Obaid O Chaudhry

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States

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Publications (5)15.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Due to safety concerns, the use of laparoscopy in high-risk colorectal surgery patients has been limited. Small reports have demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopy in this population; however, large comparative studies are lacking. Study design: A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009 was conducted. Patients undergoing elective colorectal resections for benign and malignant pathology were included in the high-risk group if they had at least two of the following criteria: age > 70, obesity, smoking, anemia, congestive heart failure, valvular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary, kidney and liver disease. Using multivariate logistic regression, the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery were compared to open and converted surgery. Results: Of 145,600 colorectal surgery cases, 32.79% were high-risk. High-risk patients had higher mortality, hospital charges, and longer hospital stay compared to low-risk patients. The use of laparoscopy was lower in the high-risk group with higher conversion rates. In high-risk patients, compared to open surgery, laparoscopy was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.60), shorter hospital stay, lower charges, decreased respiratory failure (OR = 0.53), urinary tract infection (OR = 0.64), anastomotic leak (OR = 0.69) and wound complications (OR = 0.46). Conversion to open surgery was not associated with higher mortality. Conclusions: Laparoscopy in high-risk colorectal patients is safe and may demonstrate advantages compared to open surgery.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes for laparoscopic procedures introduced in 2008 allow a more accurate evaluation of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009, a retrospective analysis of surgical colorectal cancer and diverticulitis patients was conducted. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios comparing the outcomes of laparoscopic, open, and converted surgery. Results: A total of 121,910 patients underwent resection for cancer and diverticulitis, 35.41% of whom underwent laparoscopic surgery. Compared with open surgery, laparoscopic surgery had lower postoperative complication rates, lower mortality, shorter hospital stays, and lower costs. Compared to open surgery, laparoscopic surgery independently decreased mortality, postoperative anastomotic leak, urinary tract infection, ileus or obstruction, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and wound infection. Converted surgery was independently associated with anastomotic leak, wound infection, ileus or obstruction, and urinary tract infection. Conclusions: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has lower postoperative complications, lower mortality, lower costs, and shorter hospital stays. Conversion had higher complications compared with laparoscopy. The use of laparoscopy should increase with efforts to minimize conversion.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · American journal of surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for postoperative urinary tract infection (UTI) and urinary retention (UR) in patients with colorectal cancer. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2006-2009, a retrospective analysis of surgical patients with colorectal cancer was conducted. Patients were stratified into groups, with or without UTI/UR. The LASSO algorithm for logistic regression identified independent risk factors. A total of 93,931 surgical patients with colorectal cancer were identified. The incidences of UTI and UR were 5.91 and 2.52 per cent, respectively. Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.68 per cent. The UTI group demonstrated significantly higher in-hospital mortality rates compared with those without. Both UTI and UR groups were associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased hospital charge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age older than 60 years, females, anemia, congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, diabetes with chronic complications, fluid and electrolyte, paralysis, pulmonary circulation disorders, renal failure, and weight loss were independent risk factors of UTI. Age older than 60 years, male gender, rectal and rectosigmoid cancers, and postoperative anastomotic leakage and ileus were independent risk factors for UR. Postoperative UTI increases in-house mortality. Postoperative UTI/UR in patients with colorectal cancer increases length of stay and hospital charges. Knowledge of these specific risk factors for UTI and UR is needed to counsel patients and prevent these complications in this high-risk population.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · The American surgeon
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The risk factors for anastomotic leak (AL) after anterior resection have been evaluated in several studies and remain controversial as the findings are often inconsistent or inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To analyze the risk factors for AL after anterior resection in patients with rectal cancer. DESIGN Retrospective analysis. SETTING The Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2006 to 2009. PATIENTS A total of 72 055 patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective anterior resection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES To build a predictive model for AL using demographic characteristics and preadmission comorbidities, the lasso algorithm for logistic regression was used to select variables most predictive of AL. RESULTS The AL rate was 13.68%. The AL group had higher mortality vs the non-AL group (1.78% vs 0.74%). Hospital length of stay and cost were significantly higher in the AL group. Laparoscopic and open resections with a diverting stoma had a higher incidence of AL than those without a stoma (15.97% vs 13.25%). Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and malnutrition, fluid and electrolyte disorders, male sex, and stoma placement were associated with a higher risk of AL. The use of laparoscopy was associated with a lower risk of AL. Postoperative ileus, wound infection, respiratory/renal failure, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, and myocardial infarction were independently associated with AL. CONCLUSIONS Anastomotic leak after anterior resection increased mortality rates and health care costs. Weight loss and malnutrition, fluid and electrolyte disorders, male sex, and stoma placement independently increased the risk of leak. Laparoscopy independently decreased the risk of leak. Further studies are needed to delineate the significance of these findings.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960)
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    ABSTRACT: Early postoperative bowel obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality after colorectal surgery. We evaluated the impact of patient characteristics, patient comorbidities, pathology, resection site, surgical technique, admission type, and teaching hospital status on the incidence of in-hospital bowel obstruction after colorectal surgery. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we examined the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2006 to 2008. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of in-hospital bowel obstruction. A total of 975,825 patients underwent colorectal resection during this period. Overall, the rate of postoperative bowel obstruction was 8.65% (elective surgery: 5.32% vs emergent surgery: 13.26%; p < 0.01). Bowel obstruction was less frequent after laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures (6.61% vs 8.81%; p < 0.01). Using multivariate regression analysis, Crohn disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 12.32), emergent surgery (AOR = 2.54), malignant tumor (AOR = 1.84), diverticulitis (AOR = 1.45), age older than 65 years (AOR = 1.22), female sex (AOR = 1.14), history of alcohol abuse (AOR = 1.12), transverse colectomy (AOR = 1.11), peripheral vascular disease (AOR = 1.07), left colectomy (AOR = 1.06), chronic lung disease (AOR = 1.05), open procedure (AOR = 1.05), African-American race (AOR = 1.03), and teaching hospital (AOR = 1.02) were associated with a higher risk of in-hospital bowel obstruction. There was no association between hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, liver disease, obesity, smoking, proctectomy or total colectomy, and early bowel obstruction. Early bowel obstruction is a relatively common complication after colorectal surgery. Crohn disease patients had a 12-fold higher incidence of early bowel obstruction, and emergent surgery and malignancy were relevant predictors of early bowel obstruction.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons