • 1986-2016
    • Hospital De Clínicas De Porto Alegre
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 1985-2015
    • Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
      • Departamento de Bioquímica
      Pôrto de São Francisco dos Casaes, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  • 2014
    • Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Los Andes University (Colombia)
      • Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas
      Bogotá, Bogota D.C., Colombia
    • Federal University of Pará
      • Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB)
      Pará, Pará, Brazil
  • 2008
    • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR)
      Curityba, Paraná, Brazil
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1985-2006
    • University of São Paulo
      • • Faculty of Medicine (FM)
      • • Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine (FMRP)
      São Paulo, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 1992
    • Hospital de Clínicas Niterói
      Vila Real da Praia Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      • Hospital das Clínicas
      Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil