Allie Schwartz

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (3)10.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Diffuse-type gastric cancer is observed in approximately one-third of gastric cancers, yet the optimal treatment remains controversial. In the recently published Intergroup 0116 trial, a subgroup analysis demonstrated a lack of a long-term survival benefit for adjuvant chemoradiation therapy among patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer.METHODS The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry database was queried for patients who were newly diagnosed with diffuse-type gastric cancer between 2002 and 2005 and underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Overall survival (OS) was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between adjuvant RT and OS, with and without adjusting for other factors. In addition, propensity score methods were used to control for the possible effects of measured confounders.RESULTSA total of 1889 cases of surgically resected diffuse-type gastric cancer were included in the analysis; of these cases, 782 patients received adjuvant RT and 1107 did not receive RT. The median survival time was 30 months in the group treated with adjuvant RT versus 18 months in the group that did not receive RT with matched propensity scores (P<.001). The Cox model confirmed the improvement in OS in patients who received adjuvant RT (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.82 [P<.001]).CONCLUSIONS The current population-based observational study suggested a potential survival benefit for adjuvant RT among patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer. The standard treatment will likely remain controversial until evidence becomes available from phase 3 randomized trials exclusively for patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Object: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of postoperative external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on disease-specific survival in patients with nonbenign meningiomas. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1988 to 2007 was queried for cases of resected Grades II (atypical) and III (malignant) meningioma. Disease-specific survival outcomes were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the likelihood of receiving EBRT for Grade II versus Grade III. Because atypical and malignant meningiomas underwent WHO reclassification in 2000, the authors carried out an additional analysis of outcomes of these tumors from 2000 to 2008. Results: There were 657 patients included in the analysis; of these, 244 received adjuvant radiation. Compared with patients with Grade II meningioma, patients with Grade III disease were 41.9% more likely to receive EBRT after gross-total resection and 36.7% more likely to receive it after subtotal resection (95% CI 0.58-3.26). Controlling for grade, extent of resection, size and anatomical location of the tumor, year of diagnosis, race, age, and sex, adjuvant EBRT did not impart a survival benefit (HR 1.492; 95% CI 0.827-2.692). There was also no survival advantage to EBRT in an analysis of cases diagnosed after the WHO 2000 reclassification of meningiomas (HR 0.828; 95% CI 0.350-1.961). Conclusions: The results of this population-based retrospective analysis demonstrate that the role of radiation remains unclear. They underscore the need for randomized prospective clinical trials to assess the usefulness of adjuvant EBRT in Grades II and III meningioma so as to define more precisely the subset of patients who may benefit from the addition of adjuvant radiation.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Neurosurgery
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    ABSTRACT: Cranial irradiation is an effective treatment modality for both primary and metastatic brain tumors, yet it induces cognitive decline in a substantial number of patients. At present, there are no established methods for neuroprotection. Recent investigations have revealed a link between radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction and the loss of neural precursor cells in the hippocampus. Hence, identifying pharmacological agents, capable of protecting this cell population, is of interest. FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved oral drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, has been shown to promote the survival and differentiation of neural progenitors, as well as remyelination and repair after brain injury. In this study, we show that FTY720, used at nanomolar concentrations, is capable of increasing the viability and neurogenicity of irradiated neural stem cells from the hippocampus. In contrast, it does not provide radioprotection in a human breast cancer cell line and two glioma cell lines. These results suggest a potential therapeutic role for FTY720 as a neuroprotector during cranial irradiation. Further preclinical studies are warranted to evaluate this possibility.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Neuroscience Letters