[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic) PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper presents a conceptual explanation of how to couple hydroelectric systems with other renewable sources. Recent energy policies have been planning for a bigger share of renewable energy sources in energy supply. However, inherent characteristics of renewable energy sources – based electricity generation systems are intermittency and non-controllability. That is why electric energy storage has the key role in a more productive use of these energy sources. Numerous energy storage technologies are known today, but none of the present-day technologies could in terms of ratings be compared to water storage. It has been demonstrated here that water storage is able to reduce volatility and increase reliability and stability of green electric energy. Furthermore, the paper analyses the use of water storage as energy storage in the future green energy power system and presents the basic concepts and characteristics of renewable energy conversion into hydroelectric energy. The results highlight that water storage has been important in the production of electric energy, and it is expected to remain so in the future.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the hybrid solar and pump hydroelectric power plant and its hydrological and hydro-energetic characteristics and indicators. The sustainability of the system is based on stable water and energy budget. The key theoretical relationship for solar-hydro system, between electric powers of solar generator, artificial water resources, and storage is set, including relevant formulas and indicators. Artificial rain, flow, and hydro-energy potential, as indicators of the hybrid power plant, have been derived, as well as hydro-energy production characteristics. The developed and presented hydrological and hydro-energetic indicators are information for hybrid energy system analyses and design. The proposed indicators have been applied on two different climate areas, as paradigms of Continental and Mediterranean climate, using a photovoltaic and a solar thermal generator. The obtained results prove the correctness and usefulness of the proposed indicators for hybrid energy system analysis and development.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · International Journal of Sustainable Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherent characteristics of renewable energy sources (RES)-based electricity generation systems are intermittency and non-controllability. Electric power systems (EPS), mostly based on RES, where solar and wind energy prevail, cannot provide continuous energy supply to consumers without energy storage. In this way electric energy storage (EES) has a key role in more productive use of these energy sources. Numerous energy storage technologies are known today (batteries, flywheel, pressure vessels, etc.), which differ in size, energy storage costs, efficiency, lifetime, costs per cycle, etc. It is well known that none of the present-day technologies could in terms of ratings be compared to water storage by pump storage hydro (PSH). Precisely for this reason, PSH is the most significant EES, and is a mature technology with large volume, a long storage period, and high efficiency and reliability, while its capital cost per unit of energy stored is low. Water storage is able to reduce volatility and increase reliability, and so the value of the RES energy. The chapter will analyze use of water storage as an energy storage and provides guidelines for water storage use and design.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the main problem of continuous energy supply from photovoltaic (PV) power plant is intermittence and inability to provide continuous energy supply, this paper proposes its hybridization with hydro energy, or with pump storage hydroelectric (PSH) as a possible solution. This creates a new type of sustainable hybrid power plant which can work continuously, using solar energy as primary energy source and water for energy storage. The characteristics of the solution as an open thermodynamic system are presented, as well as the basic theoretical settings for its application, i.e. key relationships between power and collector field area of PV power plant and working volume of upper storage. The paper introduces hydrological and hydro-energetic indicators for the hybrid plant description, “artificial rainfall”, as the relationship between the water pumped into the upper water storage of the PSH (artificial water inflow) and collector field area of the PV power plant, as well as hydroenergy potential. The proposed hybrid electric power plant does not emit greenhouse gases, produce waste or significantly exploit water resources while the risks to humans and the environment are far smaller than when using conventional technology. This solution is flexible for implementation and can be applied in various climates, hydrological and physical conditions. It is especially productive in cases of joint use of solar and hydro energy where they naturally complement each other as natural energy sources in the annual working cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter analyses the possibility of implementation of Sustainable Electric Power System (SEPS) as a totally green strategy of electric energy production for the world by the year 2040. The analysis presented in the paper is based on the EREC strategy which foresees the share of 82% of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). The problem of implementation of this strategy is that the more significant RES (Sun and wind) are characterized by