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Publications (27)

  • Dataset · Oct 2015
  • Dataset · Oct 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe dengue disease is often associated with long-term neurological impairments, but it is unclear what mechanisms are associated with neurological sequelae. Previously, we demonstrated antibody-enhanced dengue disease (ADE) dengue in an immunocompetent mouse model with a dengue virus 2 (DENV2) antibody injection followed by DENV3 virus infection. Here we migrated this ADE model to Callitrix penicillata. To mimic human multiple infections of endemic zones where abundant vectors and multiple serotypes co-exist, three animals received weekly subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected supernatant of C6/36 cell cultures, followed 24 h later by anti-DENV2 antibody for 12 weeks. There were six control animals, two of which received weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, and four further animals received no injections. After multiple infections, brain, liver, and spleen samples were collected and tissue was immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens, ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1, Ki-67, TNFα. There were marked morphological changes in the microglial population of ADE monkeys characterized by more highly ramified microglial processes, higher numbers of trees and larger surface areas. These changes were associated with intense TNFα-positive immunolabeling. It is unclear why ADE should generate such microglial activation given that IgG does not cross the blood-brain barrier, but this study reveals that in ADE dengue therapy targeting the CNS host response is likely to be important. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · Neuropathology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of body biometrics on cardiac measurements and description of cardiac anatomy were performed in red-tailed boas (Boa constrictor constrictor) (n ¼ 29) using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Statistical comparison of measured cardiac metrics according to sex and body measurements demonstrated no significant difference between sexes but a highly significant linear increase between body length and mass and all cardiac metrics.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
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    Full-text Book · Jan 2014
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    Milene Silveira Ferreira · Paulo Henrique Gomes de Castro · Gilmara Abreu Silva · [...] · Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the murine models have the feasibility to reproduce some signs of Dengue Virus (DENV) infection, the use of isogenic hosts with polarized immune response patterns does not reproduce the particularities of human disease. Our goal was to investigate the kinetics of peripheral blood biomarkers in immunocompetent Callithrix penicillata non-human primates subcutaneously infected with DENV-3. The viral load of infected animals was determinated by quantitative real time PCR. Measurements of DENV-3/IgM were performed, and several parameters were assessed by hemogram: Red blood cells count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells count, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets count. The coagulogram was performed by Prothrombin time (PT), and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays. The renal function was monitored by Urea and Creatinine, and the liver function by the aspartate (AST), and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases. Also, the level of the cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 was quantified during the experimental study. Data analysis was performed considering relevant differences when baseline fold changes were found outside from 0.75 to 1.5 range. Our data demonstrated that infected animals presented relevant signs of dengue disease, including peaks of viremia at 5 days-post-infection (dpi), peaks of anti-DENV-3 IgM at 15 dpi and hemaglutination inhibition assay (HIA) from 15 to at 60 dpi. Despite early monocytosis, slight neutrophilia and lymphocytosis, animals developed persistent leucopenia starting at 4 dpi. Anemia episodes were steady at 3-4 dpi. Patent thrombocytopenia was observed from 1-15 dpi with sporadic decrease of APTT. A substantial increase of ALT and AST was observed with higher peak at 4 dpi. Moreover, early increases of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma besides late increase of IFN- gamma were observed. The analysis of biomarkers network pointed out two relevant strong axes during early stages of dengue fever, a protective axes TNF-alpha/Lymphocytes/Platelets, and a pathological IL-2/IL-6/Viremia/Monocyte/PT bond. Later on, the biomarker network highlighted the interaction IFN-gamma/PLT/DENV-3(IgM;HAI)/PT, and the involvement of type-2 cytokines (IL-4;IL-5). Our findings demonstrated that C. penicillata is a feasible experimental model for Dengue Virus infection, which could be useful to pathogenesis studies, discovery of novel antiviral drugs as well as to evaluate vaccine candidates against DENV.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2013 · Immunology letters
  • Rafaela Galante · José A.P.C. Muniz · Paulo H.G. Castro · [...] · Ricardo G.D′O.C. Vilani
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although commonly used, dissociative anesthesia results in unsatisfactory and long recovery periods. The intravenous anesthetic propofol seems to be the most advantageous solution. The objectives of this study were to investigate the required infusion rate of propofol to maintain surgical anesthesia and to compare it to tiletamine-zolazepam in Aotus infulatus. Eight healthy feline night monkeys were anesthetized with propofol (PRO) or tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) during 60 minutes. Cardiopulmonary parameters, arterial blood gases and lactate and quality and times to recovery were determined. Mean infusion rate of propofol was 0.53 ± 0.10 mg/kg/minute. Cardiopulmonary effects did not show marked differences between groups. Times for hanging, ventral recumbency, and normal ambulation were lower in PRO. Establishment of desirable anesthetic depth was easier, recovery quality was superior, and lactate levels were lower in PRO. Compared with tiletamine-zolazepam, minor post-anesthetic adverse events should be expected with propofol anesthesia, as well as faster and better anesthetic recovery.
    Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Medical Primatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasound (B-mode) was used to analyze follicular events in 12 trained female owl monkeys (Aotus azarai infulatus). The animals were examined every 48 hours for over 90 days to measure and map follicular growth in both ovaries and to measure (using Doppler velocimetry) local hemodynamic changes during the peri-ovulatory stage. There were 44 follicular growth events, each with two or three follicular waves, and a mean ± SEM interval between events of 17 ± 1.13 days. There were various hemodynamic changes during follicular growth; both vascular resistance index and pulsatility index decreased during the time when the follicle diameter peaked. Thus, both B-mode and Doppler ultrasound were useful for monitoring ovarian follicular events in owl monkeys.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2013 · Theriogenology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to identify the aerobic bacteria of the preputial and vaginal microbiota in owl monkeys that have been raised in captivity and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of these bacteria by gender and social organization. Methods: Thirty clinically healthy Aotus azarai infulatus were used. A total of 134 samples were collected, 60 from the preputial mucosa and 74 from the vaginal mucosa. An automated system of bacterial identification was used. Results and conclusions: Staphylococcus intermedius and Proteus mirabilis were the microorganisms that were most frequently identified according to gender and social organization. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated gram-positive bacteria was similar in both sexes. However, the gram-negative strains had some differences. The aerobic bacterial population of the vaginal and preputial microbiota is similar in owl monkeys, and there are no differences in the number and bacterial species according to sex and social organization.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Medical Primatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to characterize anatomical and biochemical properties of owl monkey kidneys in order to provide normal reference values. Sixty-nine Aotus azarai infulatus (45 males and 24 females) were divided into four different age groups (AG1: 3 months-1 year; AG2: 2-3 years; AG3: 4-6 years; and AG4: over 7 years old). The monkeys were evaluated with a serum chemistry profile, focusing on serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and with ultrasound. Mean body mass differed among the age groups. This significance was attributed to AG1 body mass being significantly lower than in AG2 and that in both AG2 and AG3 being significantly lower than in the two older age groups (AG3 and AG4). SCr and BUN concentrations differed significantly between the sexes and SCr level correlated positively with age. In contrast, renal measurements did not differ between males and females. Left and right renal volumes did not differ significantly within age groups, or among AG2, AG3, and AG4. Renal volumes in AG1, however, while not differing from those in AG2, did differ significantly from those in AG3 and AG4. In conclusion, this study provides ultrasonographic reference values for the morphology the kidneys in A. a. infulatus. Evidence is also provided that SCr and BUN levels in owl monkeys are influenced by the sex and age of the individual, factors that should be considered when interpreting test results.
    Full-text Article · May 2012 · American Journal of Primatology
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    Full-text Article · Mar 2012
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    Full-text Article · Jan 2012 · Revista de Ciencias Agrarias
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Knowing the physiological ranges of certain hematological and biochemical parameters is necessary for understanding the alterations caused by pathogenic agents and establishing differences between states of health and disease. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry were performed on livers and kidneys from owl monkeys with different sexes and age ranges. Methods Forty-one healthy owl monkeys were evaluated (26 males and 15 females) in three different age groups (AG1 = 3 months to 1 year old; AG2 = 2–6 years old; AG3 = over 7 years old). The animals received physical exams, abdominal ultrasounds, and clinical laboratory tests. Results and conclusions Significant differences were observed in hematocrit and hemoglobin values between males and females. The levels of alkaline phosphatase in the tissues were significantly influenced by age. There was also a sex influence on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. The results show that some hematological and clinical chemistry parameters in owl monkeys may be influenced by sex and age.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Medical Primatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We aimed to evaluate the uterine and ovarian volumes of owl monkeys in different age groups with different numbers of live births and to analyze the interaction between both. Methods: We performed pelvic ultrasound exams to compare the uterine measurements with weight, age (infant, juvenile, subadult, young adults, and adults) and the number of live births (nulliparous, primiparous, and multiparous) and to compare the ovarian measurements with weight and age. Results and conclusions: The uterine volume (UV) was directly proportional to the number of parturitions, which was the most important factor in the uterine growth of adult females (P < 0.05). The body weight and age of the animals showed a high positive correlation with UV (r = 0.5354, r = 0.6489, P < 0.01), respectively. The volume of the ovaries grew in proportion to the age of the females (P < 0.05). Puberty was the period of greatest uterine and ovarian growth.