Neal S Fedarko

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

Are you Neal S Fedarko?

Claim your profile

Publications (95)462.98 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rett Syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder due to mutations affecting the neural transcription factor MeCP2. Approximately 50% of affected females have decreased bone mass. We studied osteoblast function using a murine model of RTT. Female heterozygote (HET) and male Mecp2-null mice were compared to wild type (WT) mice. Micro-CT of tibia from 5week-old Mecp2-null mice showed significant alterations in trabecular bone including reductions in bone volume fraction (-29%), number (-19%), thickness (-9%) and connectivity density (-32 %), and increases in trabecular separation (+28%) compared to WT. We also found significant reductions in cortical bone thickness (-18%) and in polar moment of inertia (-45%). In contrast, cortical and trabecular bone from 8week-old WT and HET female mice were not significantly different. However, mineral apposition rate, mineralizing surface and bone formation rate /bone surface were each decreased in HET and Mecp2-null mice compared to WT mice. Histomorphometric analysis of femurs showed decreased numbers of osteoblasts but similar numbers of osteoclasts compared to WT, altered osteoblast morphology and decreased tissue synthesis of alkaline phosphatase in Mecp2-null and HET mice. Osteoblasts cultured from Mecp2-null mice, which unlike WT osteoblasts did not express MeCP2, had increased growth rates, but reductions in mRNA expression of type I collagen, Runx2 and Osterix compared to WT osteoblasts. These results indicate that MeCP2 deficiency leads to altered bone growth. Osteoblast dysfunction was more marked in Mecp2-null null male than in HET female mice, suggesting that expression of MeCP2 plays a critical role in bone development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Bone
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Summer training in aging research for medical students is a strategy for improving the pipeline of medical students into research careers in aging and clinical care of older adults. Johns Hopkins University has been offering medical students a summer experience of mentored research, research training, and clinical shadowing since 1994. Long-term outcomes of this program have not been described. We surveyed all 191 participants (60% female and 27% underrepresented minorities) and received a 65.8% (N=125) response rate. We also conducted Google and other online searches to supplement study findings. Thirty-seven percent of those who have completed training are now in academic medicine, and program participants have authored or co-authored 582 manuscripts. Among survey respondents, 95.1% reported that participation in the MSTAR program increased their sensitivity to needs of older adults. This program may help to build a commitment among medical students to choose careers in aging.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association of inflammatory biomarkers with clinical events after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is unclear. A5202 randomized 1857 treatment-naive subjects to abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir-DF/emtricitabine with efavirenz or atazanavir/ritonavir. Substudy A5224s measured inflammatory biomarkers on subjects with available plasma from baseline and weeks 24 or 96. An exploratory analysis of the association of hsCRP, IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, TNF-α, sVCAM-1, and sICAM-1 with times to AIDS and to non-AIDS events used Cox proportional hazards models. Analysis included 244 subjects; 85% male, 48% white non-Hispanic, with median age 39 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/mL, and CD4 240 cells/µL. Overall, 13 AIDS events (9 opportunistic infections; 3 AIDS-cancers, 1 recurrent bacterial pneumonia) and 18 non-AIDS events (6 diabetes, 4 cancers, 3 cardiovascular, 5 pneumonias) occurred. Higher baseline IL-6, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and sICAM-1 were significantly associated with increased risk of AIDS-defining events. Adjustment for baseline HIV-1 RNA did not change results, while adjusting for baseline CD4 count left only sTNF-RI and sICAM-1 significantly associated with increased risk. Time-updated values of IL-6, sTNFR-I and II, and sICAM-1 were also associated with an increased risk. For non-AIDS events, only higher baseline hsCRP was significantly associated with increased risk, while higher IL-6 was marginally associated with higher risk. Analyses of time-updated biomarker values showed TNF-α to be significantly associated with increased risk, even after adjustment for ART, and CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA. Higher levels of several inflammatory biomarkers were independently associated with increased risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading cause of death in men however the factors that regulate its progression and eventual metastasis to bone remain unclear. Here we show that WISP1/CCN4 expression in prostate cancer tissues was up-regulated in early stages of the disease and, further, that it correlated with increased circulating levels of WISP1 in the sera of patients at early stages of the disease. WISP1 was also elevated in the mouse prostate cancer model TRAMP in the hypoplastic diseased tissue that develops prior to advanced carcinoma formation. When the ability of anti-WISP1 antibodies to reduce the spread of PC3-Luc cells to distant sites was tested it showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced the number and overall size of distant tumors developed after intracardiac (IC) injection of PC3-Luc cells in mice. The ability of antibodies against WISP1 to inhibit growth of PC3-Luc cancer cells in mice was also evaluated and showed that twice weekly injections of anti-WISP1 antibodies reduced local tumor growth when examined in xenografts. To better understand the mechanism of action, the migration of PC3-Luc cells through membranes with or without a Matrigel™ barrier showed the cells were attracted to WISP1, and that this attraction was inhibited by treatment with anti-WISP1 antibodies. We also show the expression of WISP1 at the bone-tumor interface and in the stroma of early grade cancers suggested WISP1 expression is well placed to play roles in both fostering growth of the cancer and its spread to bone. In summary, the up-regulation of WISP1 in the early stages of cancer development coupled with its ability to inhibit spread and growth of prostate cancer cells makes it both a potential target and an accessible diagnostic marker for prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Chitotriosidase (ChT) is secreted by chronically activated macrophages in Gaucher's disease. We hypothesize that circulating levels of ChT are altered with normal aging, reflecting age-related chronic macrophage activation. Potential sources that might contribute to altered levels were assessed by measuring systemic levels of ChT are α-naphthyl acetate esterase, a macrophage lysosomal enzyme; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which stimulates neutrophilic granule release of ChT; interleukin-6 (IL-6); and neopterin, a macrophage activation marker. Methods: Serum was obtained from 315 healthy participants whose age ranged from 18 to 92 years. Anthropometric measures included percent body fat and body mass index. ChT and α-naphthyl acetate esterase levels were measured by enzyme activity assays. GM-CSF, IL-6, and neopterin concentrations were measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum marker values were statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests. Results: Six percent of the participants had undetectable ChT levels. A positive association with age was observed for ChT and IL-6, whereas a negative correlation with age was seen for α-naphthyl acetate esterase and GM-CSF. ChT values were not associated with α-naphthyl acetate esterase or GM-CSF levels. ChT was independently associated with IL-6 and neopterin levels, but statistical significance was attenuated when controlled for age. Conclusions: The data are consistent with increased serum ChT activity not arising from altered macrophage lysosomal enzyme trafficking or GM-CSF-stimulated release of neutrophil granule stores. The association of ChT with age remains significant after controlling for neopterin and IL-6 changes with age, suggesting that ChT levels reflect a macrophage state distinct from acute macrophage activation or inflammatory state.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the immune system play important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary purpose of this study was to compare the plasma levels of neopterin, a marker of cellular immune activity, in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early (mild to moderate) AD, and cognitively normal controls. In addition, the correlation of plasma neopterin with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also examined. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with mild-to-moderate AD (N = 34), aMCI (N = 27), and cognitively normal controls (N = 30) were obtained from the Johns Hopkins Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Plasma neopterin, IFN-γ, and IL-6 levels were measured using commercially available ELISAs. Multiple linear regression was performed to study differences in the baseline neopterin levels between normal, aMCI, and AD patients. Pearson correlation coefficients were estimated for neopterin and IFN-γ and IL-6 levels. All analyses were conducted using SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) and GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Window (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA). RESULTS: AD subjects had significantly higher neopterin values compared with aMCI (β = 0.202, p = 0.004) and normal (β = 0.263, p = 0.0004) subjects. There was no statistically significant difference between normal and aMCI subjects. Significant associations between neopterin and IFN-γ (r = 0.41, p < 0.0001) and IL-6 (r = 0.35, p = 0.0006) levels were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that peripheral immune response may be stronger in later stages of AD pathophysiology, when dementia has developed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) changes in bone formation (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (cross-linked N-telopeptides of bone type I collagen [NTXs]) markers, as well as calcium, phosphorus, and intact parathyroid hormone, over the first 6 months of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy among a cohort of breast cancer patients compared with a group of unexposed women without a history of cancer; and (2) whether bone marker changes were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Eligible breast cancer patients (n = 49) and postmenopausal women without a history of cancer (n = 117) were recruited and followed for 6 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months, a questionnaire was administered to assess pain and medication use, and a blood sample was drawn. Results showed that, among the breast cancer patients, calcium concentrations decreased significantly (-7.8% change; p = 0.013) and concentrations of NTXs increased significantly from baseline to 6 months (9.6% change; p = 0.012). Changes were not observed for women in the comparison group. Statistically significant differences in percent change between the breast cancer patients and the women in the comparison group were observed for calcium at 6 months (-7.8% versus 0.0%; p = 0.025), phosphorus at 6 months (-5.1% versus 16.7%; p = 0.003), NTXs at 6 months (9.6% versus -0.7%; p = 0.017), and osteocalcin at 6 months (11.5% versus -3.6%; p = 0.016). No statistically significant associations were observed between bone turnover marker changes and musculoskeletal pain among the breast cancer patients, although baseline NTXs were higher among women with onset or increase in pain compared with those reporting no pain (p = 0.08). Findings from this study suggest that AIs cause changes in bone turnover during the first 6 months of treatment; however, these changes are not associated with musculoskeletal pain. Breast cancer patients initiating AI therapy should be assessed and monitored for fracture risk using known clinical risk factors, including bone density, and managed appropriately.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thiazoledinediones increase limb fat in HIV+ patients with lipoatrophy. However, their use in the general population has been associated with bone loss and fracture. We sought to determine the effects of rosiglitazone on bone metabolism in HIV-infected patients. HIV+ patients with lipoatrophy were randomized to rosiglitazone versus placebo for 48 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Limb fat, bone mineral density (BMD), bone formation markers (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide [P1NP], osteocalcin [OC]) and bone resorption markers (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX]) were measured, along with receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa β ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and inflammatory cytokines. Seventy-one subjects were randomized to rosiglitazone or placebo: 17% female and 51% white. Total BMD did not change significantly in either group. In the rosiglitazone group, P1NP showed statistically significant decreases at 24 and 48 weeks; however, changes compared to placebo were only significant at 24 weeks. OC decreased significantly in the rosiglitazone group at 24 weeks, but there were no between-group differences. CTX, RANKL, or OPG did not change for either group. Multivariable regression within the rosiglitazone arm showed P1NP changes were inversely associated with limb fat changes, protease inhibitors, and tenofovir use. Rosiglitazone use was associated with decreased bone formation, but it did not alter bone resorption or total BMD. The increase in limb fat that accompanies rosiglitazone use appears to be associated with decreased osteoblast activity. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of thiazoledinediones on bone health in HIV-infected persons.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · HIV Clinical Trials
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of specific antiretrovirals on inflammation is unclear. A5224s was a substudy of A5202, which randomized HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients to blinded abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) in a factorial design. Our analysis compared changes in inflammation markers from baseline to week 24 between ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC. Secondary analyses included changes at week 96 and comparisons of EFV vs. ATV/r. Analyses included 244 patients (85% male, 48% white non-Hispanic), median age 39 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/ml, CD4 240 cells/μl. TNF-α, soluble receptors of TNF-α (sTNFR)-I and II, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 decreased significantly at weeks 24 and 96, without significant differences between components (P ≥ 0.44). At week 24, ABC/3TC had a greater high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) mean fold change than TDF/FTC {1.43 vs. 0.88, estimated mean fold change percentage difference [Δ] 61.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.6%, 129.5%]; P = 0.008}. Similar results were seen at week 96 (P = 0.021). At week 24 (but not 96), EFV had a greater hsCRP mean fold change than ATV/r [1.41 vs. 0.88; Δ = 60.2% (12.6%, 127.7%); P = 0.009]. IL-6 decreased significantly at week 24 with TDF/FTC but not with ABC/3TC (between-components P = 0.019). At week 96, IL-6 decreased significantly in both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor components (between-components P = 0.11). IL-6 changes were not significantly different between ATV/r and EFV at either time point (P ≥ 0.89). Soluble TNF-receptors and adhesion molecules decreased following treatment initiation and did not differ by regimens. Differences were seen on hsCRP and IL-6 changes with ABC/3TC vs. TDF/FTC and on hsCRP with EFV vs. ATV/r.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · AIDS (London, England)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system regulates multiple physiological functions through Ang II type 1 and type 2 receptors. Prior studies suggest an intracellular pool of Ang II that may be released in an autocrine manner upon stretch to activate surface membrane Ang receptors. Alternatively, an intracellular renin-Ang system has been proposed, with a primary focus on nuclear Ang receptors. A mitochondrial Ang system has not been previously described. Here we report that functional Ang II type 2 receptors are present on mitochondrial inner membranes and are colocalized with endogenous Ang. We demonstrate that activation of the mitochondrial Ang system is coupled to mitochondrial nitric oxide production and can modulate respiration. In addition, we present evidence of age-related changes in mitochondrial Ang receptor expression, i.e., increased mitochondrial Ang II type 1 receptor and decreased type 2 receptor density that is reversed by chronic treatment with the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker losartan. The presence of a functional Ang system in human mitochondria provides a foundation for understanding the interaction between mitochondria and chronic disease states and reveals potential therapeutic targets for optimizing mitochondrial function and decreasing chronic disease burden with aging.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Alzheimer's and Dementia
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methods: this is a cross-sectional study in community-dwelling older adults recruited from residential and retirement communities in Baltimore, MD, USA. Frailty was determined using validated screening criteria. Serum neopterin and IL-6 levels were measured using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between log(neopterin) and log(IL-6). Odds ratios (ORs) for frailty were calculated using log(neopterin) and log(IL-6) as continuous measures and across tertiles of neopterin and IL-6 levels, adjusting for age, race, sex, education and body mass index. Results: one hundred and thirty-three individuals with a mean age of 84 years (range 72-97) completed the study. Neopterin levels were significantly higher in frail older adults than those in non-frail controls [median: 8.94 versus 8.35 nM, respectively, P < 0.001 t-test on log(neopterin)]. Log(neopterin) was significantly associated with prevalent frailty, adjusting for log(IL-6). Participants in the top tertile of neopterin had OR of 3.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-10.6, P < 0.01] for frailty. As expected, participants in the top tertile of IL-6 had OR of 3.29 (95% CI = 1.21-7.86, P < 0.05) for frailty. Log(neopterin) correlated with log(IL-6) (correlation coefficient = 0.19, P < 0.05). Moreover, OR for participants in the top neopterin tertile remained significant after adjusting for IL-6 (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.15-13.72, P < 0.05). Conclusion: elevated neopterin levels had IL-6-independent association with prevalent frailty, suggesting potential monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation in the frail elderly.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Age and Ageing
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mice homozygous for targeted deletion of the interleukin 10 gene (Il-10) have been partially characterized as a model for human frailty. These mice have increased serum interleukin (IL)-6 in midlife, skeletal muscle weakness, and an altered skeletal muscle gene expression profile compared to age and sex-matched C57BL/6 (B6) control mice. In order to further characterize for use as a frailty model, we evaluated the evolution of inflammatory pathway activation, endocrine change, and mortality in these mice. Serum was collected in groups of age- and sex-matched B6.129P2-Il10 tm1Cgn /J (IL-10tm/tm) mice and B6 control mice at age 12, 24, 48, 72, and 90 weeks. Cytokines including IL-6, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (KC), IL-12, and IL-10 were measured using electro-chemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured using solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A separate longitudinal cohort was monitored from age 35 weeks to approximately 100 weeks. Survival was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier survival estimates and detailed necropsy information was gathered in a subset of mice that died or were sacrificed. In IL-10tm/tm mice compared to B6 controls, serum IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, KC levels were significantly elevated across the age groups, serum mean IGF-1 levels were higher in the 48-week-old groups, and overall mortality rate was significantly higher. The quadratic relationship between IGF-1 and age was significantly different between the two strains of mice. Serum IL-6 was positively associated with IGF-1 but the effect was significantly larger in IL-10tm/tm mice. These findings provide additional rationale for the use of the IL-10tm/tm mouse as a model for frailty and for low-grade inflammatory pathway activation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Age
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In immunocompetent persons, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to persist primarily in monocytes and myeloid progenitor cells, establishing a chronic infection. In older adults, chronic CMV infection is typically diagnosed by a positive IgG serology. While many studies have shown CMV-specific T-cell expansion in CMV seropositive older individuals, significant heterogeneity has also been observed in this elderly population. In a study of 71 community-dwelling older adults, we assessed CMV viral DNA in peripheral monocytes by nested PCR and compared the relationships of detectable CMV DNA and IgG serology with serum levels of neopterin, a marker for monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation. The results showed that 52 (73.2%) participants were CMV seropositive, of whom 30 (57.5%) had detectable CMV DNA. CMV seropositive and seronegative participants did not differ in their neopterin levels, but individuals with detectable CMV DNA had higher neopterin than those without (10.6 ± 4.4 vs 8.0 ± 1.9 nM, respectively, p<.0001) adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates and interferon (IFN)-γ levels. In addition, there was no association between IgG titers and neopterin. These findings suggest that detection of CMV viral DNA in monocytes may be an informative tool to evaluate chronic CMV infection and its potential role in monocyte/macrophage-mediated immune activation in the elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Experimental gerontology
  • Source
    Neal S Fedarko
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In developing and validating the concept of frailty as a geriatric syndrome, it has been necessary to distinguish the clinical expression of frailty from normal age-related changes and other age-related disease pathologies. A framework for excluding potentially confounding disease and a working clinical tool to diagnose frailty have been provided. The associations between frailty and other pathophysiologies has also been shown. However, investigating the underlying biologic basis for the geriatric syndrome of frailty by studying basic homeostatic pathways and mechanisms has not proceeded at the same rate. The following article provides an overview of the homeostatic pathways emphasized in research on aging and explains how this science may help to stimulate frailty research.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
  • Matthew K McNabney · Neal S Fedarko · Samuel C Durso

    No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neopterin, a GTP metabolite expressed by macrophages, is a marker of immune activation. We hypothesize that levels of this serum marker alter with donor age, reflecting increased chronic immune activation in normal aging. In addition to age, we assessed gender, race, body mass index (BMI), and percentage of body fat (%fat) as potential covariates. Serum was obtained from 426 healthy participants whose age ranged from 18 to 87 years. Anthropometric measures included %fat and BMI. Neopterin concentrations were measured by competitive ELISA. The paired associations between neopterin and age, BMI, or %fat were analyzed by Spearman's correlation or by linear regression of log-transformed neopterin, whereas overall associations were modeled by multiple regression of log-transformed neopterin as a function of age, gender, race, BMI, %fat, and interaction terms. Across all participants, neopterin exhibited a positive association with age, BMI, and %fat. Multiple regression modeling of neopterin in women and men as a function of age, BMI, and race revealed that each covariate contributed significantly to neopterin values and that optimal modeling required an interaction term between race and BMI. The covariate %fat was highly correlated with BMI and could be substituted for BMI to yield similar regression coefficients. The association of age and gender with neopterin levels and their modification by race, BMI, or %fat reflect the biology underlying chronic immune activation and perhaps gender differences in disease incidence, morbidity, and mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, with an overall survival of 4-6 years. It is always preceded by a premalignant stage called monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). Importantly, at this time we lack reliable predictors to determine who will progress from MGUS to MM, and who will remain stable. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a key role in myelomagenesis (growth, survival and migration of malignant plasma cells). In the present review, we summarize and discuss our current understanding of the bone marrow microenvironment and its compartments in relation to myelomagenesis. Although it remains to be proven, we believe that an improved characterization of the cellular constituents, the extracellular matrix components and the soluble factors of the bone marrow could open up novel avenues to better understand underlying mechanisms of the transformation from MGUS to MM. Ultimately, this will lead to the development of early treatment of high-risk precursor disease aimed to delay/prevent MM.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) level could be useful as a non-invasive biomarker in Alzheimer's disease research. We compared a multiplex electrochemiluminescence detection method with a well established ELISA method for plasma Aβ quantification. Compared to the ELISA method, the electrochemiluminescence detection method demonstrates a statistically significant, but modest correlation. The reasons for this may include the differences in the affinities of antibodies, and purity and source of Aβ peptides used as standards. However, the advantages of electrochemiluminescence detection technology include short processing time and small sample volume. This comparison demonstrates the need for a further study in optimizing this system.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The organic matrix of bone contains several protein families, including collagens, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, all of which may be extensively modified by posttranslational events, such as phosphorylation and sulfation. Many of the glycoproteins contain Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), the integrin-binding sequence, within their structure, whereas other constituent proteins contain gamma-carboxyglutamic acid. The deposition of bone matrix by cells in the osteoblastic lineage is regulated by extrinsic factors, such as systemic and local growth factors and physical forces, and factors that are intrinsic to the cell, such as position in the cell cycle, maturational stage, and developmental age of the donor. Recent studies of several bone matrix gene promoters have identified cis- and trans-acting elements that are responsible for gene activity, although the precise sequence of regulatory events is not known. Development of in vitro assays, coupled with studies of the appearance of these proteins during development in vivo, provides insight into the functions of these proteins during the various stages of bone metabolism. Potential roles for these proteins include proliferation and maturation of stem cells, formation of matrix scaffolding elaborated by bone-forming cells, modeling, and remodeling. Changes in the functional properties of the extracellular matrix may be involved in a variety of disease processes, including osteoporosis and oral bone loss.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Stats

5k Citations
462.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004-2015
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1995-2014
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States
  • 1988-2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Section on Developmental Biology
      • • Branch of Craniofacial and Skeletal Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Urbana, Illinois, United States