Feng Jiao

Xi'an Jiaotong University, Ch’ang-an, Shaanxi, China

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Publications (4)0 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To develop a standard Neglect Evaluation Scale which is suitable for rural primary school students in China. Methods: According to the principle of multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, a field investigation was conducted among primary school students in 28 counties from 7 provinces and 2 municipalities. The questionnaires were self-designed, and determined by multiple rounds of pilots and revisions. Among 5 862 students, 2 792 (6-8 years' old) and 3 070 (9-11 years' old) were investigated by using two kinds of Neglect Evaluation questionnaires, respectively. After project analysis, factor analysis, reliability and validity analysis, the reliability and stability of the scale were tested. Then percentile method was used to determine the evaluation standard to develop and finalize the formal scale. Results: The numbers of the remaining items for 6-8 year-old group and 9-11 year-old group is 69 and 58, respectively, both of which contain six levels of neglect, including body, emotion, health care, education, security, and society. 4 times of factor analysis were conducted in both of the two groups. The factor loadings in these two groups were 0.290-0.700 and 0.276-0.729 respectively. Reliability test results showed that the two kinds of scales' Cronbach alpha coefficient were 0.924 and 0.929 respectively, split-half reliability were 0.891 and 0.904 respectively, the retest reliability were 0.559 and 0.892 respectively, the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The retest reliability among 6-8 year-old group in medical neglect level had no statistical significance, but was close to the cut-off point (P = 0.054). The test results of external validity indicated that both of the two scales could reflect the neglect status of the subjects (P < 0.05), but the subjective and objective evaluation towards neglect were not consistent. The cut-off points for judging whether the children were neglected or not among 6-8 year-old and 9-11 year-old groups were 159 and 137 respectively; and the adjusted values were 160 and 135 respectively. Conclusion: The two norm scales developed by this study showed good discriminability, reliability, validity, and stability. The norms developed on the basis of the scales was suitable for the situation of rural students in primary schools in China.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the status of child neglect among rural areas children aged 0 - 6 years in China. A total of 7411 rural children aged 0 - 6 years old who were composed of two age groups (3315 children aged 0 - 2 years old and 4096 children aged 3 - 6 years old) were multistage stratified randomly sampled from 84 villages which were representative of 10 provinces of China, in accordance with sex and age in November 2010. To identify the child neglect based on the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 0 to 2 and 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China, SPSS 13.0 was employed for analyzing neglect frequency and degree for every group of different age, sex and neglect type (including physical, emotional, educational, medical, safety and social neglects). χ(2) test and analysis of variance were also used. The degree of child neglect for the children aged 0 - 2 years old was 45.01 ± 7.56, the neglect frequency was 54.9% (1819/3315); the degree of child neglect for the children aged 3 - 6 years old was 44.42 ± 7.57, the neglect frequency was 53.8% (2203/4096). The neglect frequency of children aged 0, 1, 2 years old were 58.5% (654/1117), 52.2% (597/1144), 53.9% (568/1054) (P < 0.05). For children aged 3 - 6 years old, the degrees of emotional and safety neglect for males (44.60 ± 7.86, 36.82 ± 9.03) were higher than females (44.03 ± 7.72, 36.25 ± 9.05) (P < 0.05); and the frequencies of emotional and social neglect for males (16.8% (349/2072), 28.3% (586/2072)) were also higher than females (14.1% (286/2024), 24.8% (503/2024)) (P < 0.05). All children of two age groups suffered neglect mainly on one of the six neglect types (incidences were 20.6% (683/3315) and 22.7% (931/4096)). For 0-2 age groups, the higher neglect frequencies happened in the single-parent family and the remarried family (62.5% (15/24) and 63.2% (12/19)), but for children aged 3 - 6 years old groups, it happened in the single-parent family (60.0%, 27/45). Degree and frequency of child neglect among children aged 0 to 6 years old in the rural areas of China are high, and we should find out risk factors and provide efficient prevention measures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
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    ABSTRACT: To develop the national neglect norms for rural children aged 3 to 6 years, which are suitable for Chinese situations. According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, 84 towns of 10 provinces or municipalities were selected in China. Children aged 3 to 6 years were surveyed in November 2010, the sample of analysis were 3240 (of whom males were 49.6% (1608/3240) and the Han nationality were 93.3% (3023/3240)). Questionnaire was designed by authors and deleted items that did not meet the requirements through several statistical analysis methods, such as item analysis method, factor analysis method, reliability analysis method. The reliability analysis and validity analysis were used to test the stability and reliability of the norm. The evaluation criteria of the scale was determined by the percentile method, then the initial development of the norm completed. After deleting inappropriate items by statistical processing, finally, the scale consisted of 57 items, and included 6 neglected dimensions (physical neglect, emotional neglect, educational neglect, safe neglect, medical neglect and social neglect). Its item loadings ranged from 0.359 to 0.789, which met the statistical requirements. The scale's total Cronbach α coefficients 0.904, the total split-half reliability coefficients were 0.820, the 6 neglect dimensions' Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.620 to 0.815, the 6 neglect dimensions' split-half reliability coefficients ranged from -0.034 to 0.789, the scale's parallel reliability were 0.785 and it's re-test reliability were 0.613. After construct validity, external validity and content validity testing, the result showed that this scale could effectively reflect the real neglected status of children investigated. The total neglect cut-off score of this scale were 121. The scale has good stability and reliability. And it adapts Chinese conditions and it's convenient to operate.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
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    ABSTRACT: To develop the National Norms of Negligence (NNN) for rural children aged 0 to 35 months. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, 10 provinces or municipalities (Jilin, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Beijing, Anhui, Jiangsu, Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Chongqing) in China were selected. A national research group was formed collaboratively. A questionnaire was designed by ourselves. According to several statistical analysis methods, such as item, factor and reliability analysis etc. we determined the norm. The evaluation criteria of the scale were determined by percentile method. Finally, the reliability and validity of the norm were evaluated. In total, 2310 children were surveyed, in which the effective sample were 2227, with an effective rate as 96.4%. The scale consisted of 6 neglected dimensions and 65 items in total. The total Cronbach's a coefficient of the scale was 0.903, with the split-half reliability coefficient as 0.829, the parallel reliability as 0.720 and the re-test reliability as 0.678, respectively. The total neglect cut-off score of this scale was 139. The scale seemed to have perfect stability and reliability and all the statistical indicators met the psychometric demands.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi