K Sahashi

Aichi Medical University, Koromo, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (114)282.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK-MG) accounts for 5 to 15% of autoimmune MG. MuSK and LRP4 are coreceptors for agrin in the signaling pathway that causes clustering of acetylcholine receptor (AChR). MuSK also anchors the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/collagen Q (ColQ) complex to the synaptic basal lamina. We previously reported that anti-MuSK antibodies (MuSK-IgG) block binding of ColQ to MuSK and cause partial endplate AChE deficiency in mice. We here analyzed the physiological significance of binding of ColQ to MuSK and block of this binding by MuSK-IgG. In vitro plate-binding assay showed that MuSK-IgG blocked MuSK-LRP4 interaction in the presence of agrin. Passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to Colq-knockout mice attenuated AChR clustering, indicating that lack of ColQ is not the key event causing defective clustering of AChR in MuSK-MG. In three MuSK-MG patients, the MuSK antibodies recognized the first and fourth immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig1 and Ig4) of MuSK. In two other MuSK-MG patients, they recognized only the Ig4 domain. LRP4 and ColQ also bound to the Ig1 and Ig4 domains of MuSK. Unexpectedly, the AChE/ColQ complex blocked MuSK-LRP4 interaction and suppressed agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling. Quantitative analysis showed that MuSK-IgG suppressed agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling to a greater extent than ColQ.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by transcription of CUG repeat RNA, which causes sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) and upregulation of CUG triplet repeat RNA-binding protein (CUG-BP1). In DM1, dysregulation of these proteins contributes to many aberrant splicing events, causing various symptoms of the disorder. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of aberrant splicing of LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3) exon 11 in DM1 skeletal muscle. Exon array surveys, RT-PCR, and western blotting studies demonstrated that exon 11 inclusion was DM1 specific and could be reproduced by transfection of a minigene containing the CTG repeat expansion. Moreover, we found that the LDB3 exon 11-positive isoform had reduced affinity for PKC compared to the exon 11-negative isoform. Since PKC exhibits hyperactivation in DM1 and stabilizes CUG-BP1 by phosphorylation, aberrant splicing of LDB3 may contribute to CUG-BP1 upregulation through changes in its affinity for PKC.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Neurobiology of Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by transcription of CUG repeat RNA, which causes sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) and upregulation of CUG triplet repeat RNA-binding protein (CUG-BP1). In DM1, dysregulation of these proteins contributes to many aberrant splicing events, causing various symptoms of the disorder. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of aberrant splicing of LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3) exon 11 in DM1 skeletal muscle. Exon array surveys, RT-PCR, and western blotting studies demonstrated that exon 11 inclusion was DM1 specific and could be reproduced by transfection of a minigene containing the CTG repeat expansion. Moreover, we found that the LDB3 exon 11-positive isoform had reduced affinity for PKC compared to the exon 11-negative isoform. Since PKC exhibits hyperactivation in DM1 and stabilizes CUG-BP1 by phosphorylation, aberrant splicing of LDB3 may contribute to CUG-BP1 upregulation through changes in its affinity for PKC.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Neurobiology of Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant type of myotonia (Thomsen's disease) and autosomal-recessive one (Becker's disease) are caused by mutations in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated chloride channel gene (CLCN1). Clinical manifestation of the diseases ranges from minimum to severely disabling myotonia. We report a Japanese family with Thomsen's disease, featuring an index female young patient who possesses two dominantly-inherited mutated CLCN1 alleles. She showed severe myotonic symptoms from 18 months of age, associated with moderate muscle hypertrophy. Her mother had mild myotonic signs without muscle hypertrophy. Her father was quite normal by both clinical and electromyographic examinations. With genomic DNA extracted from blood leukocytes, all 23 exons of the CLCN1 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing of PCR products. The analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations of T539A and M560T in the index patient, a heterozygous mutation of T539A in her mother, and a heterozygous mutation of M560T in her father. Since both mutations were previously described in families of Thomsen's disease, her father was regarded as a non-symptomatic carrier. The family reveals that compound heterozygosity of two dominantly inheritable disease mutations exacerbates the myotonia, suggesting the dosage effect of CLCN1 mutation responsible for myotonia congenita of Thomsen type.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of the voltage gated sodium channel gene (SCN4A) are responsible for non-dystrophic myotonia including hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita, and sodium channel myotonia, as well as congenital myasthenic syndrome. In vitro functional analyses have demonstrated the non-dystrophic mutants to show a gain-of-function defect of the channel; a disruption of fast inactivation, an enhancement of activation, or both, while the myasthenic mutation presents a loss-of function defect. This report presents a case of non-dystrophic myotonia that is incidentally accompanied with acquired myasthenia. The patient presented a marked warm-up phenomenon of myotonia but the repeated short exercise test suggested mutations of the sodium channel. The genetic analysis identified a novel mutation, G1292D, of SCN4A. A functional study of the mutant channel revealed marked enhancement of activation and slight impairment of fast inactivation, which should induce muscle hyperexcitability. The effects of the alteration of channel function to the myasthenic symptoms were explored by using stimulation of repetitive depolarization pulses. A use-dependent channel inactivation was reduced in the mutant in comparison to normal channel, thus suggesting an opposing effect to myasthenia.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Neuroscience Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an RNA gain-of-function disorder in which abnormally expanded CTG repeats of DMPK sequestrate a splicing trans-factor MBNL1 and upregulate another splicing trans-factor CUGBP1. To identify a diverse array of aberrantly spliced genes, we performed the exon array analysis of DM1 muscles. We analyzed 72 exons by RT-PCR and found that 27 were aberrantly spliced, whereas 45 were not. Among these, 25 were novel and especially splicing aberrations of LDB3 exon 4 and TTN exon 45 were unique to DM1. Retrospective analysis revealed that four parameters efficiently detect aberrantly spliced exons: (i) the signal intensity is high; (ii) the ratio of probe sets with reliable signal intensities (that is, detection above background P-value=0.000) is high within a gene; (iii) the splice index (SI) is high; and (iv) SI is deviated from SIs of the other exons that can be estimated by calculating the deviation value (DV). Application of the four parameters gave rise to a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 95.6% in our data set. We propose that calculation of DV, which is unique to our analysis, is of particular importance in analyzing the exon array data.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) accounts for 5%-15% of autoimmune MG. MuSK mediates the agrin-signaling pathway and also anchors the collagenic tail subunit (ColQ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The exact molecular target of MuSK-immunoglobulin G (IgG), however, remains elusive. As acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency is typically mild and as cholinesterase inhibitors are generally ineffective, we asked if MuSK-IgG interferes with binding of ColQ to MuSK. We used 3 assays: in vitro overlay of the human ColQ-tailed AChE to muscle sections of Colq-/- mice; in vitro plate-binding assay to quantitate binding of MuSK to ColQ and to LRP4; and passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to mice. The in vitro overlay assay revealed that MuSK-IgG blocks binding of ColQ to the neuromuscular junction. The in vitro plate-binding assay showed that MuSK-IgG exerts a dose-dependent block of MuSK binding to ColQ by but not to LRP4. Passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to mice reduced the size and density of ColQ to ∼10% of controls and had a lesser effect on the size and density of AChR and MuSK. As lack of ColQ compromises agrin-mediated AChR clustering in Colq-/- mice, a similar mechanism may lead to AChR deficiency in MuSK-MG patients. Our experiments also predict partial AChE deficiency in MuSK-MG patients, but AChE is not reduced in biopsied NMJs. In humans, binding of ColQ to MuSK may be dispensable for clustering ColQ, but is required for facilitating AChR clustering. Further studies will be required to elucidate the basis of this paradox.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular hydrogen has prominent effects on more than 30 animal models especially of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. In addition, hydrogen effects on humans have been reported in diabetes mellitus type 2, hemodialysis, metabolic syndrome, radiotherapy for liver cancer, and brain stem infarction. Hydrogen effects are ascribed to specific radical-scavenging activities that eliminate hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and also to signal-modulating activities, but the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain elusive. Hydrogen is a safe molecule that is largely produced by intestinal bacteria in rodents and humans, and no adverse effects have been documented. We performed open-label trial of drinking 1.0 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water for 12 weeks in five patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD), four patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and five patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM), and measured 18 serum parameters as well as urinary 8-isoprostane every 4 weeks. We next conducted randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 0.5 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water or placebo water for 8 weeks in 10 patients with DM and 12 patients with MM, and measured 18 serum parameters every 4 weeks. In the open-label trial, no objective improvement or worsening of clinical symptoms was observed. We, however, observed significant effects in lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in PMD and MM, fasting blood glucose in PMD, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) in PM/DM, and serum triglycerides in PM/DM. In the double-blind trial, no objective clinical effects were observed, but a significant improvement was detected in lactate in MM. Lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in MM and MMP3 in DM also exhibited favorable responses but without statistical significance. No adverse effect was observed in either trial except for hypoglycemic episodes in an insulin-treated MELAS patient, which subsided by reducing the insulin dose. Hydrogen-enriched water improves mitochondrial dysfunction in MM and inflammatory processes in PM/DM. Less prominent effects with the double-blind trial compared to the open-label trial were likely due to a lower amount of administered hydrogen and a shorter observation period, which implies a threshold effect or a dose-response effect of hydrogen.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening condition in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (known as MELAS). However, no effective therapy has been available until now. In the present study cardiac energetics and acute effects of L-arginine (Arg) were evaluated in MELAS patients. Methods and Results: The 6 patients with MELAS (M-group) and 6 volunteers (C-group) underwent dynamic C-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. TCA-cycle metabolic rate (kmono), myocardial efficiency (double product (DP)/kmono), and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined before and after L-Arg administration. Baseline kmono showed a lower value in the M-group than in the C-group (0.051±0.013 vs 0.070±0.019min-1, P=0.055). On the other hand, baseline DP/kmono was significantly greater in the M-group (1.69±5.9 vs 0.95±1.2×105, P=0.004). After L-Arg administration, 4 patients showed significant elevation of kmono. No relationship was observed between the distribution of kmono elevation and the increase in MBF. Conclusions: The TCA cycle metabolic rate is markedly suppressed in MELAS patients, indicating a shift in energy production to the anaerobic pathway, leading to a paradoxical increase in myocardial efficiency. L-Arg can enhance TCA-cycle metabolism, regardless of its vasodilatation effect, and can be used as a treatment for patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. (Circ J 2010; 74: 2702-2711)
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Circulation Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening condition in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (known as MELAS). However, no effective therapy has been available until now. In the present study cardiac energetics and acute effects of L-arginine (Arg) were evaluated in MELAS patients. The 6 patients with MELAS (M-group) and 6 volunteers (C-group) underwent dynamic C-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. TCA-cycle metabolic rate (k(mono)), myocardial efficiency (double product (DP)/k(mono)), and myocardial blood flow (MBF) were determined before and after L-Arg administration. Baseline k(mono) showed a lower value in the M-group than in the C-group (0.051±0.013 vs 0.070±0.019min(-1), P=0.055). On the other hand, baseline DP/k(mono) was significantly greater in the M-group (1.69±5.9 vs 0.95±1.2×10(5), P=0.004). After L-Arg administration, 4 patients showed significant elevation of k(mono). No relationship was observed between the distribution of k(mono) elevation and the increase in MBF. The TCA cycle metabolic rate is markedly suppressed in MELAS patients, indicating a shift in energy production to the anaerobic pathway, leading to a paradoxical increase in myocardial efficiency. L-Arg can enhance TCA-cycle metabolism, regardless of its vasodilatation effect, and can be used as a treatment for patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Circulation Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We established an extensive and rapid system using suspension array to detect 61 representative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmic or homoplasmic point mutations (29 for Series A and 32 for Series B) in 22 genes: 1 each in MT-RNR1, -TV, -ND1, -TQ, -TW, -TC, and -TH genes; 2 each in MT-TN, -TG, -ND4, -TL2, -TE, and -CYB genes; 3 each in MT-ATP6, -ND3, and -ND5 genes; 4 each in MT-CO1 and -TK genes; 5 each in MT-TI, -TS1, and -ND6 genes; and 10 in the MT-TL1 gene. We carefully selected 5'-biotinylated primers and pooled primers for use in two sets of multiplex-PCR amplifications. To detect both mutant and wild-type mtDNA, even when polymorphisms were present near the target mutation sites, we designed specific oligonucleotide probes. By using the mtDNA point mutation detection system of Series A (29 mutations) and Series B (32 mutations), we screened a total of 3103 mutant sites in 107 DNA samples for Series A and 13,101 mutant sites in 397 DNA samples for Series B. We succeeded in determining 99.4% (Series A) and 99.6% (Series B) of the targeted mutant sites by use of the system. The 22 samples with the m.3243A>G heteroplasmic mutation revealed positive signals with both mutant- and wild-type-specific probes in this detection system with a detection limit of approximately 2%. This genetic screening platform is useful to reach a definitive diagnosis for mitochondrial diseases.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Mitochondrion

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Mitochondrion
  • Ko Sahashi · Tohru Ibi

    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Nihon Shuchu Chiryo Igakukai zasshi
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    ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of MM1-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with an unusually prolonged disease duration of 58 months. The initial symptom was progressive mental disorder followed by advanced cognitive impairment. Clinical progression was generally slow; myoclonus appeared at 17 months and periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram at 21 months. A state of akinetic mutism occurred 29 months after the onset of symptoms. MRI showed gradually progressive cerebral atrophy. Neuropathologic examination showed widespread severe brain involvement. In the cerebral neocortex, widespread severe tissue rarefaction, hypertrophic astrocytosis and neuron loss (so-called status spongiosus) were observed. The cerebral white matter showed diffuse myelin pallor with intense hypertrophic astrocytosis, numerous foamy macrophages and emperipolesis, indicating panencephalopathic-type sCJD pathology. The brainstem was relatively preserved from sCJD pathology, with the exception of the pontine nucleus and pyramidal tract. This may explain the prolonged disease duration without respiratory insufficiency until the terminal stage. Immunohistochemistry for prion protein (PrP) showed widespread synaptic-type PrP deposits in the cerebral neocortex, hippocampus and thalamus. The striatum and cerebellar cortex showed faint synaptic-type PrP deposition with some areas of small plaque-like PrP deposition. Sparse PrP deposition was also observed in the brainstem. Analysis of the PrP gene showed no mutation but methionine homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129. Western blot analysis of protease-resistant PrP indicated type 1 PrP. To our knowledge, this is the longest reported disease duration of MM1-type sCJD.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Neuropathology
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of a 62-year-old female was admitted with complaints of slowly developing paraplegia ascending from the distal portions, and a 7-month history of recto-urinary dysfunction. T2-weighted magnetic resonanse imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord showed hyperintense lesions in the thoracic and sacral cord. Multiple sclerosis was assumed, and steroid pulse therapy was therefore administered: this temporarily improved the symptoms and imaging findings. However, the symptoms recurred in 2 months. The patient died after ineffective steroid therapy. Large B-cell lymphoma cells were identified on bone marrow biopsy. Macroscopic neuropathology revealed neoplastic cells in the blood vessels of the cauda equina. Paraplegia appeared to have developed slowly and in a non-stepwise manner, since the cauda equina has been gradually invaded by intravascular malignant lymphomatosis.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Mitochondrion
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (AD-SCAs) form a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, a single nucleotide substitution in the 5'-untranslated region of the puratrophin-1 gene was found to be associated with one type of AD-SCA linked to chromosome 16q (16q-SCA). To obtain further insight into the contribution of the C-to-T substitution in the puratrophin-1 gene to the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with 16q-SCA, we analyzed 686 families with 719 individuals diagnosed with progressive ataxia. We found C-to-T substitution in the puratrophin-1 gene in 57 unrelated families with 65 affected individuals. The mean age at onset in the patients with 16q-SCA was 59.1 (range, 46-77). Ataxia is the most common initial symptom. The elderly patients over 65 occasionally showed other accompanying clinical features including abnormalities in tendon reflexes, involuntary movements, and reduced vibration sense. We also examined the frequency of the AD-SCA subtype, considering the effects of age at onset. In the 686 AD-SCA families, SCA6 and Machado-Joseph disease/SCA3 are frequent subtypes, followed by dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy and 16q-SCA. 16q-SCA is not a rare subtype of Japanese AD-SCA, particularly in patients with ages at onset over 60.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Movement Disorders
  • Andrew G. Engel · Ko Sahashi · Guido Fumagalli

    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) with widespread cerebral neocortical pathology. Initial symptoms were progressive insomnia and mental disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed no high-signal intensity lesions on diffusion-weighted images and later showed gradually progressive cerebral atrophy. Periodic synchronous discharges and myoclonus were not observed. Upon neuropathologic examination, widespread cerebral neocortical involvement with fine vacuole-type spongiform change was observed. Severe degeneration with almost complete neuronal loss, tissue rarefaction, numerous fat-laden macrophages and hypertrophic astrocytosis of the medial thalamic nucleus was evident. The inferior olivary nucleus showed severe involvement with neuronal loss and hypertrophic astrocytosis. In the cerebellar cortex, moderate depletion of Purkinje neurons was evident, with no spongiform change in the molecular layer and no neuronal loss in the granule cell layer. Immunohistochemistry for prion protein (PrP) revealed widespread synaptic-type deposits with some primitive plaque-type deposits in the cerebral neocortex, basal ganglia and cerebellar cortex. PrP deposition was also observed in the brainstem, particularly the tegmentum, substantia nigra and pontine nucleus, and spinal cord, particularly the posterior horn. In the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus, PrP deposition was sparse. Analysis of the PrP gene showed no mutation but did show methionine homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129. Western blot analysis of protease-resistant PrP indicated the presence of type 2 PrP. We believe that this patient suffered from MM2-thalamic-type sCJD (sporadic fatal insomnia) with widespread cerebral neocortical pathology due to prolonged disease duration. The present case showed different patterns of spongiform degeneration and PrP deposition in the cerebral neocortex than those in previously reported MM2-thalamic-type sCJD cases.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Acta Neuropathologica
  • K. Sahashi · T. Ibi
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    ABSTRACT: In neuromuscular disorders presenting with external ophthalmoplegia (eye movement impairment, blepharoptosis), attention has been focused on the anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (antiAChR antibody)-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) and the chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia of mitochondrial disease. This report presents recent progress on the clinical features and molecular biology for the 3 disorders; seronegative (antiAChR antibody-negative) myasthenia gravis (SNMG), congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) syndrome, and oculopharyngeal dystrophy (OPMD).
    No preview · Article · Jan 2005

Publication Stats

1k Citations
282.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1983-2015
    • Aichi Medical University
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Division of Internal Medicine
      • • Institute for Medical Science of Aging
      • • School of Medicine
      Koromo, Aichi, Japan
  • 2002
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neurology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2000-2001
    • Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital
      Gihu, Gifu, Japan
  • 1991
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Biological Chemistry
      Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan
  • 1979
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States