[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The association between renal hypoxia and the development of renal injury is well established. However, no adequate method currently exists to non-invasively measure functional changes in renal oxygenation in normal and injured patients.
R2* quantification was performed using renal blood oxygen level-dependent properties. Five healthy normotensive women (50 ± 5.3 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a 1.5T Signa Excite HDx scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). A multiple fast gradient-echo sequence was used to acquire R2*/T2* images (sixteen echoes from 2.1 ms/slice to 49.6 ms/slice in a single breath hold per location). The images were post-processed to generate R2* maps for quantification. Data were recorded before and at 30 minutes after the oral administration of an angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 25 mg). The results were compared using an ANOVA for repeated measurements (mean + standard deviation) followed by the Tukey test. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01545479.
A significant difference (p<0.001) in renal oxygenation (R2*) was observed in the cortex and medulla before and after captopril administration: right kidney, cortex = 11.08 ± 0.56 ms, medulla = 17.21 ± 1.47 ms and cortex = 10.30 ± 0.44 ms, medulla = 16.06 ± 1.74 ms, respectively; and left kidney, cortex= 11.79 ± 1.85 ms, medulla = 17.03 ± 0.88 ms and cortex = 10.89 ± 0.91 ms, medulla = 16.43 ± 1.49 ms, respectively.
This result suggests that the technique efficiently measured alterations in renal blood oxygenation after angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibition and that it may provide a new strategy for identifying the early stages of renal disease and perhaps new therapeutic targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The combined approach technique (CAT) is a variation of the classical the mastoidectomy-posterior tympanotomy technique (MPTA) that combines a transcanal approach to cochleostomy with a reduced posterior tympanotomy for insertion of electrodes.
To compare and evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness outcomes obtained with the CAT and with MPTA approach in patients submitted to cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Design: series study.
Patients who underwent CI using CAT or MPTA at a Brazilian center were followed in a cohort study. Main outcomes were complications,audiometric performance and radiological evaluation of electrode position.
Fourty-four patients were implanted using CAT and 31 MPTA. There were no cases of facial nerve paralysis, mastoiditis, cholesteatoma or cerebrospinal fluid leaks after 3.4±1.0 years. Radiological evaluation of electrode position revealed that the median number of electrodes outside the cochlea was 0 in CAT and 3 in MPTA groups (p < 0.001). There were no differences between both surgical approaches in terms of mean pure-tone thresholds with CI at all frequencies.
Long-term follow-up data showed that the transcanal route to cochleostomy, combined with a reduced posterior tympanotomy, is a safe alternative approach in cochlear implant surgery, with no related major complications and fewer cases of electrode migration when compared with the MPTA. These findings encourage the use of the transcanal route to cochleostomy as an alternative approach option.