[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of body biometrics on cardiac measurements and description of cardiac anatomy were performed in red-tailed boas (Boa constrictor constrictor) (n ¼ 29) using real-time B-mode ultrasonography. Statistical comparison of measured cardiac metrics according to sex and body measurements demonstrated no significant difference between sexes but a highly significant linear increase between body length and mass and all cardiac metrics.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although commonly used, dissociative anesthesia results in unsatisfactory and long recovery periods. The intravenous anesthetic propofol seems to be the most advantageous solution. The objectives of this study were to investigate the required infusion rate of propofol to maintain surgical anesthesia and to compare it to tiletamine-zolazepam in Aotus infulatus.
Eight healthy feline night monkeys were anesthetized with propofol (PRO) or tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) during 60 minutes. Cardiopulmonary parameters, arterial blood gases and lactate and quality and times to recovery were determined.
Mean infusion rate of propofol was 0.53 ± 0.10 mg/kg/minute. Cardiopulmonary effects did not show marked differences between groups. Times for hanging, ventral recumbency, and normal ambulation were lower in PRO. Establishment of desirable anesthetic depth was easier, recovery quality was superior, and lactate levels were lower in PRO.
Compared with tiletamine-zolazepam, minor post-anesthetic adverse events should be expected with propofol anesthesia, as well as faster and better anesthetic recovery.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Medical Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasound (B-mode) was used to analyze follicular events in 12 trained female owl monkeys (Aotus azarai infulatus). The animals were examined every 48 hours for over 90 days to measure and map follicular growth in both ovaries and to measure (using Doppler velocimetry) local hemodynamic changes during the peri-ovulatory stage. There were 44 follicular growth events, each with two or three follicular waves, and a mean ± SEM interval between events of 17 ± 1.13 days. There were various hemodynamic changes during follicular growth; both vascular resistance index and pulsatility index decreased during the time when the follicle diameter peaked. Thus, both B-mode and Doppler ultrasound were useful for monitoring ovarian follicular events in owl monkeys.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of this study was to identify the aerobic bacteria of the preputial and vaginal microbiota in owl monkeys that have been raised in captivity and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of these bacteria by gender and social organization.
Thirty clinically healthy Aotus azarai infulatus were used. A total of 134 samples were collected, 60 from the preputial mucosa and 74 from the vaginal mucosa. An automated system of bacterial identification was used.
Results and conclusions:
Staphylococcus intermedius and Proteus mirabilis were the microorganisms that were most frequently identified according to gender and social organization. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated gram-positive bacteria was similar in both sexes. However, the gram-negative strains had some differences. The aerobic bacterial population of the vaginal and preputial microbiota is similar in owl monkeys, and there are no differences in the number and bacterial species according to sex and social organization.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Medical Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to characterize anatomical and biochemical properties of owl monkey kidneys in order to provide normal reference values. Sixty-nine Aotus azarai infulatus (45 males and 24 females) were divided into four different age groups (AG1: 3 months-1 year; AG2: 2-3 years; AG3: 4-6 years; and AG4: over 7 years old). The monkeys were evaluated with a serum chemistry profile, focusing on serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and with ultrasound. Mean body mass differed among the age groups. This significance was attributed to AG1 body mass being significantly lower than in AG2 and that in both AG2 and AG3 being significantly lower than in the two older age groups (AG3 and AG4). SCr and BUN concentrations differed significantly between the sexes and SCr level correlated positively with age. In contrast, renal measurements did not differ between males and females. Left and right renal volumes did not differ significantly within age groups, or among AG2, AG3, and AG4. Renal volumes in AG1, however, while not differing from those in AG2, did differ significantly from those in AG3 and AG4. In conclusion, this study provides ultrasonographic reference values for the morphology the kidneys in A. a. infulatus. Evidence is also provided that SCr and BUN levels in owl monkeys are influenced by the sex and age of the individual, factors that should be considered when interpreting test results.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · American Journal of Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Knowing the physiological ranges of certain hematological and biochemical parameters is necessary for understanding the alterations caused by pathogenic agents and establishing differences between states of health and disease. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry were performed on livers and kidneys from owl monkeys with different sexes and age ranges.
Methods Forty-one healthy owl monkeys were evaluated (26 males and 15 females) in three different age groups (AG1 = 3 months to 1 year old; AG2 = 2–6 years old; AG3 = over 7 years old). The animals received physical exams, abdominal ultrasounds, and clinical laboratory tests.
Results and conclusions Significant differences were observed in hematocrit and hemoglobin values between males and females. The levels of alkaline phosphatase in the tissues were significantly influenced by age. There was also a sex influence on blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. The results show that some hematological and clinical chemistry parameters in owl monkeys may be influenced by sex and age.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Medical Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to evaluate the uterine and ovarian volumes of owl monkeys in different age groups with different numbers of live births and to analyze the interaction between both.Methods We performed pelvic ultrasound exams to compare the uterine measurements with weight, age (infant, juvenile, subadult, young adults, and adults) and the number of live births (nulliparous, primiparous, and multiparous) and to compare the ovarian measurements with weight and age.Results and Conclusions The uterine volume (UV) was directly proportional to the number of parturitions, which was the most important factor in the uterine growth of adult females (P < 0.05). The body weight and age of the animals showed a high positive correlation with UV (r = 0.5354, r = 0.6489, P < 0.01), respectively. The volume of the ovaries grew in proportion to the age of the females (P < 0.05). Puberty was the period of greatest uterine and ovarian growth.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Medical Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy in owl monkeys was monitored using ultrasonography. The obstetric exams were performed using a 5-12 MHz linear probe. The measurements included the mean gestational sac diameter (MGSD), crown-rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), head area (HA), abdominal circumference (AC), abdominal area (AA) and femur length (FL). The Pearson's correlation coefficient showed highly significant positive correlations between most of the fetal growth variables (r > 0.90, P < 0.01). The AC x FL and AA x FL correlations did have correlation coefficients <0.90, although this value was still highly significant (P < 0.01). These results suggest that all of the fetal growth variables are strongly associated with each other.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A protocol for gynecological and obstetric examination of owl monkeys using ultrasound Protocolo para exame ginecológico e obstétrico por ultrassom em macacos-da-noite ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to establish a physical restraint protocol for gynecological and obstetric examination using ultrasound in Aotus azarai infulatus. The study was conducted with 10 previously established adult couples, evaluated during two different time periods (P1 and P2). In P1, the conditioning was carried out by daily repetition of the gynecological exam associated with the offering of fruits before, during and after the exam. In P2, gynecological examinations were performed on non-pregnant females (n = 6), and obstetric examinations on those who became pregnant (n = 3). The exams were performed using the Medical SonoAce 9900®ultrasound equipment equipped with a multifrequential linear array probe (5-12 MHz). The initial and final heart rate (HR1 and HR2) for each female were calculated based on the interval between systolic peaks. No significant differences were observed in the heart rates in terms of time of examination, suggesting that the time did not interfere in the variables analyzed during the exams. The gynecological and obstetric exams presented a HR2 lower than HR1 during the two periods evaluated (p<0.01). The stress caused by initial restraint increased sympathetic activity and raised HR1. Offering fruits and habituating the animals favored the parasympathetic modulation, thereby explaining the decrease in HR2. This was observed in both gynecological and obstetric exams. RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer um protocolo de contenção
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Revista de Ciencias Agrarias
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultrasonograph, hematology and biochemical liver and kidney in feline-night-monkey, Aotus azarai infulatus (Kuhl, 1820) bred in captivity. Primates of the genus Aotus are excellent experimental models. Aotus spp. have been recommended as models for studies on vision and malaria. This research had the objective to perform a ultrasonographic, hematological and biochemical evaluation of owl monkeys from the National Primate Center (CENP/Ananindeua/PA). Sixty nine animals were evaluated (44 males and 25 females), at three different age groups (FE1 = 3 months to 1 year old; FE2=2 to 6 years old and FE3=more than seven years old). The Ultrasonographic exams were performed using the ultrasound SonoAce 9900 ® . The coproparasitological were
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal experimentation contributes significantly to the progression of science. Nonhuman primates play a particularly important role in biomedical research not only because of their anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral similarities with humans but also because of their close phylogenetic affinities. In order to investigate the use of New World primates (NWP) in biomedical research over the last four decades (1966-2005), we performed a quantitative study of the literature listed in bibliographic databases from the Health Sciences. The survey was performed for each genus of NWP that has been bred in the National Center of Primates in Brazil. The number of articles published was determined for each genus and sorted according to the country from which the studies originated and the general scientific field. The data obtained suggests that Brazil is a leader in generating knowledge with NWP models for translational medicine.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · American Journal of Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW) in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ), diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was liquefied in ACP- 118® after 12 hours of incubation. The best observed treatment was 33°C, because it kept 47±12.8% of sperm integrity after 24 hours. It was concluded that the PCW extender is effective in the liquefaction of seminal clot and maintenance of sperm viability 24 hours after the EEJ at 33, 35 and 37°C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the powdered coconut water (PCW) in the semen conservation and seminal clot liquefaction. The semen of six adult male Cebus apella was collected by electroejaculation (EEJ), diluted in ACP-118® extender and stayed in water bath at 33, 35 and 37°C for 24 hours. The sperm integrity was evaluated by eosin-nigrosine staining every one hour during the six initial hours and after 24 hours of incubation. The average volumes and sperm concentrations of clotted and liquid fractions were 0.20±0.02 and 0.20±0.10mL, 1.1±0.3x108 and 1.3±0.9x107 sperm mL-1, respectively. Immediately after collection, only in a sample of liquid fraction was observed 20% motility and vigor 4, which stopped after 40 minutes. Most of the clot was liquefied in ACP-118® after 12 hours of incubation. The best observed treatment was 33°C, because it kept 47±12.8% of sperm integrity after 24 hours. It was concluded that the PCW extender is effective in the liquefaction of seminal clot and maintenance of sperm viability 24 hours after the EEJ at 33, 35 and 37°C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to report the occurrence of Trypanoxyuris in owl monkeys, using data from clinical and haematological examinations, as well as clinical chemistry (blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) of infected and uninfected animals. Twenty animals in apparently good clinical health were studied. The coproparasitological examinations showed eggs compatible with Trypanoxyuris sp. in 50% of animals. The number of red blood cells, haematocrit and haemoglobin levels were significantly higher in the males, compared to the females, irrespective of parasitism. However, comparing segmented neutrophils in infected males and females, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed. All blood chemistry values were considered normal for the species pattern, even though significant differences were observed for BUN and ALT in infected males. The infection by Trypanoxyuris sp. did not appear to interfere with the clinical condition of animals.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Helminthology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the protein profile of oocytes and cumulus cells from different sized follicles throughout the follicular phase and to asses the ability of oocytes to progress from the dictyate to metaphase II (MII) stage.
Animal model study.
Five academic basic research laboratories and the National Primate Centre.
Eleven normal, cycling capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) females.
Cumulus-oocyte complexes and denuded oocytes were recovered by antral follicle aspiration.
Protein profile analysis of denuded or intact oocytes.
The protein profiles of 25 denuded or intact oocytes recovered on days 5 (six denuded, five intact), 7 (four denuded, four intact), or 9 (one denuded, five intact) of the menstrual cycle were analyzed; in a second experiment, 40 intact oocytes were cultured for 24 (n = 20) or 36 hours (n = 20). The oocytes were denuded, fixed, stained, and microscopically examined to reveal the meiotic stage. The protein profile in each compartment within the cumulus-oocyte complex varied along the follicular development with a predominance of low-molecular-weight proteins in both oocyte and cumulus cells at final stages. No differences were found in the protein profile among oocytes pertaining to different sized follicles that were in the same day of the follicular phase. Oocyte MII competence was achieved only after incubation for 36 hours, and the highest maturation rate occurred in those becoming from dominant follicles.
Our study shows, for the first time in a New World primate species, that the proteins contained in oocytes and cumulus cells reach an identical profile in the late follicular phase. This phenomenon could be related to the oocyte's ability to progress to the MII stage.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the uterus and ovaries of owl monkeys (Aotus azarai infulatus) via gynecological ultrasound examination. We evaluated the subjects in 2 different time periods. The first period (P1) was
characterized by the absence of mating, with daily examinations, during 4mo (n = 10). At the end of P1, we paired the subjects for 30d, but without ultrasonographic evaluation. The second period (P2)
was characterized by the presence of mating, with examinations once a week, during 7 consecutive months (n = 9). We evaluated the uterus and ovaries in sagittal and transverse scans, using a 5–12MHz linear array probe. The uterine
volume (UV) was directly proportional to the number of previous parturitions. The right ovary volume (RtOV) is greater than
the left (LtOV) in P1 and P2. There is a positive correlation (p < 0.05) between the females’ mass, RtOV (r = 0.28) and LtOV (r = 0.16).
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · International Journal of Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gynecological and obstetrical ultrasonography has become an indispensable tool in the routine management, health evaluation and research on captive non-human primates.
Ultrasound was used to evaluate the uterus and estimate the gestation of owl monkeys. Twelve couples were selected, where five were primiparous and seven multiparous females from the National Primate Center reproductive colony, Ananindeua-PA, Brazil. The procedures were carried out using the GE Logiq 100 MP, equipped with a 7.5 MHz linear probe.
The females showed a simple uterus, of elongated shape, regular outline and homogeneous echogenic texture. In the uterine measurements craniocaudal diameter, dorsoventral diameter and uterine volume (UV), significant differences were identified (P < 0.05) between ultrasound examinations of primiparous and multiparous females. The UV showed a positive correlation with the number of births. The gestational sac and the embryonic echo were visible between 28 and 38 days after mating. Between 48 and 68 days after mating, embryonic death was identified in all the gestations.
The chemical (use of tranquilizers) and husbandry factors (capture stress) may be related to the prenatal death. The establishing methods of conditioning the female to the ultrasonographic exam may offer a solution to this problem.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Journal of Medical Primatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Related data to the diameters of the pelvis from 72 Aotus azarai infulatus, owl monkeys, 42 adult males and 30 adult non-pregnant females, were obtained in vivo by ventrodorsal projection radiographic exams, correlated with sex, the measures of the body and their origin. The mean values of the body length (30.94 cm), tail length (35.63 cm), thoracic perimeter (18.97 cm), hip perimeter (17.11 cm) and the weight (0.96 Kg) were verified. The radiographic images were digitalized and measured, and the mean values were 1.41 cm for the superior biiliac diameter; 1.58 cm for the inferior biiliac diameter; 1.97 cm for the medium biiliac diameter; 2.64 cm for the right diagonal diameter; 2.66 cm for the left diagonal diameter; 2.48 cm for the sacrum-pubic diameter; 3.85 cm2 for the inlet pelvic area. In conclusion, the pelvis from males and females Aotus azarai infulatus can be classified as dolicopelvic and there is pelvic sexual dimorphism in adult owl monkeys (Aotus azarai infulatus).
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumo Analisou-se os diâmetros pelvicos de 72 Aotus azarai infulatus, adultos, 42 machos e 30 fêmeas não prenhes, correlacionando-os com o dimorfismo sexual, a biometria corpórea e a origem dos animais por meio de radiografias em projeção ventro-dorsal, digitalizadas. As médias verificadas foram: para o comprimento do corpo 30,94 cm; comprimento da cauda 35,63 cm; perímetro do tórax 18,97 cm; perímetro da pelve 17,11 cm e o peso 0,96 Kg, em média. As médias dos diâmetros pélvicos foram de 2,64 cm para o diâmetro diagonal direito; 2,66 cm para o diâmetro diagonal esquerdo; 1,97 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco médio; 1,41 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco superior; 1,58 cm para o diâmetro biilíaco inferior; 2,48 cm para o diâmetro sacro-púbico e 3,85 cm 2 para a área de entrada da pelve. Concluiu-se que, tanto nos machos quanto nas fêmeas, a pelve de Aotus azarai infulatus pode ser classificada como dolicopélvica, tendo-se verificado dimorfismo sexual pélvico nos adultos.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science