[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Runx1 transcription factor cooperates with or antagonizes other transcription factors and plays essential roles in the differentiation and function of T lymphocytes. Previous works showed that Runx1 is expressed in peripheral CD4(+) T cells which level declines after T cell receptor (TCR) activation, and artificial deletion of Runx1 causes autoimmune lung disease in mice. The present study addresses the mechanisms by which Runx1 contributes to the maintenance of peripheral CD4(+) T cell quiescence. Microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses were employed to compare the transcriptome of Runx1 -/- CD4(+) T cells to those of unstimulated and TCR-stimulated Runx1 +/- cells. The results identified genes whose expression was modulated similarly by Runx1 deletion and TCR activation. Among them, genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, and Jak/STAT signaling molecules were substantially induced. In Runx1-deleted T cells, simultaneous increases in Il-17A and Rorγc, a known master gene in TH17 differentiation, were observed. In addition, we observed that the loss of Runx1 reduced the transcription of genes encoding quiescence-associated transcription factors, including Foxp1, Foxo1, and Klf2. Interestingly, we identified consensus Runx1 binding sites at the promoter regions of Foxp1, Foxo1, and Klf2 genes, which can be enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with an anti-Runx1 antibody. Therefore, we suggest that Runx1 may activate, directly or indirectly, the expression of quiescence-associated molecules and thereby contribute to the maintenance of quiescence in CD4(+) T cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arf GTPase-activating proteins (Arf GAP) play important roles in the formation of the membrane vesicles that traffic between subcellular membranous organelles. The small Arf GTPase-activating protein (SMAP) subfamily of Arf GAPs has two members, SMAP1 and SMAP2, in mammals. The present study investigated whether these two proteins may have an overlapping function in addition to their previously reported distinct functions. Results showed that the presence of either SMAP1 or SMAP2 was sufficient for endocytosis of the transferrin receptor, and that transferrin incorporation was impaired only by the absence of both SMAP1 and SMAP2. This suggests the involvement of both SMAP1 and SMAP2 in transferrin endocytosis. Results also demonstrated a physical association between SMAP1 and SMAP2, which might serve as a basis for a functional interaction, and identified the intramolecular domains responsible for this association.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for many human diseases. However, the underlying molecular causes of obesity are not well understood. Here, we report that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T (PTPRT) knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Those mice avoid many deleterious side effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity, displaying improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, lower blood glucose and insulin levels. Compared to wild type littermates, PTPRT knockout mice show reduced food intake. Consistently, STAT3 phosphorylation is up-regulated in the hypothalamus of PTPRT knockout mice. These studies implicate PTPRT-modulated STAT3 signaling in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Runx1 transcription factor is a key player in development and function of T cells. Runx1 transcripts consist of two closely related isoforms (proximal and distal Runx1) whose expressions are regulated by different promoters. Which Runx1 isoform is expressed appears to be tightly regulated. The regulatory mechanism for differential transcription is, however, not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the proximal Runx1 promoter in T cells. We showed that proximal Runx1 was expressed at a low level in naïve T cells from C57BL/6 mice, but its expression was remarkably induced upon T-cell activation. In the promoter of proximal Runx1, a highly conserved region was identified which spans from -412 to the transcription start site and harbors a NFAT binding site. In a luciferase reporter assay, this region was found to be responsive to T-cell activation through Lck and calcineurin pathways. Mutagenesis studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the NFAT site was essential for NFAT binding and transactivation of the proximal Runx1 promoter. Furthermore, TCR signaling-induced expression of proximal Runx1 was blocked by treatment of cells with cyclosporin A. Together, these results demonstrate that the calcineurin-NFAT pathway regulates proximal Runx1 transcription upon TCR stimulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ligand-stimulated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are phosphorylated/ubiquitinated, endocytosed and transported to the lysosomes via endosomes/multivesicular bodies, resulting in the attenuation of signal transmission. If this physiological mechanism of RTK signal downregulation is perturbed, signal transduction persists and may contribute to cellular transformation. This article presents several such examples. In some cases, endocytosis is impaired, and the activated RTK remains on the plasma membrane. In other cases, the activated RTK is endocytosed into endosomes/multivesicular bodies, but not subsequently sorted to the lysosomes for degradation. The latter cases indicate that even endocytosed RTKs can transmit signals. Transport of RTKs is accomplished via the formation and movement of membrane vesicles. Blockage or delay of endocytosis/trafficking can be caused by genetic alterations in the RTK itself or by mutations in CBL, Arf GAPs, or other components involved in internalization and vesicle transport. A survey of the literature indicates that, in some cases, even RTKs synthesized de novo can initiate signaling at the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi before reaching the plasma membrane. The spectrum of molecules targeted by the signal is likely to be different between cell surface- and endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-localized RTKs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The c-ABL non-receptor tyrosine kinase and the p53 tumor suppressor protein are pivotal modulators of cellular responses to DNA damage. However, a comprehensive understanding of the role of c-ABL kinase in p53-dependent transcription of p21(CIP1/WAF1) and ensuing cell fate decision is still obscure. Here, we demonstrate that c-ABL tyrosine kinase regulates p53-dependent induction of p21. As a result, it modulates cell fate decision by p53 in response to DNA damage differently according to the extent of DNA damage. When human cancer cells were treated with DNA damaging agent, adriamycin (0.08 μg/ml), p21 was induced following p53 induction. Owing largely to p21, a substantial fraction of cells treated with adriamycin were blocked at the G2 phase of the cell cycle and most cells eventually became senescent. When these cells were simultaneously treated with a c-ABL kinase inhibitor, STI571, or a c-ABL-specific siRNA along with adriamycin, the p53-dependent p21 induction was dramatically diminished, even though p53 is substantially induced. Accordingly, G2-arrest, and cellular senescence largely dependent on p21 was substantially abrogated. On the contrary, when cells were treated with a relatively high dose of adriamycin (0.4 μg/ml) cells became apoptotic, and the simultaneous presence of a c-ABL kinase inhibitor STI571 augmented the extent of apoptosis. We speculate this is due to abrogation of p53-dependent p21 induction, which leads to elimination of anti-apoptotic function of p21. In summary, c-ABL appears to promote senescence or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the extent of DNA damage. These findings suggest that the combined use of ABL kinase inhibitor and DNA damaging drug in chemotherapy against tumors retaining wild type p53 should be carefully designed.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Cellular Signalling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trans-Golgi-network (TGN) functions as a hub organelle in the exocytosis of clathrin-coated membrane vesicles, and SMAP2 is an Arf GTPase activating protein that binds to both clathrin and the clathrin assembly protein (CALM). In the present study, SMAP2 was detected on the TGN in the pachytene spermatocyte to the round spermatid stages of spermatogenesis. Gene targeting revealed that SMAP2-deficient male mice were healthy and survived to adulthood, but were infertile and exhibited globozoospermia. In SMAP2-deficient spermatids, the diameter of proacrosomal vesicles budding from TGN increased, TGN structures were distorted, acrosome formation was severely impaired, and reorganization of the nucleus did not proceed properly. CALM functions to regulate vesicle sizes, and this study showed that CALM was not recruited to the TGN in the absence of SMAP2. Furthermore, syntaxin2, a component of the SNARE complex, was not properly concentrated at the site of acrosome formation. Thus, the present study reveals a link between SMAP2 and CALM/syntaxin2 in clathrin-coated vesicle formation from the TGN and subsequent acrosome formation. SMAP2-deficient mice provide a model for globozoospermia in humans.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Molecular biology of the cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The RUNX family genes encode transcription factors which are involved in development and human diseases. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human hematological malignancies and is a critical factor for the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Another Runx family gene, Runx3, is known to be expressed in hematopoietic cells. However, its involvement in hematopoiesis remains unclear. Here we show the hematopoietic phenotypes in Runx3 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Runx3(fl/fl);Mx1-Cre(+)): while young Runx3 KO mice did not exhibit any significant hematopoietic defects, aged Runx3 KO mice developed a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by myeloid-dominant leukocytosis, splenomegaly and an increase of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Notably, Runx3-deficient cells showed hypersensitivity to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), suggesting enhanced proliferative and mobilization capability of Runx3-deficient HSPCs when stimulated. These results suggest that, besides Runx1, Runx3 also plays a role in hematopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common marmoset is a new world monkey, which has become a valuable experimental animal for biomedical research. This study developed cDNA libraries for the common marmoset from five different tissues. A total of 290 426 high-quality EST sequences were obtained, where 251 587 sequences (86.5%) had homology (1E(-100)) with the Refseqs of six different primate species, including human and marmoset. In parallel, 270 673 sequences (93.2%) were aligned to the human genome. When 247 090 sequences were assembled into 17 232 contigs, most of the sequences (218 857 or 15 089 contigs) were located in exonic regions, indicating that these genes are expressed in human and marmoset. The other 5578 sequences (or 808 contigs) mapping to the human genome were not located in exonic regions, suggesting that they are not expressed in human. Furthermore, a different set of 118 potential coding sequences were not similar to any Refseqs in any species, and, thus, may represent unknown genes. The cDNA libraries developed in this study are available through RIKEN Bio Resource Center. A Web server for the marmoset cDNAs is available at http://marmoset.nig.ac.jp/index.html, where each marmoset EST sequence has been annotated by reference to the human genome. These new libraries will be a useful genetic resource to facilitate research in the common marmoset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is essential for intracellular membrane trafficking between subcellular compartments and is triggered by the ARF family of small GTPases. We previously identified SMAP1 as an ARF6 GTPase-activating protein that functions in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Because abnormalities in clathrin-dependent trafficking are often associated with oncogenesis, we targeted Smap1 in mice to examine its physiological and pathological significance. Smap1-deficent mice exhibited healthy growth, but their erythroblasts showed enhanced transferrin endocytosis. In mast cells cultured in SCF, Smap1 deficiency did not affect the internalization of c-KIT but impaired the sorting of internalized c-KIT from multivesicular bodies to lysosomes, resulting in intracellular accumulation of undegraded c-KIT that was accompanied by enhanced activation of ERK and increased cell growth. Interestingly, approximately 50% of aged Smap1-deficient mice developed anemia associated with morphologically dysplastic cells of erythroid-myeloid lineage, which are hematological abnormalities similar to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in humans. Furthermore, some Smap1-deficient mice developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of various subtypes. Collectively, to our knowledge these results provide the first evidence in a mouse model that the deregulation of clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking may be involved in the development of MDS and subsequent AML.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After receiving a TCR-mediated differentiation signal, CD4 and CD8 double-positive thymocytes diverge into CD4 or CD8 single-positive T cells, for which Th-POK and Runx3 have been identified as pivotal transcription factors, respectively. The cross-antagonistic regulation of Th-POK and Runx3 seems to be essential for CD4/8 thymocyte lineage commitment. However, the process for determining which pivotal factor acts dominantly has not been established. To explore the determining process, we used an in vitro culture system in which CD4 or CD8 single-positive cells are selectively induced from CD4/8 double-positive cells. Surprisingly, we found that control of G(1) cell cycle phase progression is critical for the determination. In the CD4 pathway, sustained TCR signal, as well as Th-POK, induces G(1)-phase extension and represses CD8 expression in a G(1) extension-dependent manner. In the CD8 pathway, after receiving a transient TCR signal, the IL-7R signal, as well as Runx3, antagonizes TCR signal-mediated G(1) extension and CD8 repression. Importantly, forced G(1) extension cancels the functions of Runx3 to repress Th-POK and CD4 and to reactivate CD8. In contrast, it is suggested that forced G(1) progression inhibits Th-POK function to repress CD8. Collectively, Th-POK and Runx3 are reciprocally involved in the control of G(1)-phase progression, on which they exert their functions dependently. These findings may provide novel insight into how CD4/CD8 cell lineages are determined by Th-POK and Runx3.
Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) are developed from hematopoietic progenitor cells and play an important role in inflammation. Study of the
kinetics of development and accumulation of primate MC in vivo is crucial for the control of human inflammatory diseases, as evolution of the immune system is quite rapid and inflammation
including MC response is considered to be different between mouse and human. In the present study, we examined the development
of MC from hematopoietic progenitors of Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset), an experimental animal of nonhuman primates. Bone marrow cells were fractionated for the expression of
CD34 and CD117 by cell sorting. MCs were developed in vitro or by transplanting the cells to NOD/SCID/IL-2γc knockout (NOG) mice. In vitro culture of CD34+CD117+ (double positive, DP) cells with stem cell factor could generate high-affinity Fc epsilon receptor (FcεR)-expressing CD117+ cells with typical granules. The developed MC released β-hexosaminidase and produced leukotriene C4 after the stimulation of FcεRI. Transplantation of DP cells gave rise to a marked expansion of CD34−CD45+CD117+FcεR+ cells in NOG mice. They expressed transcripts encoding chymase 1 and tryptase β. Differentiation of CD34−CD117+ cells to MCs was relatively limited compared with the DP cells, similarly to human MCs. These results suggest that this marmoset
system provides a good model for human MC development.
Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · International Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Runx1 transcription factor is abundantly expressed in naive T cells but rapidly downregulated in activated T cells, suggesting that it plays an important role in a naive stage. In the current study, Runx1(-/-)Bcl2(tg) mice harboring Runx1-deleted CD4(+) T cells developed a fatal autoimmune lung disease. CD4(+) T cells from these mice were spontaneously activated, preferentially homed to the lung, and expressed various cytokines, including IL-17 and IL-21. Among these, the deregulation of IL-21 transcription was likely to be associated with Runx binding sites located in an IL-21 intron. IL-17 produced in Runx1-deleted cells mobilized innate immune responses, such as those promoted by neutrophils and monocytes, whereas IL-21 triggered humoral responses, such as plasma cells. Thus, at an initial stage, peribronchovascular regions in the lung were infiltrated by CD4(+) lymphocytes, whereas at a terminal stage, interstitial regions were massively occupied by immune cells, and alveolar spaces were filled with granular exudates that resembled pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in humans. Mice suffered from respiratory failure, as well as systemic inflammatory responses. Our data indicate that Runx1 plays an essential role in repressing the transcription of cytokine genes in naive CD4(+) T cells and, thereby, maintains cell quiescence.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the evolution of vertebrate tissues by examining the potential association among gene expression, duplication, and base substitution patterns. In particular, we compared whole-genome duplication (WGD) with small-scale duplication (SSD), as well as tissue restricted with ubiquitously expressed genes. All patterns were also analysed in the light of gene evolutionary rates. Among those genes characterized by rapid evolution and expressed in a restricted range of tissues, SSD was represented in a larger proportion than WGD. Conversely, genes with ubiquitous expression were associated with slower evolutionary rates and a larger proportion of WGD. The results also show that evolutionary rates were faster in genes expressed in endodermal tissues and slower in ectodermal genes. Accordingly, the proportion of the SSD and WGD genes was highest in the endoderm and ectoderm, respectively. Therefore, quickly evolving SSD genes might have contributed to the faster evolution of endodermal tissues, whereas the comparatively slowly evolving WGD genes might have functioned to maintain the basic characteristics of ectodermal tissues. Mesenchymal tissues occupied an intermediate position in this regard, whereas the patterns observed for haemocytes were unique. Rapid tissue evolution could be related to a specific gene duplication mode (SSD) and faster molecular evolution in response to exposure to the external environment. These findings reveal general patterns underlying the evolution of tissues and their corresponding genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells in the immune system are regulated positively or negatively by sets of receptor pairs that conduct balanced, activating, or inhibitory intracellular signaling. One such receptor pair termed paired Ig-like receptor (PIR) is composed of the inhibitory PIR-B and its activating isoform, PIR-A. Upon binding to their shared ligand, MHC class I molecules, these receptors control the threshold for immune cell activation. Gene-targeting studies on PIR-B in mice revealed the importance of the inhibition mediated by the PIR-B-MHC interaction in the immune system. Recent studies also revealed the significance of the interaction of PIR-B with neurite outgrowth inhibitors, including Nogo in the CNS. The coordinated regulation by PIR-B and PIR-A is considered to be primarily dependent on their expression balance in cells. However, the mechanism underlying transcriptional control of the genes for PIR-B and PIR-A (Pirb and Pira, respectively) remains to be clarified. In this study, we identified the major cis-acting promoter segment for Pirb and Pira in B cells as the -212 to -117 region upstream from the translation initiation codon. PU.1 and Runx3 were found to bind to this Pirb promoter. Truncation of the PU.1-binding motif significantly reduced the promoter activity, whereas the influence of elimination of the Runx3 site was marginal in B lymphoma BCL1-B20 cells. Unexpectedly, PU.1, but not Runx3, knockdown reduced the levels of both the Pirb and Pira transcripts. We conclude that the major promoter of Pirb, and probably Pira as well, is activated dominantly by PU.1 and marginally by Runx3 in B cells.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of ArfGAP1 as a terminator or effector in COPi-vesicle formation has been the subject of ongoing discussions. Here, the discussion on the putative terminator/effector functions has been enlarged to include Arf GAP members involved in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. ACAP1, whose role has been studied extensively, enhances the recycling of endocytosed proteins to the plasma membrane. Importantly, this positive role appears to be an overall reflection of both the terminator and effector activities attributed to ACAP1. Other Arf GAP subtypes have also been suggested to possess both terminator and effector activities. Interestingly, while most Arf GAP proteins regulate membrane trafficking by acting as facilitators, a few Arf GAP subtypes act as inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Runx1 transcription factor plays multiple roles in T cell development, differentiation, and function. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functional significance of high Runx1 protein expression in resting peripheral CD4+ T cells is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that T-cell receptor (TCR) activation down-regulates distal Runx1 transcription, resulting in a significant reduction of Runx1 protein. Interestingly, this down-regulation of distal Runx1 transcription appears to be mediated through a negative auto-regulatory mechanism, whereby Runx1 protein binds to a Runx consensus site in the distal promoter. Through the use of Runx1-overexpressing cells from transgenic mice, we demonstrate that interference with TCR-mediated Runx1 down-regulation inhibits IL-2 production and proliferation in activated CD4+ T cells. In contrast, using Runx1-deficient cells prepared from targeted mice, we show that the absence of Runx1 in unstimulated CD4+ T cells results in IL-2 derepression. In summary, we propose that high levels of Runx1 in resting CD4+ T cells functions negatively in the regulation of IL-2 transcription, and that TCR activation-mediated down-regulation of Runx1 involves negative auto-regulation of the distal Runx1 promoter and contributes to IL-2 production.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SMAP2 is an Arf GTPase-activating protein that is located and functions on early endosome membranes. In the present study, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) was verified as an additional site of SMAP2 localization based on its co-localization with various TGN-marker proteins. Mutation of specific stretches of basic amino acid residues abolished the TGN-localization of SMAP2. Over-expression of wild-type SMAP2, but not of the mutated SMAP2, inhibited the transport of vesicular stomatitis virus-G protein from the TGN to the plasma membrane. In contrast, this transport was enhanced in SMAP2 (-/-) cells characterized by increased levels of the activated form of Arf. SMAP2 therefore belongs to an ArfGAP subtype that resides on the TGN and functions as a negative regulator of vesicle budding from the organelle.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Cell Structure and Function