Andrzej Jaworek

Jagiellonian University, Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (30)16.43 Total impact

  • Michał Andres · Andrzej Jaworek · Tomasz Stramek · Anna Wojas-Pelc

    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is a disease, which could be manifested as either a mild edematous form or a more severe necrotizing pancreatitis which has a poor prognosis. The etiology and pathogenesis of this ailment is not completely clear. Melatonin is an indoleamine which is produced from L-tryptophan in the pineal gland and in the other tissue including gastrointestinal tract. Both melatonin and its precursor have been demonstrated to protect the pancreas against acute pancreatitis and to attenuate pancreatic tissue damage. In the pancreas melatonin and L-tryptophan activate complex mechanisms which involve direct scavenging of the radical oxygen and nitrogen species, activation of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dydmutase, glutation peroxidase), reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins, activation of heat shock protein, and a decrease of necrosis and increase of regeneration in the pancreas. There are several arguments for the idea that endogenous melatonin produced in the pineal gland and in the gastrointestinal system could be the part of a native mechanisms for protecting the pancreas against acute damage: 1/ the melatonin precursor L-tryptophan exerts similar protective effect as melatonin, 2/ application of the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole aggravates acute pancreatitis, 3/ pinealectomy results in the exacerbation of acute pancreatitis, 4/ low melatonin plasma levels are associated with an increased risk of severe acute pancreatitis. These observations leads to the idea that perhaps melatonin could be used in clinical trials as supportive therapy in acute pancreatitis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Current pharmaceutical design
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the process of Treponema pallidum clearance from the central nervous system have not yet been established. Considering that neurosyphilis is associated with mild cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis with a lymphocytic predominance, it has been suggested that cells involved in the adaptive immune response may play a role in this process. In the current study, we assessed the cytokine production profile of T-helper cells in the serum and CSF of patients with early syphilis, with and without CSF abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples were collected from 33 patients with secondary and early latent syphilis. Five patients (15%) had a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test without any accompanying neurological symptoms. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention classification, they were diagnosed with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. Serum and CSF levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ; Th1-type cytokine), interleukin-4 (IL-4; Th2-type cytokine), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A; Th17-type cytokine) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with asymptomatic neurosyphilis had significantly higher levels of IL-17A (8-fold) and IFN-γ (7.8-fold) in the CSF compared with patients in the no-neurosyphilis group. Six individuals had CSF pleocytosis but a negative CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test result (presumptive neurosyphilis group). In this group, CSF IFN-γ and CSF IL-17A levels were also significantly elevated when compared with no-neurosyphilis group. There was no correlation between serum and CSF concentrations of IL-17A. However, CSF pleocytosis correlated positively with both CSF IL-17A (r = 0.4, P = 0.01) and IFN-γ (r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Increased CSF levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A in syphilitic patients with CSF abnormalities suggest that cells of adaptive immunity (probably T-helper cells producing IFN-γ and IL-17) may contribute to the inflammatory response associated with neurosyphilis. In addition, the lack of correlation between serum and CSF IL-17A levels suggests intrathecal production of this cytokine. Further studies are needed to establish the exact nature of the immune response accompanying neurosyphilis and its clinical significance.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Sexually transmitted diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. The results of numerous studies of today confirm that persons suffering from psychosomatic disorders are not able to effectively cope with stress. The experience of stress is also frequently combined with the occurrence or aggravation of various skin diseases. The goal of our study was to identify the predominant ways of coping with stress in the group of patients with chronic dermatoses. Methods. The group under study included patients receiving treatment in the Dermatology Clinic of Collegium Medicum, Jagielbnian University. They were either hospitalized patients or those who came for control examinations at the Outpatient Clinic. Evaluation of the forms of coping with stress was conducted with the help of the Endler and Parker Questionnaire - CISS. Results. They significantly more often apply the style of coping focused on avoiding (p-value= 0.0056). It also turned out that the patients in the dermatological groups manifested a constant tendency to get involved in vicarious activities (p-value=0.0247). Discussion. The results of the presented study indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the patients with dermatological disorders and those in the control group as regards their ways of coping with stress. Conclusion. The results obtained in the discussed study may be a starting point for designing a complex support for the patients with skin diseases. The therapeutic technique that may prove helpful for this group of patients is the cognitive-behavioral therapy (CTB).
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
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    Maciej Pastuszczak · Jacek Zeman · Andrzej K Jaworek · Anna Wojas-Pelc
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    ABSTRACT: Syphilis is caused by a spirochete Treponema pallidum. Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by T. pallidum may appear early during the course of disease. The diagnosis of confirmed neurosyphilis is based on the reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies indicated that serum RPR ≥ 1:32 are associated with higher risk of reactivity of CSF VDRL. The main aim of the current study was to assess cerebrospinal fluid serological and biochemical abnormalities in HIV negative subjects with secondary and early latent syphilis and serum VDRL ≥ 1:32. Clinical and laboratory data of 33 HIV-negative patients with secondary and early latent syphilis, with the serum VDRL titer ≥ 1:32, who underwent a lumbar puncture and were treated in Department of Dermatology at Jagiellonian University School of Medicine in Cracow, were collected. Clinical examination revealed no symptoms of CNS involvement in all patients. 18% (n = 6) of patients met the criteria of confirmed neurosyphilis (reactive CSF-VDRL). In 14 (42%) patients CSF WBC count ≥ 5/ul was found, and in 13 (39%) subjects there was elevated CSF protein concentration (≥ 45 mg/dL). 10 patients had CSF WBC count ≥ 5/ul and/or elevated CSF protein concentration (≥ 45 mg/dL) but CSF-VDRL was not reactive. Indications for CSF examination in HIV-negative patients with early syphilis are the subject of discussion. It seems that all patients with syphilis and with CSF abnormalities (reactive serological tests, elevated CSF WBC count, elevated protein concentration) should be treated according to protocols for neurosyphilis. But there is a need for identification of biomarkes in order to identify a group of patients with syphilis, in whom risk of such abnormalities is high.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Indian Journal of Dermatology
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    ABSTRACT: Papulo- and vesiculo-necrotic lesions are rare manifestations of secondary syphilis. Until now it has been described only in HIV-infected patients with advanced stages of immunosuppression. This case report describes an unusual case of PLEVA-like syphilis in a 33-year-old man with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Despite that the CD4 cells level and viral load did not indicate the advance stage of immunosuppression, the unusual manifestation of syphilis and neurosyphilis occurred. The presented case indicates the need for HIV screening in every patient with syphilis especially when the clinical manifestation is unusual. Importance of syphilis testing in every case with atypical rashes should be also highlighted.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii
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    ABSTRACT: Zbigniew Oszast was born on 11th March 1903 in Lublin. His scientific career started in 1929 and was constantly connected with the Department of Dermatology Jagiellonian University in Krakow. For many years professor Oszast was especially interested in radiotherapy of skin diseases. He was educated in many prestigious European institutions - among others: Finsen Institute, Electropathology Institute under professor Jelinek's supervision, Sauerbruch's and Hermansdorfer's Clinic. Extensive experience was very helpful to create a radiotherapy ward which was part of the Dermatology Department. During World War II it was the greatest radiotherapy institution in Poland. Prof Oszast was also involved in research on: ultrashort waves treatment of skin diseases, coagulation of skin lesions, therapy of skin tuberculosis and radiotherapy of skin cancers connected to tuberculosis luposa. He was also involved in development of physical therapy in Poland. Throughout the period of World War II prof Oszast was fully responsible for the Dermatology Department as well as the dermatology and radiotherapy ward in Saint Lazarus Hospital. He was a person with a versatile mind - a great scientist, excellent teacher and talented organiser. Besides research work he wrote numerous biographical articles about many famous physicians. Zbigniew Oszast died on 10th November 1967 in Krakow.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Granuloma annulare is a chronic, benign, inflammatory skin disorder of an unknown etiology. The relationship between granuloma annulare and both types of diabetes mellitus is still controversial. In the PubMed database fromthe last 5 years there is one case report of a patient with diagnosed perforating type of granuloma annulare and 2 cases of coexistence of granuloma annulare and diabetes. Objective. Presentation of coexistence of perforating generalized granuloma annulare in the scar after cholecystectomy and diabetesmellitus type 2. Case report. A 63-year-old patient with a 3-year history of skin lesions and diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted for detailed diagnostics and treatment. Dermatologic examination revealed disseminated polycyclic erythematous, infiltrative plaques arranged in an annular fashion. In the scar after cholecystectomy there were erythematous, infiltrative lesions with some sores. Similar lesions with numerous spot erosions covered by scab were found in the scar from a drain. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. Intensive antidiabetic treatment has been introduced in order to normalize glucose level. In the course of applied therapy the normalization of blood glucose level and the partial remission of skin lesions have been observed. Conclusions. Detailed diagnostic tests to detect diabetes should be amandatory element of medical procedures in every patient with recognized granuloma annulare.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare autoimmune blistering disorder. The disease may be either idiopathic or druginduced. Over the past 30 years, approximately one hundred LABD cases have been described as induced by a wide range of drugs, chiefly antibiotics. Main observations: We report the case of 37-year-old woman who developed pruritic bullous lesions spread all over the body three weeks after her last dose of cefuroxime axetil. Antibiotic therapy was started due to rhino-sinusitis. Conclusions: In most reported cases of drug-induced LABD, skin lesions occur within the time of drug administration. However, the onset of disease may be even after discontinuation of treatment. It seems that in such cases, other clinical conditions (like infection) act, as cofactors of immunologic response.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
  • Maciej Pastuszczak · Anna Wojas-Pelc · Andrzej K. Jaworek
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    ABSTRACT: The most specific criterion for diagnosing neurosyphilis is a reactive CSF VDRL. Unfortunately, there are in Europe, including Poland small number of specialized laboratories for serological diagnosis of syphilis. Thus, CSF serology results are obtained with delay. Therefore, the decision on recommended therapy for neurosyphilis is taken on the basis of CSF basic tests. In this paper we attempt to determine the utility of CSF glucose concentration and its cut-off values in prediction of asymptomatic neurosyphilis. CSF and blood were collected from 55 HIV-uninfected patients with syphilis of unknown duration. Patients with neurosyphilis (14.5%) were characterized by higher CSF pleocytosis (p<0.0001), elevated CSF protein concentration (p<0.05) and lower CSF glucose concentration (p<0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis identified CSF pleocytosis and CSF glucose concentration as the two independent predictors of reactive CSF VDRL (p<0.0001). In the selected group of patients with CSF pleocytosis ≥5/µL (n=25) CSF glucose concentration ≤2.72 mmol/L was associated with 100% sensitivity (95%CI: 63-100%) and 100% specificity (95%CI: 75.3–100%) for reactive CSF VDRL. CSF glucose concentration may be particularly useful as a predictive marker of neurosyphilis in HIV uninfected patients with syphilis of unknown duration with CSF plecytosis ≥5/µL.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Central European Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. The disease occurs only in humans. In the course of syphilis several stages are distinguished, which reflect the gradual spread of bacteria in the organism. Variety of sexual practices (including anal and oral sex), and widespread empirical use of antibiotics, prescribed for reasons other than STD (e.g. upper respiratory tract infections) not having treponemicidal action, seem to lead to changes in the clinical course of syphilis and its characterization by sparse symptoms. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical manifestation of secondary syphilis in patients treated in the Department of Dermatology at Jagiellonian University, School of Medicine in Cracow. Material and methods. Data obtained from 217 patients including those of sociodemographic status, sexual orientation and HIV infection were analysed. Results. The analysed group consisted of 23 women (10.6%) and 194 men (89.4%), of whom 107 declared they were homosexuals. In 153 patients due to the absence of clinical signs of infection early latent syphilis was diagnosed. The most common clinical symptom of secondary syphilis was macular rash (43.7%), followed by maculopapular changes on the palms and soles (36.8%), generalized lymphadenopathy (33.3%), syphilitic alopecia (21.8%), syphilitic angina (14.9%) and condylomata lata (6.9%). 58.2% of patients had only one clinical symptom of the disease. The most common signs of infection were generalized lymphadenopathy and maculopapular rash on the soles and palms (11.5%). Conclusions. It seems that in the past two decades the clinical manifestation of secondary syphilis has not changed significantly. However, in comparison to data available from the literature different incidence of individual symptoms of secondary syphilis was observed, which may be explained by locally contingent diversity of sexual practices, use of empiric antibiotic therapy for reasons other than sexually transmitted infections and different accessibility to health care.
    No preview · Article · May 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is released from the gut mucosa in response to food ingestion. Specific receptors for melatonin have been detected in many gastrointestinal tissues including the pancreas. Melatonin as well as its precursor, L-tryptophan, attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and protects the pancreatic tissue from the damage caused by acute inflammation. The beneficial effect of melatonin on acute pancreatitis, which has been reported in many experimental studies and supported by clinical observations, is related to: (1) enhancement of antioxidant defense of the pancreatic tissue, through direct scavenging of toxic radical oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, (2) preservation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes; such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), or glutathione peroxidase (GPx), (3) the decline of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis α (TNFα) production, accompanied by stimulation of an anti-inflammatory IL-10, (4) improvement of pancreatic blood flow and decrease of neutrophil infiltration, (5) reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in the inflamed pancreatic tissue, (6) increased production of chaperon protein (HSP60), and (7) promotion of regenerative process in the pancreas. Conclusion. Endogenous melatonin produced from L-tryptophan could be one of the native mechanisms protecting the pancreas from acute damage and accelerating regeneration of this gland. The beneficial effects of melatonin shown in experimental studies suggest that melatonin ought to be employed in the clinical trials as a supportive therapy in acute pancreatitis and could be used in people at high risk for acute pancreatitis to prevent the development of pancreatic inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Sexually transmitted infections
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin, a pineal indoleamine, protects the pancreas against acute damage; however, the involvement of the pineal gland in the pancreatoprotective action of melatonin is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of pinealectomy on the course of acute caerulein-induced pancreatitis (AP) in rats. AP was induced by a subcutaneous infusion of caerulein (25 μg/kg) into pinealectomized or sham-operated animals. Melatonin (5 or 25 mg/kg) was given via intraperitoneal (ip) injection 30 min prior to the induction of AP. The pancreatic content of the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal (MDA + 4HNE) and the activity of an antioxidative enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were measured in each group of rats. Melatonin blood levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). In the sham-operated rats, AP was confirmed with histological examination and manifested as pancreatic edema and an increase in the blood lipase level (by 1,500%). In addition, the pancreatic content of MDA+ 4HNE was increased by 200%, and pancreatic glutathione peroxydase (GSH-Px) activity was reduced by 40%. Pinealectomy significantly aggravated the histological manifestations of AP, reduced the GSH-Px activity and markedly augmented the levels of MDA+ 4HNE in the pancreas of rats with or without AP as compared to sham-operated animals. Melatonin was undetectable in the blood of the pinealectomized rats with or without AP. Treatment with melatonin (25 mg/kg, ip) prevented the development of AP in the sham-operated rats and significantly reduced pancreatic inflammation in the animals previously subjected to pinealectomy. In conclusion, pineal melatonin contributes to the pancreatic protection through the activation of the antioxidative defense mechanism in pancreatic tissue as well as its direct antioxidant effects.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Pharmacological reports: PR
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly. Three clinical types of leishmaniasis: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral can be observed. Objective. To underline the increased numbers of tropical diseases in our country and difficulties in cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis. Case report. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital after a 16-day journey to Morocco with the ulceration of the second toe of the left foot. In the local hospital, the diagnosis of leishmaniasis was excluded due to negative microbiological and serological tests. After admission to our hospital skin biopsy was performed and histopathological picture was highly suspected of leishmaniasis. Four-week therapy with ketoconazole brought a small improvement. During the next three months without treatment we observed constant improvement and complete healing with scarring. Conclusions. Diagnosis of leishmaniasis should include histopathological examination of skin lesions. Due to increased numbers of people travelling we should expect higher numbers of leishmaniasis in Poland.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is associated with systemic response and increased concentrations of numerous cytokines. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) related pathway also seems to be involved in inflammatory response induced by CABG. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the VEGF gene +405 G>C polymorphism (linked to serum VEGF production), and the short-term clinical outcome during the in-hospital period (30 days) in patients undergoing CABG. Genotyping for VEGF gene +405 G>C polymorphism was performed in 64 patients with coronary artery disease at a mean age of 66 years (76.6% males), with a mean EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) of 2.5 (0-2 points: 50% patients, 3-4: 25%, > or =5 points: 25%), who underwent CABG surgery. Twenty-one (33%) patients were homozygous for the +405 G allele, 40 (63%) were heterozygous, and 3 were homozygous for the +405 C allele. Ten patients died during the 30-day follow-up (7 subjects with +405 GG genotype, and the other 3 carriers of the +405 C allele). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of death after CABG was increased in patients with +405 GG genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-29.4) and with EuroSCORE > or =5 points (OR = 4.4; 95% CI 1.1-18.1). The VEGF gene +405 G>C polymorphism might be a prognostic factor of an adverse postoperative course in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Apart from its proangiogenic action, VEGF may have additional, possibly proinflammatory properties.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Alopecia is one of the clinical manifestations of syphilis, often called “the great imitator”. Hair loss in syphilis occurs infrequently, various sources have reported an incidence of 2.9-7%, and it is most common in heterosexual (7%) vs. homosexual men (4%), and women (5%). In 1940, McCarthy described two types of syphilitic alopecia: symptomatic alopecia associated with other lesions of secondary syphilis, and essential syphilitic alopecia in patients without any other cutaneous or mucosal manifestations of the disease. Objective. The aim of the study was to present hair loss as the main or sole manifestation of syphilis in 5 cases. Case report. Five patients (1 woman and 4 men) aged of 21-51 years reported to our dermatology department due to extensive hair loss observed for some months. In 3 cases, apart from diffuse or patchy alopecia changes characteristic for secondary syphilis were present. In one case alopecia was the only clinical symptom of T. pallidum infection, while in another one cutaneous and mucosal signs of syphilis coexisted with typical psoriatic papules. In all cases the diagnosis of secondary syphilis was confirmed by serological tests. In two cases abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid were disclosed and secondary syphilis with nervous system involvement was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our observations strongly indicate that in all patients with sudden, unexplained hair loss, serological tests for syphilis should be performed.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Przegla̧d dermatologiczny
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Alopecia is one of the clinical manifestations of syphilis,often called “the great imitator”. Hair loss in syphilis occurs infrequently, various sources have reported an incidence of 2.9-7%, and it is most common in heterosexual (7%) vs. homosexual men (4%), and women (5%). In 1940, McCarthy described two types of syphilitic alopecia: symptomatic alopecia associated with other lesions of secondary syphilis, and essential syphilitic alopecia in patients without any other cutaneous or mucosal manifestations of the disease. Objective. The aim of the study was to present hair loss as the main or sole manifestation of syphilis in 5 cases.Case report. Five patients (1 woman and 4 men) aged of 21-51 years reported to our dermatology department due to extensive hair loss observed for some months. In 3 cases, apart from diffuse or patchy alopecia changes characteristic for secondary syphilis were present. In one case alopecia was the only clinical symptom of T. pallidum infection, while in another one cutaneous and mucosal signs of syphilis coexisted with typical psoriatic papules. In all cases the diagnosis of secondary syphilis was confirmed by serological tests. In two cases abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid were disclosed and secondary syphilis with nervous system involvement was diagnosed.Conclusions. Our observations strongly indicate that in all patients with sudden, unexplained hair loss, serological tests for syphilism should be performer.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Przegla̧d dermatologiczny
  • Andrzej Kazimierz Jaworek · Anna Wojas-Pelc · Maciej Pastuszczak
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    ABSTRACT: Rosacea is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease which is mainly localized in the central region of the face. Papules and pustules appear on the erythematic ground. Rosacea is common in population. Four subtypes of rosacea (erythematoteleangiectatic rosacea, ETR; papulo - pustular rosacea, PPR; ocular rosacea and phymatous rosacea) are classified (according to current classification) and one variant rosacea (granulomatous rosacea, GR). It is considered that an attempt to determine of triggering factors of rosacea should be the first step to treatment. Then it should be tried to eliminate contact with them. The aim of this study was an analysis of triggering factors of rosacea. 43 women and 26 men treated in the Dermatology Outpatient's Clinic of Jagiellonian University School of Medicine in Cracow were enrolled in the study. All patients were asked which factors trigger skin changes according to them. Patients mentioned most often: stress (58 percent), sun exposure (56.5 per. cent), alcohol (33.3 percent), exercise (29 percent), drinking coffee (21.7 percent) and hot meals (20.3 percent). They regarded the sun as the most strongly aggravating factor of rosacea (29.2 percent). It seems, that elimination and reduction of contact with aggravating factors is still an undervalued aspect of rosacea's treatment. Patients' motivation for use of prevention seems to be also very important. Knowledge about aggravating factors of rosacea, coming directly from patients' observations, may help in more effective treatment.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Przegla̧d lekarski
  • Hanna Korabel · Dominka Dudek · Andrzej Jaworek · Anna Wojas-Pelc
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    ABSTRACT: Psychodermatology descibes an interaction between dermatology and psychiatry and psychology. The incidence of psychiatric disorders among dermatological patients is estimated at about 30 to 60%. It appears that a significant group of patients who seek dermatologist's advice are those who can reveal psychiatric disorders. The most often diagnosed psychiatric disturbances are mood disorders, especially depressive, suicidal ideation and tendencies, anxiety disorders, obsessive disorders and delusional disorders. Knowledge of the psycho-dermatological diseases can contribute to more profitable therapy in both dermatology and psychiatry. This article characterises the particular disorders with their dermatological and psychological aspects. The basic principles of therapeutic interventions for each disorder are also discussed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Przegla̧d lekarski