[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely known that a regular physical activity of mild intensity results in significant benefits in term of health, while a sedentary lifestyle contributes, together with other risk factors, to development of chronic degenerative diseases, in particular cardiovascular, metabolic and osteoarticular diseases. Many evidences show an inverse relation between mortality/morbidity and physical activity. Furthermore the advanced age does not contraindicate physical activity and exercise can prevent cardiovascular and osteoarticular diseases in the elderly. Physical exercise in the elderly is able to: a) improve muscular tone and movement skills, b) reduce osteoporosis effects, c) induce an increased release of neuro-ormonal mediators as endorphins and serotonin, d) reduce the risk of sudden death caused by cardiovascular diseases, e) reduce the development of tumors and metabolic disorders, f) delay the decline of cognitive function. The objective of this literature review is to clarify the link between physical activity, aging and aged-related diseases, underlining pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms, and, whenever possible, to provide practical guidelines for physical activity that is useful and acceptable even by older people emphasizing that an adequate exercise must a) be adapted to the capacity of the subject, b) be prescribed after careful evaluation of environmental conditions under which it must be practiced, c) be congenial and suitable compared to the cultural, ideational and emotional abilities of the subject and, finally, d) be integrated in a comprehensive program of active lifestyle. In conclusion, a program of physical activity is a beneficial and safe indication both in elderly without overt diseases and in the frail elderly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. G-protein coupled receptors are a wide superfamily of plasma membrane receptors which represent an important target of heart failure drug therapy. Since heart failure is characterized by the overactivity of different neurohormones, such as catecholamines and angiotensin II, responsible for several detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, over the last decade therapeutic strategies targeting beta-adrenergic and angiotensin receptors have been developed. Despite the introduction of successful drug classes, such as beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and sartans, heart failure still poses an enormous challenge, thus indicating the urgent need to develop innovative treatments that might counteract mechanisms involved in heart failure onset and progression. It is now established that a single receptor, activated by the same agonist, can elicit several different signaling pathways often resulting in opposite cellular responses, some beneficial and some detrimental. However, drugs currently used in heart failure target receptors on their extracellular domain by competing with the endogenous agonists. Thus, they can inhibit non-specifically all the receptor-related signaling pathways including those with beneficial activity whose blockade would not be desirable in heart failure. These observations stress the need for the generation of new therapeutic molecules able to target specific signaling pathways which might result in innovative therapies for cardiovascular disease.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006)