[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of microtubule dynamics in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells and the consequences of reduced rates of microtubule polymerization on downstream CF cellular events, such as cholesterol accumulation, a marker of impaired intracellular transport, is explored here. It is identified that microtubules in both CF cell models and in primary CF nasal epithelial cells re-polymerize at a slower rate compared to respective controls. Previous studies suggest a role for cAMP in modulating organelle transport in CF cells implicating a role for exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC1), a regulator of microtubule elongation, as a potential mechanism. EPAC1 activity is reduced in CF cell models and in Cftr -/- mouse lung compared to respective non-CF controls. Stimulation of EPAC1 activity with the selective EPAC1 agonist 8-cpt-2-O-Me-cAMP stimulates microtubule re-polymerization to WT rates in CF cells. EPAC1 activation also alleviates cholesterol accumulation in CF cells suggesting a direct link between microtubule regulation and intracellular transport. To verify the relationship between transport and microtubule regulation, expression of the protein tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP) was knocked-down in non-CF human tracheal cells (9/HTEo-) cells to mimic the microtubule dysregulation in CF cells. Transduced cells with shRNA targeting TPPP exhibit CF-like perinuclear cholesterol accumulation and other cellular manifestations of CF cells, thus supporting a role for microtubule regulation as a mechanism linking CFTR function to downstream cellular manifestation.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S-Nitrosothiols (SNOs) are endogenous signaling molecules with a broad spectrum of beneficial airway effects. SNOs are normally present in the airway, but levels tend to be low in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We and others have demonstrated that S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) increases the expression, maturation, and function of wild-type and mutant F508del cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in human bronchial airway epithelial (HBAE) cells. We hypothesized that membrane permeable SNOs, such as S-nitrosoglutathione diethyl ester (GNODE) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl cysteine (SNOAC) may be more efficient in increasing the maturation of CFTR. HBAE cells expressing F508del CFTR were exposed to GNODE and SNOAC. The effects of these SNOs on the expression and maturation of F508del CFTR were determined by cell surface biotinylation and Western blot analysis. We also found for the first time that GNODE and SNOAC were effective at increasing CFTR maturation at the cell surface. Furthermore, we found that cells maintained at low temperature increased cell surface stability of F508del CFTR whereas the combination of low temperature and SNO treatment significantly extended the half-life of CFTR. Finally, we showed that SNO decreased the internalization rate of F508del CFTR in HBAE cells. We anticipate identifying the novel mechanisms, optimal SNOs, and lowest effective doses which could benefit cystic fibrosis patients.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to many cellular consequences, including perinuclear accumulation of free cholesterol due to impaired endosomal transport. The hypothesis being tested is that cystic fibrosis related perinuclear cholesterol accumulation due to disrupted endocytic trafficking occurs as a result of reduced microtubule (MT) acetylation. Here, it is identified that acetylated-α-tubulin (Ac-tub) content is reduced by approximately 40% compared to respective wild-type controls in both cultured CF cell models (IB3) and primary Cftr -/- mouse nasal epithelial tissue. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been shown to regulate MT acetylation, which provides reasonable grounds to test its impact on reduced Ac-tub content on CF cellular phenotypes. Inhibition of HDAC6, either through tubastatin treatment or HDAC6 knockdown in CF cells, increases Ac-tub content and results in redistributed free cholesterol and reduced stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mechanistically, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is widely reported in CF and leads to aggresome formation, is identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. F508del CFTR correction with C18 in primary airway epithelial cells restores MT actyaltion and cholesterol transport. A significant role for phosphotidyl inositol-3 kinase, p110α (PIK3CA) is also identified as a regulator of MT acetylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) cells exhibit an increase in the protein expression of β-arrestin-2 (βarr2) coincident with perinuclear accumulation of free cholesterol. Arrestins are proteins that both serve as broad signaling regulators and contribute to G-protein coupled receptor internalization after agonist stimulation. The hypothesis of this study is that βarr2 is an important component in the mechanisms leading to cholesterol accumulation characteristic of CF cells. To test this hypothesis, epithelial cells stably expressing GFP-tagged βarr2 (βarr2-GFP) and respective GFP-expressing control cells (cont-GFP) were analyzed by filipin staining. The βarr2-GFP cells show a late endosomal/lysosomal cholesterol accumulation that is identical to that seen in CF cells. This βarr2-mediated accumulation is sensitive to Rp-cAMPS treatment, and depleting βarr2 expression in CF-model cells by shRNA alleviates cholesterol accumulation compared with controls. Cftr/βarr2 double knockout mice also exhibit wild-type (WT) levels of cholesterol synthesis, and WT profiles of signaling protein expression have previously been shown to be altered in CF due to cholesterol-related pathways. These data indicate a significant regulatory role for βarr2 in the development of CF-like cholesterol accumulation and give further insight into cholesterol processing mechanisms. An impact of βarr2 expression on Niemann-Pick type C-1 (NPC1)-containing organelle movement is proposed as the mechanism of βarr2-mediated alterations on cholesterol processing. It is concluded that βarr2 expression contributes to altered cholesterol trafficking observed in CF cells.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by inflammatory lung disease that significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality. Airway epithelial cells play a role in the inflammatory signaling in CF and have been reported to exhibit a number of dysfunctions in signaling cascades that modulate inflammation. Previously, we reported that the activity of nuclear factor erythroid-derived-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates antioxidant and cytoprotective protein expression, is diminished in CF epithelia (7). In this report, we examined the mechanism of Nrf2 dysregulation in vitro in human airway epithelial cell lines and primary cells and in vivo in nasal epithelia excised from ΔF508 CF mutant mice. We found that cAMP-mediated signaling markedly reduces Nrf2 activity in CF vs. non-CF cells. Rp-cAMPS, a cAMP competitor, significantly corrected Nrf2 activity in CF cells, predominantly by increasing the nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that Rp-cAMPS significantly decreased NF-κB activation following inflammatory stimulation of CF cells. Further investigation revealed that Nrf2 and NF-κB compete for the transcriptional coactivator cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP) and that Rp-cAMPS shifts CBP association in favor of Nrf2. Thus our findings provide a link between feedback to CF transmembrane regulator dysfunction and dysregulation of an inflammatory signaling pathway that modulates the coordinated activities of Nrf2 and NF-κB. Furthermore, our studies suggest that strategies that shift CBP association away from NF-κB and toward Nrf2 could have potential therapeutic efficacy for reducing inflammation in patients with CF.
Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in many species. Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 gene, which regulates lipid transport through the endocytic pathway. NPC disease is characterized by massive intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in lysosomal vesicles. We examined the roles that NPC1/2 proteins play in the intracellular trafficking of tocopherol. Reduction of NPC1 or NPC2 expression or function in cultured cells caused a marked lysosomal accumulation of vitamin E in cultured cells. In vivo, tocopherol significantly accumulated in murine Npc1-null and Npc2-null livers, Npc2-null cerebella, and Npc1-null cerebral cortices. Plasma tocopherol levels were within the normal range in Npc1-null and Npc2-null mice, and in plasma samples from human NPC patients. The binding affinity of tocopherol to the purified sterol-binding domain of NPC1 and to purified NPC2 was significantly weaker than that of cholesterol (measurements kindly performed by R. Infante, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX). Taken together, our observations indicate that functionality of NPC1/2 proteins is necessary for proper bioavailability of vitamin E and that the NPC pathology might involve tissue-specific perturbations of vitamin E status.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · The Journal of Lipid Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work demonstrated that cystic fibrosis (CF) cells exhibit an increase in cAMP-mediated signaling as a characteristic response to lost CFTR function. Evidence for increased cAMP-mediated signaling in CF included increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and elevated β-arrestin-2 (βarr2) expression. However, subsequent studies reveal that CREB activation in CF cells is independent of protein kinase-A (PKA). The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that elevated βarr2 expression leads to increased CREB activation in a PKA-independent mechanism. βarr2-GFP expressing tracheal epithelial cells (βarr2-GFP) exhibit an increase of pCREB content and subsequent CRE activation compared to GFP expressing control cells. βarr2 activation of the ERK cascade represents a candidate mechanism leading to CREB activation. ERK exhibits increased activation in βarr2-GFP cells compared to cont-GFP cells, and ERK inhibition diminishes CRE activation in both GFP and βarr2-GFP cells. To test directly whether CREB regulation in CF is βarr2-dependent, nasal epithelium excised from wt mice (Cftr +/+; βarr2 +/+), CF mice (Cftr -/-; βarr2 +/+), and DKO mice (Cftr -/-; βarr2 -/-) were analyzed for pCREB protein content. Removal of βarr2 expression from CF mice reduces both pCREB and pERK content to wt levels. These data indicate that CF-related CREB regulation is mediated directly through βarr2 expression via the ERK pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify a mechanism regulating cholesterol accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) cells. Both CFTR activation and expression are regulated by the cAMP pathway, and it is hypothesized that a feedback response involving this pathway may be involved in the phenotype of cholesterol accumulation. To examine the role of the cAMP pathway in cholesterol accumulation, we treated two CF model cell lines with the Rp diastereomer of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS) and visualized by filipin staining. Rp-cAMPS treatment eliminated cholesterol accumulation in CF cells, whereas 8-bromo-cAMP treatment led to cholesterol accumulation in wild-type cells. To confirm these findings in an independent model system, we also examined the role of cAMP in modulating cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) fibroblasts. Expression of the protein related to NPC, NPC1, is also directly regulated by cAMP; therefore, it is postulated that NPC cells exhibit the same cAMP-mediated control of cholesterol accumulation. Cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells also was reduced by the presence of Rp-cAMPS. Expression of beta-arrestin-2 (betaarr2), a marker of cellular response to cAMP signaling, was significantly elevated in CF model cells, Cftr(-/-) MNE, primary tissue obtained by nasal scrapes from CF subjects, and in NPC fibroblasts compared with respective controls.
Preview · Article · Oct 2008 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is characterized at the cellular level by the intracellular accumulation of free cholesterol. We have previously identified a similar phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF) cell models that results in the activation of the small GTPase RhoA. The hypothesis of this study was that NPC cells would also exhibit an increase in small GTPase activation. An examination of the active, GTP-bound form of GTPases revealed a basal increase in the content of the active-form Ras and RhoA small GTPases in NPC fibroblasts compared to wt controls. To assess whether this increase in GTP-bound Ras and RhoA manifests a functional outcome, the expression of the proliferation control proteins p21/waf1 and cyclin D were examined. Consistent with increased GTPase signaling, p21/waf1 expression is reduced and cyclin D expression is elevated in NPC fibroblasts. Interestingly, cell growth rate is not altered in NPC fibroblasts compared to wt cells. However, NPC sensitivity to statin treatment is reversed by addition of the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a modifier of RhoA. It is concluded that Ras and RhoA basal activation is elevated in NPC fibroblasts and has an impact on cell survival pathways.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SMAD3 is a transcription factor that mediates TGF-beta1 signaling and is known to be important in many of the cellular processes that regulate fibrosis and inflammation. Although several studies have examined SMAD3 activation, little is known about the control of SMAD3 expression. It is well established that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is responsive to TGF-beta1 stimulation and coordinates with SMAD signaling in many cases; therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that the MAPK pathway will be involved in the regulation of SMAD3 expression. Using a SMAD3 promoter construct, we demonstrate that inhibition of either c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 activity has little effect on SMAD3 promoter function. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) with either PD98059 or UO126, however, results in a substantial dose-dependent inhibition of SMAD3 promoter activity. Further studies confirm that promoter activity correlates with protein expression by demonstrating reduced SMAD3 protein expression in A549 cells and airway smooth muscle cells after treatment with MEK1 inhibitors. Positive regulation of SMAD3 expression is also demonstrated by expression of a constitutively active (ca)-MEK1 construct, where the presence of ca-MEK1 resulted in increased SMAD3 protein expression. These data lead to the conclusion that MEK1 is an important regulator of SMAD3 expression.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Cellular Signalling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent data demonstrate that inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase restores normal signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression regulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) cells through the modulation of RhoA function. These findings lead to the hypothesis that alterations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway may be an initiating factor in CF-related cell signaling regulation. A disease with a known lesion in the cholesterol synthesis pathway is Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). The hypothesis of this study is that CF cells and NPC fibroblasts share a common mechanistic lesion and should exhibit similar cell signaling alterations. NPC fibroblasts exhibit similar alterations in signal transducer and activator of transcription-1, RhoA, SMAD3, and nitric oxide synthase protein expression that characterize CF. Further comparison reveals NPC-like accumulation of free cholesterol in two cultured models of CF epithelial cells. These data identify novel signaling changes in NPC, demonstrate the cholesterol-synthesis pathway is a likely source of CF-related cell signaling changes, and that cultured CF cells exhibit impaired cholesterol processing.