Francesc X Sureda

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarraco, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (80)249.65 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology could not be explained solely by an increase in beta-amyloid levels. In fact, success with potential therapeutic drugs that inhibit the generation of beta amyloid has been low. Therefore, due to therapeutic failure in recent years, the scientists are looking for alternative hypotheses to explain the causes of the disease and the cognitive loss. Accordingly, alternative hypothesis propose a link between AD and peripheral metabolic alteration. Then, we review in depth changes related to insulin signalling and energy metabolism in the context of the APPSwe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice model of AD. We show an integrated view of the changes that occur in the early stages of the amyloidogenic process in the APP/PS1 double transgenic mice model. These early changes affect several key metabolic processes related to glucose uptake and insulin signalling, cellular energy homeostasis, mitochondrial biogenesis and increased Tau phosphorylation by kinase molecules like mTOR and Cdk5.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Frontiers in Bioscience
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Global obesity is a pandemic status, estimated to affect over 2 billion people, that has resulted in an enormous strain on healthcare systems worldwide. The situation is compounded by the fact that apart from the direct costs associated with overweight pathology, obesity presents itself with a number of comorbidities, including an increased risk for the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer disease (AD), the main cause of senile dementia, is no exception. Spectacular failure of the pharmaceutical industry to come up with effective AD treatment strategies is forcing the broader scientific community to rethink the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to cognitive decline. To this end, the emphasis is once again placed on the experimental animal models of the disease. In the current study, we have focused on the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on hippocampal-dependent memory in C57/Bl6 Wild-type (WT) and APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice, a well-established mouse model of familial AD. Our results indicate that the continuous HFD administration starting at the time of weaning is sufficient to produce β-amyloid-independent, hippocampal-dependent memory deficits measured by a 2-object novel-object recognition test (NOR) in mice as early as 6months of age. Furthermore, the resulting metabolic syndrome appears to have direct effects on brain insulin regulation and mitochondrial function. We have observed pathological changes related to both the proximal and distal insulin signaling pathway in the brains of HFD-fed WT and APP/PS1 mice. These changes are accompanied by a significantly reduced OXPHOS metabolism, suggesting that mitochondria play an important role in hippocampus-dependent memory formation and retention in both the HFD-treated and AD-like rodents at a relatively young age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence suggests that β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are unlikely to be the only factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) aetiology. In fact, a strong correlation has been established between AD patients and patients with type 2 diabetes and/or cholesterol metabolism alterations. In addition, a link between adipose tissue metabolism, leptin signalling in particular, and AD has also been demonstrated. In the present study we analyzed the expression of molecules related to metabolism, with the main focus on leptin and prolactin signalling pathways in an APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice model, at 3 and 6 months of age, compared to wild-type controls. We have chosen to study 3 months-old APP/PS1 animals at an age when neither the cognitive deficits nor significant Aβ plaques in the brain are present, and to compare them to the 6 months-old mice, which exhibit elevated levels of Aβ in the hippocampus and memory loss. A significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R) was detected in the hippocampi of 3 months old APP/PS1 mice, with a decrease in the levels of the leptin receptor (OB-R) first becoming evident at 6 months of age. We proceeded to study the expression of the intracellular signalling molecules downstream of these receptors, including stat (1-5), sos1, kras and socs (1-3). Our data suggest a downregulation in some of these molecules such as stat-5b and socs (1-3), in 3 months-old APP/PS1 brains. Likewise, at the same age, we detected a significant reduction in mRNA levels of lrp1 and cyp46a1, both of which are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Taken together, these results demonstrate a significative impairment in adipokine receptors signalling and cholesterol regulation pathways in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice at an early age, prior to the Aβ plaque formation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two alternative syntheses of 2-oxaadamantan-5-amine, a novel analog of the clinically approved drug amantadine, are reported. The compound has been tested as an anti-influenza A virus agent and as an NMDA receptor antagonist. While the compound was not antivirally active, it displayed moderate activity as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Tetrahedron Letters
  • Lucia Soliño · Francesc X Sureda · Jorge Diogène
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marine dinoflagelates from the genus Dynophisis are important producers of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins which are responsible for human intoxications. The present work is an approach to study the relative toxicity of DSP toxins effects on Neuro-2a, NG108-15 and MCF-7 cell-lines. Certified standards of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) were used. Our results show that the three toxins exhibit similar cytotoxicity in Neuro-2a and NG108-15 cell lines. Conversely, MCF-7 cells were the least sensitive to these toxins. DTX-1 displayed the most toxic effect in the three tested cell lines.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Toxicology in Vitro
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) exacerbated activation leads to neuron death through a phenomenon called excitotoxicity. These receptors are implicated in several neurological diseases (e.g., Alzheimer and Parkinson) and thus represent an important therapeutic target. We herein describe the study of enantiopure tryptophanol-derived oxazolopiperidone lactams as NMDA receptor antagonists. The most active hit exhibited an IC50 of 63.4μM in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons thus being 1.5 fold more active than clinically approved NMDA antagonist amantadine (IC50=92μM).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study had focused on the behavioral phenotype and gene expression profile of molecules related to insulin receptor signaling in the hippocampus of 3 and 6months-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elevated levels of the insoluble Aβ (1-42) were detected in the brain extracts of the transgenic animals as early as 3months of age, prior to the Aβ plaque formation (pre-plaque stage). By the early plaque stage (6months) both the soluble and insoluble Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) peptides were detectable. We studied the expression of genes related to memory function (Arc, Fos), insulin signaling, including Insulin receptor (Insr), Irs1 and Irs2, as well as genes involved in insulin growth factor pathways, such as Igf1, Igf2, Igfr and Igfbp2. We also examined the expression and protein levels of key molecules related to energy metabolism (PGC1-α, and AMPK) and mitochondrial functionality (OXPHOS, TFAM, NRF1 and NRF2). 6months-old APP/PS1 mice demonstrated impaired cognitive ability, were glucose intolerant and showed a significant reduction in hippocampal Insr and Irs2 transcripts. Further observations also suggest alterations in key cellular energy sensors that regulate the activities of a number of metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation, such as a decrease in the Prkaa2 mRNA levels and in the pAMPK (Thr172)/Total APMK ratio. Moreover, mRNA and protein analysis reveals a significant downregulation of genes essential for mitochondrial replication and respiratory function, including PGC-1α in hippocampal extracts of APP/PS1 mice, compared to age-matched wild-type controls at 3 and 6months of age. Overall, the findings of this study show early alterations in genes involved in insulin and energy metabolism pathways in an APP/PS1 model of AD. These changes affect the activity of key molecules like NRF1 and PGC-1α, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that the impairments in both insulin signaling and energy metabolism precede the development of AD amyloidogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease
  • Elena Valverde · Francesc X. Sureda · Santiago Vázquez
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphical abstract Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Biophysical Journal
  • Lucia Soliño · Francesc X. Sureda · Jorge Diogène
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marine dinoflagelates from the genus Dynophisis are important producers of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins which are responsible for human intoxications. The present work is an approach to study the relative toxicity of DSP toxins effects on Neuro-2a, NG108-15 and MCF-7 cell-lines. Certified standards of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) were used. Our results show that the three toxins exhibit similar cytotoxicity in Neuro-2a and NG108-15 cell lines. Conversely, MCF-7 cells were the least sensitive to these toxins. DTX-1 displayed the most toxic effect in the three tested cell lines.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to rescue neuronal cell death caused by excessive activation of glutamate receptors. This phenomenon, known as excitotoxicity, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including ischemia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. Unfortunately, some NMDA receptor antagonists have shown discouraging results when tested in clinical trials. However, recent advances in the physiology and pharmacology of the NMDA receptor have kept interest alive in modulating NMDA receptors for therapeutic intervention. We present here the synthesis of a small library of phenylalaninol-derived oxazolopyrrolidone lactams and their evaluation as NMDA receptor antagonists. The compounds were easily synthesized in yields up to 92 %. In addition, one of the compounds has a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 62 μM and offers potential to develop more potent NMDA receptor antagonists. Graphical abstract
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Monatshefte fuer Chemie/Chemical Monthly
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The more common sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (SAD) and metabolic syndrome are two highly prevalent pathological conditions of Western society due to incorrect diet, lifestyle, and vascular risk factors. Due to the increasing aging of populations, prevalence of AD in western industrialized countries will rise in the near future and, thus, new knowledge in the area of molecular biology and epigenetics will probably help to reverse the neurodegenerative process. Recent data have suggested metabolic syndrome as an independent risk factor for SAD. Furthermore, biological plausibility for this relationship has been framed within the metabolic cognitive syndrome concept, and some authors designed SAD as a brain diabetes or diabetes 3. Then, impaired signaling of insulin and from some adipokines involved in the so called adipoinsular axis, like leptin, ghrelin or amylin could give a metabolic basis to explain the origin and progression of SAD. Thus, dipokines like leptin, ghrelin and amylin, or their mimetic compounds, could contribuite to inhibit apoptosis and inflammation processes and, thus, generate protective responses in the nervous system. Moreover, these adipokines might promote the activation of a cognitive process which may retard or even partially reverse selected aspects of Alzheimer's disease or ageing memory loss.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Current pharmaceutical design
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin (Lep), an adipose-derived hormone, exerts very important functions in the body mainly on energy storage and availability. The physiological effects of Lep controlling the body weight and suppressing appetite are mediated by the long form of Lep receptor in the hypothalamus. Lep receptor activates several downstream molecules involved in key pathways related to cell survival such as STAT3, PI3K, MAPK, AMPK, CDK5 and GSK3β. Collectively, these pathways act in a coordinated manner and form a network that is fully involved in Lep physiological response. Although the major interest in Lep is related to its role in the regulation of energy balance, and since resistance to Lep affects is the primary risk factor for obesity, the interest on their effects on brain cognition and neuroprotection is increasing. Thus, Lep and Lep mimetic compounds now await and deserve systematic exploration as the orchestrator of protective responses in the nervous system. Moreover, Lep might promote the activation of a cognitive process that may retard or even partially reverse selected aspects of Alzheimer's disease or ageing memory loss.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis of several 6,7,8,9,10,11-hexahydro-9-methyl-5,7:9,11-dimethano-5H-benzocyclononen-7-amines is reported. Several of them display low micromolar NMDA receptor antagonist and/or trypanocidal activities. Two compounds are endowed with micromolar anti vesicular stomatitis virus activity, while only one compound shows micromolar anti-influenza activity. The anti-influenza activity of this compound does not seem to be mediated by blocking of the M2 protein.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to discuss potential pathways involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting current pharmacological drug targets in neuronal apoptosis prevention. The incidence of these disorders is expected to rise in the coming years and so finding effective treatments represents a significant challenge for medicine. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease were both described almost a century ago and are the most important neurodegenerative disorders in the developed world. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of the neuronal pathology in both diseases are unclear. For this reason, despite substantial research in the area, an effective treatment for these diseases does not yet exist. In the present study we discuss in depth the pathways involved in apoptosis and neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases. We also examine drugs that may have a neuroprotective effect. Inhibition of apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress generation and mitochondrial alteration or by the blockade of NMDA receptors could constitute a suitable therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. A multiple therapy with antioxidants, cell cycle inhibitors, GSK3β inhibitors, and STATINS could, in the future, represent a suitable strategy for delaying the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. This research contributes to the development of new methods in the field of apoptosis inhibitors that could provide the future tools for the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Current pharmaceutical design
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study the role of JAK/STAT and Akt in apoptosis was evaluated in cerebellar granule cells after treatment with the mitochondrial toxin MPP(+). Firstly, we evaluated the role of the prosurvival Akt pathway in MPP(+)-induced apoptosis and found that MPP(+) rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Since PTEN is an upstream regulator of Akt, its inhibition with bpV(pic) (1-30 μM) should activate Akt, however, it did not attenuate CGC cell death mediated by MPP(+) but protected CGC from apoptosis mediated by S/K deprivation. We also demonstrated that after the treatment with the complex I inhibitor, the expression levels of STAT1 increased and the levels of STAT3 decreased at the time points tested (0.5-8h). Meanwhile, pharmacological inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway with AG490 (10-40 μM) was neuroprotective, probably due to its antioxidant properties, the Jak2-inhibitor-II potentiated MPP(+) neurotoxicity. Collectively, our data indicate that the treatment of CGC with the neurotoxin MPP(+) decreased two prosurvival pathways: STAT3 and Akt. Meanwhile Akt activation, using a PTEN inhibitor, did not play a prominent role in neuroprotection; loss of STAT3 could be a signal pathway involved in neuroprotection against the Parkinsonian neurotoxin MPP(+).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Neurochemistry International
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study we demonstrated that neurotoxin MPP(+)-induced DNA damage is followed by ataxia telangiectasia muted (ATM) activation either in cerebellar granule cells (CGC) or in B65 cell line. In CGC, the selective ATM inhibitor KU-55933 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell loss and apoptosis, lending support to the key role of ATM in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Likewise, we showed that knockdown of ATM levels in neuroblastoma B65 cells using an ATM-specific siRNA attenuates the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein without affecting other cell-cycle proteins involved in the G(0)/G(1) cell-cycle phase. Moreover, we demonstrated DNA damage, in human brain samples of PD patients. These findings support a model in which MPP(+) leads to ATM activation with a subsequent DNA damage response and activation of pRb. Therefore, this study demonstrates a new link between DNA damage by MPP(+) and cell-cycle re-entry through retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (RESV) exerts important pharmacological effects on human health: in addition to its beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, it also modulates neuronal energy homeostasis and shows antiaging properties. Although it clearly has free radical scavenger properties, the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects are not fully understood. In this regard, one area of major interest concerns the effects of RESV on the activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that has been implicated in aging. Indeed, the role of SIRT1 is currently the subject of intense research due to the antiaging properties of RESV, which increases life span in various organisms ranging from yeast to rodents. In addition, when RESV is administered in experimental animal models of neurological disorders, it has similar beneficial effects to caloric restriction. SIRT1 activation could thus constitute a potential strategic target in neurodegenerative diseases and in disorders involving disturbances in glucose homeostasis, as well as in dyslipidaemias or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, small SIRT1 activators such as SRT501, SRT2104, and SRT2379, which are currently undergoing clinical trials, could be potential drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, among other disorders. This review summarises current knowledge about the biological functions of SIRT1 in aging and aging-associated diseases and discusses its potential as a pharmacological target.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol prolongs lifespan and prevent cancer formation; however, the mechanisms are not understood. Here we evaluated the cell-cycle inhibition and apoptosis of resveratrol in B65 neuroblastoma cells, and we also studied the effects of resveratrol on the mammalian silent information regulator 2 (SIRT1). Results show that resveratrol reduces cell viability and causes apoptosis at 24 h of treatment. Resveratrol partially blocked cell proliferation, and significantly increased the fraction of cells arrested in the S phase. The role of SIRT1 in cell-cycle effects mediated by resveratrol was studied through changes in the expression of SIRT1 using western blot. Exposure to resveratrol decreased SIRT1 content, concomitant with an increase in the acetylated form of sirtuin substrates p53 and NFκ-β. Treatment of B65 neuroblastoma cells with resveratrol also reduced the content of the phosphorylated form of AKT. Exposure to the SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide and sirtinol altered neither cell viability nor the fraction of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, when cells were exposed simultaneously to resveratrol and nicotinamide or sirtinol, no changes were observed in the fraction of apoptotic cells. Our results show that a decrease in SIRT1 content, caused by exposure to resveratrol, does not appear to be involved in cell-cycle arrest or activation of apoptosis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Neurochemical Research