intermittence of input energy, for which reason they cannot provide continuous and reliable supply of energy to consumers without electric storage. The solution to this problem and to creating conditions for achieving SEPS is an innovative concept of Solar Hydro Electric (SHE) power plant which is a basically combined photovoltaic power plant and pump storage which can produce and store relatively large quantities of energy and provide continuous supply of electric power and energy to consumers. In this way SHE is put into equal position with power plants using conventional power fuels, and because of that, SHE is presented in this paper as the main building element of the future SEPS. The conducted analysis and results clearly point not only to the reality, but the necessity for SEPS and to the exceptionally big achievements which the PV generator use will reach in the future. The proposed strategy of SEPS development could significantly contribute to realization of sustainability objectives, particularly to reduction of the problem of global warming.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Green Energy and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the characteristics of a power plant that combines renewable energy sources (RES), that is, a photovoltaic (PV) power plant and pump storage hydroelectric (PSH), to achieve sustainable production of green electric energy equal to that of conventional energy sources. The proposed solution does not produce CO 2 and does not significantly use freshwater or other resources. The PSH storage is the main element of the proposed power plant system, which provides a continuous and reliable supply of green energy. Its size significantly affects the size of the PV generator and operation characteristics of the hybrid plant. The paper elaborates in detail the functional relationship between the choice of the PV generator power and the PSH upper storage volume and presents the basic mathematical relations. The algorithm of the system development is presented, along with the procedure choice solutions. The results from the case study show that the concept is flexible in design, construction, and operation.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Energy Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes a possibility of upgrading hydroelectric plant (HEP) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generator. The main objective of this solution is maximization of green energy production in accordance with local and existing HEP framework. The example of HEP Zavrelje/Dubrovnik in Croatia was used as a paradigm of such exploitation of RES. The results of the analysis confirm that the proposed solution of hybrid work PV-HEP system is natural, realistic, and very promising. By hybridization of these two main natural energy sources, the characteristics of both energy sources are enhanced. The application of such hybrid systems would increase the share of green energy in the electric power systems and thus reduce the CO<sub>2</sub> emission from energy sources.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper presents a new type of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) suitable for exploitation watercourse with periodical-temporary water flow. This innovative solution consist of Hydroelectric Plant (HEP) and solar Photovoltaic (PV) generator working together as one hybrid power plant, producing green energy with the same characteristics as classical hydroelectric plants. The main objective of this hybrid solution is achievement of optimal renewable energy production in order to increase the share of RES in an Electricity Power System (EPS). As a paradigm of such exploitation of RES, the example of HEP Zavrelje/Dubrovnik in Croatia was used, where it was ascertained that the proposed solution of hybrid PV-HEP system is natural, realistic and very acceptable, which enhances the characteristics of both energy sources. The application of such hybrid systems would increase the share of high quality RES in energy systems.Research highlights► A hybrid power plant based on solar energy and temporary water flow is introduced. ► This is innovative system consists of HE power plant and PV generator. ► The achievement is reliable green energy production for certain consumer or EPS. ► As a case study, existing HE Zavrelje–Croatia was used. ► The application of such systems would increase the share of renewable energy.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Renewable Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An inherent characteristic of renewable energy sources (RES)-based electricity generation systems is intermittency and non-controllability.
Therefore, the prerequisite for a more significant use of RES within the energy system is the corresponding capacity of Electric
Energy Storage (EES). The existing storage of Hydro Electric Power (HEP) is suggested as a possible solution to this issue.
The paper contains a detailed analysis of the possible joint operation of Photovoltaic (PV) generator and HEP. The key element
of this scenario is the HEP storage that would serve as EES. The analysis of the possible joint operation of the PV generator
and HEP shows it as a natural, feasible and very acceptable solution that would enhance the features of both energy sources.
Joint operation would increase the energy production sustainability, cut volatility and increase reliability, and therefore
the value of the RES energy, as well as the efficiency of the HEP. The application of the hybrid system will significantly
contribute to the share of RES in the energy system and thus to achieving the climate protection objectives.
KeywordsHydro energy–Hydro electric power–Renewable energy sources–Hybrid energy systems–Energy storage–Sustainable energy supply
No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Water Resources Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the reality of total renewable electricity scenario (TRES) from renewable energy sources (RES) as a totally green strategy of electric energy production. The paper is based on the EREC's Agency forecast until the year 2040, which foresees the share of 82% of RES, extended to 100% of RES. The key element that creates conditions for achieving this ambitious scenario is an innovative combination of RES and pump storage hydroelectric (PSH) power plants, the so-called Concept-H, which can simultaneously use the energy of local RES (sun and wind) and local precipitation (natural waterflows) and in this way can provide continuous supply of electric power and energy to consumers. The methodology is based on the model of equivalent RES and equivalent reservoir that allows a comprehensive view of available RES and hydro system. The total required land use of RES system would be 29,517Â km2 of RES (which would amount to about 0.5% of the total technical potential of using RES), total reservoir volumes would be 880Â km3 (which is only 8% of all artificial reservoirs built in the world to the date) and the orientation estimate of investment in TRES would then be approximately 1% of world GDP in 2009, which clearly shows that the TRES is realistically feasible. It has been shown that implementation of the green strategy of energy balance fulfilling can be realized with present day technology. Precisely this fact shows that further increase of efficiency of RES and their combining into RES-PSH power plants, along with increase in the cost of classic power fuels and the growing needs for environment protection, the proposed solution of TRES realization could be widely important and thus become a serious alternative to the existing energy strategies and a guideline to decision makers throughout the world.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the model for optimal sizing of a Solar Thermal (ST) power plant with parabolic collectors, which operates with Pump Storage Hydroelectric (PSH), all for the purpose of providing full energy independence of an isolated consumer. The sustainability of such system is based exclusively on solar energy input (without hybridization with any fossil fuel), as a renewable and pure energy resource, and the use of hydro energy, due to the possibility of its continuous production of energy. The feasibility and characteristics of the ST-PSH power plant were tested on power supply of the Island of Vis in Croatia, and the results show that the proposed model describes the operation of the power plant very well. For average solar irradiation of about 1500kWh/m2/a, precipitation 644mm/a, evaporation 1444mm/a, volume of PSH upper reservoir of 20hm3, electric energy consumption of 18GVAh/a and reserve in the system for 3–4 months, the obtained power of the ST power plant is 22MW, which can produce unit value of the annual thermal energy of 459kWh/m2/a and electric energy of 160kWh/m2/a, while the total collector aperture in the observed case is about 16ha. These results show that ST-PSH plants can be successfully applied on locations with relatively low irradiation, wherein the key element that ensures continuous production of energy is precisely the PSH technology that can in the best way, in economic-technical, and especially in ecological sense, balance the relatively large summer surpluses and winter energy shortages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work describes the application of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system in the urban water sector, especially related to water pumping. The Sun and gravity are two basic natural and renewable sources of energy. It is pure natural energy that has no harmful effects on the environment, spread everywhere and available for use. Solar photovoltaic systems can be successfully applied in many areas in water sector and especially in water supply. Due to the importance of water supply for urban area sustainability, and due to a significant energy consumer whose price is increasing each day, alternative solutions to power systems are sought in the form of water supply systems, such as a PV generator. It is a complex system, whose functioning is defined by a whole range of factors: climate, soil, hydrological, water consumption in the cities etc. It can be optimized only with the application of a systematic approach and the use of adequate tools. The paper will show that the solar photovoltaic systems are efficient in use in urban water sector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes the reality of sustainable energy supply (SEPS) from renewable energy sources (RES) as a totally green strategy of electric energy production. The paper is based on the Advanced International Policies (AIP) scenario of the European Renewable Energy Council agency forecast by the year 2040, which foresees the share of 82% of RES, extended to 100% of RES. The key element that creates conditions for achieving this ambitious scenario is an innovative solution of the so-called solar hydroelectric power plant (SHE) which is basically combined photovoltaic (PV) power plant and pump storage hydro (PSH) which can provide continuous supply of electric power and energy to