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) is reduced in cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelium despite the presence of aggressive inflammation. A potential mechanism for reduced NOS2 expression in CF is diminished signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) activity, possibly due to an increase in expression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1). Previous evidence also suggests that NOS2 expression can be negatively regulated by increased activation of the GTPase RhoA, leading to the hypothesis that CF-related increases in PIAS1 expression and altered STAT1 signaling may be mediated by Rho GTPase function. Consistent with this hypothesis, data demonstrate increased expression of RhoA in two models of CF epithelium with a proportional increase in the active GTP-bound RhoA. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts null for p190B Rho GTPase-activating protein exhibit increased RhoA protein content and activation, similar to what is observed in CF models, and also exhibit CF-like alterations in STAT1 regulation, including decreased STAT1 activation, increased PIAS1 protein expression, and reduced NOS2 induction, implicating RhoA-mediated signaling in CF-related STAT1 alterations. Inhibition of the Rho GTPase pathway at the level of isoprenoid/cholesterol synthesis with mevastatin reduces PIAS1 expression, increases STAT1 activation, and restores NOS2 expression in models of CF epithelium, suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the isoprenoid synthesis/Rho GTPase pathway may represent a potential avenue for therapeutic intervention for CF.
Preview · Article · Jan 2004 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aberrant dysregulation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) is thought to play a role in many inflammatory disorders including cystic fibrosis (CF). The complex regulation of NOS2 expression is the subject of intense investigation, and one intriguing regulatory pathway known to influence NOS2 expression is the Rho GTPase cascade. We examined NOS2 regulation in response to inflammatory cytokines in a human alveolar epithelial cell line treated with inhibitors of different upstream and downstream components of the Rho GTPase pathway to better define potential signaling mechanisms. Statin-mediated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibition increased cytokine-dependent activation of the NOS2 promoter, reversible by the addition of geranylgeranyl pyrphosphate. However, inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) with Y-27632 resulted in a decrease in NOS2 promoter activity, yet an increase in NOS2 mRNA and protein levels. Our results suggest that prenylation events influence NOS2 promoter activity independently of the Rho GTPase pathway and that Rho GTPase signaling mediated through ROCK suppresses NOS2 production downstream of promoter function at the message and protein level.
Preview · Article · Oct 2002 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease characterized by an aggressive inflammatory response in the airways. Given the antiinflammatory properties of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, it was our goal to examine components of TGF-beta1-mediated signaling in both a cultured cell model and a mouse model of CF. A CF-related reduction of protein levels of the TGF-beta1 signaling molecule Smad3 was found in both of these model systems, whereas Smad4 levels were unchanged. Functional effects of reduced Smad3 expression are manifest in our cultured cell model, as reduced basal and TGF-beta1-stimulated levels of luciferase expression using the TGF-beta1-responsive reporter construct 3TP-Lux in the CF-phenotype cells compared with control cells. However, TGF-beta1-stimulated responses using the A3-Luc reporter construct were normal in both cell lines. These results suggest that select TGF-beta1-mediated signaling pathways are impaired in CF epithelial cells. This selective loss of Smad3 protein expression in CF epithelium may also influence inflammatory responses. Our data demonstrate that both CF-phenotype cells lacking Smad3 expression, and A549 cells expressing a dominant-negative Smad3, are unable to support TGF-beta1-mediated inhibition of either the interleukin (IL)-8 or the NOS2 promoter. We conclude that a CF-related reduction in Smad3 protein expression selectively alters TGF- beta1-mediated signaling in CF epithelium, potentially contributing to aggressive inflammatory responses.
Preview · Article · Jan 2002 · American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology