[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in genomic and transcriptome sequencing are revealing the massive scale of previously unrecognised alterations occurring during neoplastic transformation. Breast cancers are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous. Each of the three major subtypes [ERBB2 amplified, estrogen receptor (ESR)-positive and triple-negative] poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Here we show, using high-resolution next-generation transcriptome sequencing, that in all three breast cancer subtypes, but not matched controls, there was significant overexpression of transcripts from intronic and untranslated regions in addition to exons from specific genes, particularly amplified oncogenes and hormone receptors. For key genes ERBB2 and ESR1, we demonstrate that overexpression is linked to the production of highly modified and truncated splice variants in tumours, but not controls, correlated with tumour subtype. Translation of these tumour-specific splice variants generates truncated proteins with altered subcellular locations and functions, modifying the phenotype, affecting tumour biology, and targeted antitumour therapies. In contrast, tumour suppressors TP53, BRCA1/2 and NF1 did not show intronic overexpression or truncated splice variants in cancers. These findings emphasize the detection of intronic as well as exonic changes in the transcriptional landscapes of cancers have profound therapeutic implications.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, using gene-knockdown techniques together with genome expression array analysis, we showed the gene protein Kinase C (PKC)-zeta (PRKCZ) to mediate the malignant phenotype of human prostate cancer. However, according to NCBI, the gene has undergone several major iterations. Therefore, to understand the relationship between its structure and biological activities, we have analysed its expressed sequence in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues.
Transcriptome-walking and targeted PCR were used to sequence the mRNA transcribed from PRKCZ. Hydropathy analysis was employed to analyse the hypothetical protein sequence subsequently translated and to identify an appropriate epitope to generate a specific monoclonal antibody.
A novel sequence was identified within the 3'-terminal domain of human PRKCZ that, in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues, is expressed during transcription and thereafter translated into protein (designated PKC-ζ(-PrC)) independent of conventional PKC-ζ(-a). The monoclonal antibody detected expression of this 96 kD protein only within malignant prostatic epithelium.
Transcription and translation of this gene sequence, including previous intronic sequences, generates a novel specific biomarker of human prostate cancer. The presence of catalytic domains characteristic of classic PKC-β and atypical PKC-ι within PKC-ζ(-PrC) provides a potential mechanism for this PRKCZ variant to modulate the malignant prostatic phenotype out-with normal cell-regulatory control.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · British Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide novel functional data that posttranscriptional silencing of gene RPL19 using RNAi not only abrogates the malignant phenotype of PC-3M prostate cancer cells but is selective with respect to transcription and translation of other genes. Reducing RPL19 transcription modulates a subset of genes, evidenced by gene expression array analysis and Western blotting, but does not compromise cell proliferation or apoptosis in-vitro. However, growth of xenografted tumors containing the knocked-down RPL19 in-vivo is significantly reduced. Analysis of the modulated genes reveals induction of the non-malignant phenotype principally to involve perturbation of networks of transcription factors and cellular adhesion genes. The data provide evidence that extra-ribosomal regulatory functions of RPL19, beyond protein synthesis, are critical regulators of cellular phenotype. Targeting key members of affected networks identified by gene expression analysis raises the possibility of therapeutically stabilizing a benign phenotype generated by modulating the expression of an individual gene and thereafter constraining a malignant phenotype while leaving non-malignant tissues unaffected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ) to be a novel predictive biomarker for survival from prostate cancer (P < 0.001). We also confirm that transcription of the PRKC-ζ gene is crucial to the malignant phenotype of human prostate cancer. Following siRNA silencing of PRKC-ζ in PC3-M prostate cancer cells, stable transfectant cell line si-PRKC-ζ-PC3-M(T1-6) is phenotypically nonmalignant in vitro and in vivo. Genome-wide expression analysis identified 373 genes to be differentially expressed in the knockdown cells and 4 key gene networks to be significantly perturbed during phenotype modulation. Functional interconnection between some of the modulated genes is revealed, although these may be within different regulatory pathways, emphasizing the complexity of their mutual interdependence. Genes with altered expression following PRKC-ζ knockdown include HSPB1, RAD51, and ID1 that we have previously described to be critical in prostatic malignancy. Because expression of PRKC-ζ is functionally involved in promoting the malignant phenotype, we propose PKC-ζ as a novel and biologically relevant target for therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appreciation of the different methods of tissue handling is a prerequisite to obtaining accurate and biologically relevant tissue-based information. When a tissue sample is removed from its environment, biological changes are induced within its constituent cell population. It is inevitable that artefacts will be induced through obtaining and processing tissues, irrespective of whether the samples comprise a few cells derived by fine-needle aspiration or larger specimens obtained surgically. Depending upon the level of sophistication of the analytical methods subsequently employed, such changes might be irrelevant, or might result in acquisition of spurious data. While even brief ischemia alters expression of some genes, detectable by appropriate molecular techniques, the same changes might make no appreciable difference to tissue histomorphology. Furthermore, the phenotype of viable cells is known to change during tissue collection and handling. For example, transitional epithelial cells voided in urine are not phenotypically identical to those retained within the urothelium. Such phenotypic changes are temporary and might be of little consequence to subsequent analyses. Surprisingly, many cells in tissues preserved in an ischemic state can remain viable for several hours, and are believed to remain genotypically stable in the short term.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Nature Clinical Practice Urology