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Medical Primatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in owl monkeys was monitored using ultrasonography. The obstetric exams were performed using a 5-12 MHz linear probe. The measurements included the mean gestational sac diameter (MGSD), crown-rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), head area (HA), abdominal circumference (AC), abdominal area (AA) and femur length (FL). The Pearson's correlation coefficient showed highly significant positive correlations between most of the fetal growth variables (r > 0.90, P < 0.01). The AC x FL and AA x FL correlations did have correlation coefficients <0.90, although this value was still highly significant (P < 0.01). These results suggest that all of the fetal growth variables are strongly associated with each other.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2011
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A protocol for gynecological and obstetric examination of owl monkeys using ultrasound Protocolo para exame ginecológico e obstétrico por ultrassom em macacos-da-noite ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to establish a physical restraint protocol for gynecological and obstetric examination using ultrasound in Aotus azarai infulatus. The study was conducted with 10 previously established adult couples, evaluated during two different time periods (P1 and P2). In P1, the conditioning was carried out by daily repetition of the gynecological exam associated with the offering of fruits before, during and after the exam. In P2, gynecological examinations were performed on non-pregnant females (n = 6), and obstetric examinations on those who became pregnant (n = 3). The exams were performed using the Medical SonoAce 9900®ultrasound equipment equipped with a multifrequential linear array probe (5-12 MHz). The initial and final heart rate (HR1 and HR2) for each female were calculated based on the interval between systolic peaks. No significant differences were observed in the heart rates in terms of time of examination, suggesting that the time did not interfere in the variables analyzed during the exams. The gynecological and obstetric exams presented a HR2 lower than HR1 during the two periods evaluated (p<0.01). The stress caused by initial restraint increased sympathetic activity and raised HR1. Offering fruits and habituating the animals favored the parasympathetic modulation, thereby explaining the decrease in HR2. This was observed in both gynecological and obstetric exams. RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer um protocolo de contenção
    Full-text Article · Jan 2011 · Revista de Ciencias Agrarias
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasonograph, hematology and biochemical liver and kidney in feline-night-monkey, Aotus azarai infulatus (Kuhl, 1820) bred in captivity. Primates of the genus Aotus are excellent experimental models. Aotus spp. have been recommended as models for studies on vision and malaria. This research had the objective to perform a ultrasonographic, hematological and biochemical evaluation of owl monkeys from the National Primate Center (CENP/Ananindeua/PA). Sixty nine animals were evaluated (44 males and 25 females), at three different age groups (FE1 = 3 months to 1 year old; FE2=2 to 6 years old and FE3=more than seven years old). The Ultrasonographic exams were performed using the ultrasound SonoAce 9900 ® . The coproparasitological were
    Full-text Chapter · Jan 2011
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    Laila Brito Torres · Bruno Henrique Silva Araujo · Paulo Henrique Gomes de Castro · [...] · Esper Abrão Cavalheiro
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal experimentation contributes significantly to the progression of science. Nonhuman primates play a particularly important role in biomedical research not only because of their anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral similarities with humans but also because of their close phylogenetic affinities. In order to investigate the use of New World primates (NWP) in biomedical research over the last four decades (1966-2005), we performed a quantitative study of the literature listed in bibliographic databases from the Health Sciences. The survey was performed for each genus of NWP that has been bred in the National Center of Primates in Brazil. The number of articles published was determined for each genus and sorted according to the country from which the studies originated and the general scientific field. The data obtained suggests that Brazil is a leader in generating knowledge with NWP models for translational medicine.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2010 · American Journal of Primatology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW) in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ), diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was liquefied in ACP- 118® after 12 hours of incubation. The best observed treatment was 33°C, because it kept 47±12.8% of sperm integrity after 24 hours. It was concluded that the PCW extender is effective in the liquefaction of seminal clot and maintenance of sperm viability 24 hours after the EEJ at 33, 35 and 37°C.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2010 · Ciência Rural
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW) in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ), diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was liquefied in ACP-118® after 12 hours of incubation. The best observed treatment was 33°C, because it kept 47±12.8% of sperm integrity after 24 hours. It was concluded that the PCW extender is effective in the liquefaction of seminal clot and maintenance of sperm viability 24 hours after the EEJ at 33, 35 and 37°C.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2010 · Ciência Rural