consumers. Therefore, SHE is presented in this paper as the main building element of the future SEPS. For covering unit consumption of electric energy of 1 GWh in a power system, the paper calculates unit values of the SHE system: 0.73 MW of PV generator; 4,545 m(2) of PV generator; 0.36 hm(3) of reservoir volume, 0.21 GWh of PSH energy and 0.24 MW of PSH. In the case of the power system in Croatia, which is rich in solar and hydroenergy and whose climate conditions are very similar to those in the European countries, it has been shown that implementation of the green strategy of energy balance fulfilling can be realized with present day technology. Precisely, this fact shows that further increase of efficiency of SHE and other RES and their combining into RES+PHS power plants, along with increase in the cost of classic power fuels and the growing needs for environment protection, the proposed solution of SEPS realization could be widely important and thus become a serious alternative to the existing energy strategies and a guideline to decision makers in many countries.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of Energy Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the hybrid solar and hydro (SHE) system as a unique technological concept of the sustainable energy system that can provide continuous electric power and energy supply to its consumers and the possibilities of its implementation in Europe and areas with similar climate. The sustainability of such system is based on solar photovoltaic (PV) and hydroelectric (HE) energy as renewable energy sources (RES). For the purpose of connecting all relevant values into one integral SHE system, a mathematical model was developed for selecting the optimal size of the PV power plant as the key element for estimating the technological feasibility of the overall solution. Sensitivity analysis (parameter analysis) was made for the model, where local climate parameters were varied: solar radiation, air temperature, reservoir volume, total head, precipitation, evaporation and natural water inflow. It has been established that, apart from total head (which is to be expected), solar radiation, hydro accumulation size and natural water inflow have the biggest effect on the calculated power of the PV power plant. The obtained results clearly show a wide range of implementation of the new energy source (SHE system), i.e. from relatively cold climates to those abundant in solar energy, but also with relatively small quantity of water, because it only recirculates within the system. All this points to the necessity for further development of hybrid systems (RESÂ +Â HE systems) and to the fact that they could play an important role in achieving climate objectives.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work presents the main features of the new power plant that comprises the modified reversible hydroelectric (HE) power plant operating together with the photovoltaic (PV) power plant. Such Solar Hydroelectric Power Plant (SHE) uses solar energy as the only input for production of solar and hydro energy. Thereat, water reservoir serves for daily and seasonal energy storage, thus basically solving the problem of energy storage, which is the biggest problem of wider use of solar energy. The most expensive part of SHE is the PV generator, whose optimal sizing is essential for providing energetic independence of a settlement or isolated consumer. A systematic approach that includes all relevant elements of this system has been implemented for optimal sizing of the PV power plant. The developed model was used in analysis of certain parameters of the SHE system. The results of the analysis show the system characteristics and that the proposed model describes the operation of the power plant very well. The feasibility and characteristics of the power plant were tested on electric energy supply of the island of Vis in Croatia. It has been established that the system is real, feasible and can be very successfully applied on different locations, for different consumers and can vary in size. The prerequisite for realization of such system is the construction of a modified reversible HE power plant. The presented SHE represents a permanently sustainable energy source that can continuously provide power supply to a consumer, using exclusively natural and renewable energy sources, without causing harmful effects on the environment.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Renewable Energy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work describes the cost efficiency of a solar photovoltaic (PV) pumping system for irrigation system in relation to the most effective traditional power system, a diesel engine. A mathematical model for optimal sizing of a solar PV pumping system is used to estimate the maximum area that can be economically irrigated by the solar PV pumping system. The proposed methodology and model have been applied in two different areas in Croatia Osijek and Split, as paradigms of continental and coastal Croatia as well as European Union. The obtained results show that maximum areas which can be economically irrigated in the Osijek region are greater than in the Split region. Such result indicates that PV irrigation systems can be equally economically applied in relatively cooler climates and with less solar radiation, as well as in a warmer Mediterranean climate.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering