[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma remains as incurable brain disease owing to the prevalence of its recurrence. Considerable evidence suggests that glioma stem-like cells are responsible for glioma relapse after treatment, which commonly involves ionizing radiation. Here, we found that fractionated ionizing radiation (2 Gy/day for 3 days) induced glioma stem-like cell expansion and resistance to anticancer treatment such as cisplatin (50 μM) or taxol (500 nM), or by ionizing radiation (10 Gy) in both glioma cell lines (U87, U373) and patient-derived glioma cells. Of note, concomitant increase of nitric oxide production occurred with the radiation-induced increase of glioma stem-like cell population through up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In line with this observation, down-regulation of iNOS effectively reduced the glioma stem-like cell population and decreased resistance to anticancer treatment. Collectively, our results suggest that targeting iNOS in combination with ionizing radiation may increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for glioma treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated KRAS expression has been frequently associated with cancer progression including breast cancer; however, therapeutic approaches targeting KRAS have been widely unsuccessful and KRAS mutant cancers remain unsolved problem in cancer therapy. In this study, we found that a new 2-pyrone derivative, 5-bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (BHP) can block KRAS-driven breast cancer progression. Importantly, treatment with BHP effectively suppressed the migratory and invasive properties along with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells that carry oncogenic KRAS and mesenchymal malignant phenotypes. In parallel, BHP also sensitized the cells to anticancer treatment. Consistently, forced-expression of oncogenic KRAS bestowed the migratory and invasive properties, mesenchymal transition and resistance to anticancer treatment into normal human mammalian breast cells MCF10A and relatively non-malignant MCF7 and SK-BR3 breast cancer cells; however, treatment with BHP blocked those KRAS-induced malignant phenotypes. Notably, BHP interfered the interaction of KRAS with Raf-1 in concentration-dependent manner, thereby blocking the downstream effectors of KRAS signaling that is PI3K/AKT and ERK. Taken together, our findings indicate that the BHP, an α-pyrone derivative, suppresses malignant breast cancer progression by targeting of oncogenic KRAS signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioma cells with stem cell properties, termed glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), have been linked to tumor formation, maintenance, and progression and are responsible for the failure of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Because conventional glioma treatments often fail to eliminate GSCs completely, residual surviving GSCs are able to repopulate the tumor. Compounds that target GSCs might be helpful in overcoming resistance to anticancer treatments in human brain tumors. In this study, we showed that 5-bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (BHP), a new 2-pyrone derivative, suppressed the maintenance of the GSC population in both a glioma cell line and patient-derived glioma cells. Treatment of GSCs with BHP effectively inhibited sphere formation and suppressed the CD133(+) cell population. Treatment with BHP also suppressed expression of the stemness-regulating transcription factors Sox2, Notch2, and β-catenin in sphere-cultured glioma cells. Treatment of GSCs with BHP significantly suppressed two fundamental characteristics of cancer stem cells: self-renewal and tumorigenicity. BHP treatment dramatically inhibited clone-forming ability at the single-cell level and suppressed in vivo tumor formation. BHP markedly inhibited both phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and Ras/Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, which suggests that one or both of these pathways are involved in BHP-induced suppression of GSCs. In addition, treatment with BHP effectively sensitized GSCs to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Taken together, these results indicate that BHP targets GSCs and enhances their sensitivity to anticancer treatments and suggest that BHP treatment may be useful for treating brain tumors by eliminating GSCs.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Molecular pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis of breast cancer patients is related to the degree of metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which epithelial tumor cells escape from the primary tumor and colonize at a distant site are not entirely understood. Here, we analyzed expression levels of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1), a relatively uncharacterized oncoprotein, in patient-derived breast cancer tissues with corresponding normal breast tissues. We found that PTTG1 is highly expressed in breast cancer patients, compared with normal tissues. Also, PTTG1 expression levels were correlated with the degree of malignancy in breast cancer cell lines; the more migratory and invasive cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BT549 displayed the higher expression levels of PTTG1 than the less migratory and invasive MCF7 and SK-BR3 and normal MCF10A cell lines. By modulating PTTG1 expression levels, we found that PTTG1 enhances the migratory and invasive properties of breast cancer cells by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition, as evidenced by altered morphology and epithelial/mesenchymal cell marker expression patterns and up-regulation of the transcription factor Snail. Notably, down-regulation of PTTG1 also suppressed cancer stem cell population in BT549 cells by decreasing self-renewing ability and tumorigenic capacity, accompanying decreasing CD44(high) CD24(low) cells and Sox2 expression. Up-regulation of PTTG1 had the opposite effects, increasing sphere-forming ability and Sox2 expression. Importantly, PTTG1-mediated malignant tumor properties were due, at least in part, to activation of AKT, known to be a key regulator of both EMT and stemness in cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that PTTG1 may represent a new therapeutic target for malignant breast cancer.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry