[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare autosomal dominant subtype of migraine with aura. The FHM3 subtype is caused by mutations in SCN1A, which is also the most frequent epilepsy gene encoding the voltage-gated Na(+) channel NaV1.1. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical, genetic and pathogenetic features of a pure FHM3 family.
A three-generation family was enrolled in this study for genetic testing and assessment of clinical features. Whole cell patch-clamp was performed to determine the functions of identified mutant NaV1.1 channels, which were transiently expressed in human tsA201 cells together with β1 and β2 subunits.
Results and conclusions:
We identified a novel SCN1A (p.Leu1624Pro) mutation in a pure FHM family with notably early-onset attacks at mean age of 7. L1624P locates in S3 of domain IV, the same domain as two of four known pure FHM3 mutations. Compared to WT channels, L1624P displayed an increased threshold-near persistent current in addition to other gain-of-function features such as: a slowing of fast inactivation, a positive shift in steady-state inactivation, a faster recovery and higher channel availability during repetitive stimulation. Similar to the known FHM3 mutations, this novel mutation predicts hyperexcitability of GABAergic inhibitory neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A complex relationship between migraine and vascular disease has long been recognized. The pathophysiological basis underlying this correlation is incompletely understood.
The aim of this review is to focus on the migraine-vascular disorders connection from a genetic perspective, illustrating potentially shared (molecular) mechanisms.
We first summarize the clinical presentation and genetic basis of CADASIL and other monogenic vascular syndromes with migraine as a prominent disease manifestation. Based on data from transgenic mouse models for familial hemiplegic migraine, we then discuss cortical spreading depression as a potential mechanistic link between migraine and ischemic stroke. Finally, we review data from genome-wide association studies, with a focus on overlapping findings with cervical artery dissection, ischemic stroke in general and cardiovascular disease.
A wealth of data supports a genetic link between migraine and vascular disease. Based on growing high-throughput data-sets, new genotyping techniques and in-depth phenotyping, further insights are expected for the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
E.E. and C.d.L. contributed equally to this work. A.M.J.M.v.d.M. and D.P. jointly directed this work.Migraine is a common episodic brain disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of severe unilateral headache and additional neurological symptoms. Two main migraine types can be distinguished based on the presence of aura symptoms that can accompany the headache: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Multiple genetic and environmental factors confer disease susceptibility. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that migraine susceptibility genes are involved in various pathways, including neurotransmission, which have already been implicated in genetic studies of monogenic familial hemiplegic migraine, a subtype of migraine with aura.
To further explore the genetic background of migraine, we performed a gene set analysis of migraine GWAS data of 4954 clinic-based patients with migraine, as well as 13,390 controls. Curated sets of synaptic genes and sets of genes predominantly expressed in three glial cell types (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes) were investigated.
Our results show that gene sets containing astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-related genes are associated with migraine, which is especially true for gene sets involved in protein modification and signal transduction. Observed differences between migraine with aura and migraine without aura indicate that both migraine types, at least in part, seem to have a different genetic background.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
H.Z. and E.E. contributed equally to this work. A.M.J.M.v.d.M. and D.R.N. jointly directed this work.It is unclear whether patients diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) experience distinct disorders or whether their migraine subtypes are genetically related.
Using a novel gene-based (statistical) approach, we aimed to identify individual genes and pathways associated both with MA and MO.
Gene-based tests were performed using genome-wide association summary statistic results from the most recent International Headache Genetics Consortium study comparing 4505 MA cases with 34,813 controls and 4038 MO cases with 40,294 controls. After accounting for non-independence of gene-based test results, we examined the significance of the proportion of shared genes associated with MA and MO.
We found a significant overlap in genes associated with MA and MO. Of the total 1514 genes with a nominally significant gene-based p value (pgene-based ≤ 0.05) in the MA subgroup, 107 also produced pgene-based ≤ 0.05 in the MO subgroup. The proportion of overlapping genes is almost double the empirically derived null expectation, producing significant evidence of gene-based overlap (pleiotropy) (pbinomial-test = 1.5 × 10(-4)). Combining results across MA and MO, six genes produced genome-wide significant gene-based p values. Four of these genes (TRPM8, UFL1, FHL5 and LRP1) were located in close proximity to previously reported genome-wide significant SNPs for migraine, while two genes, TARBP2 and NPFF separated by just 259 bp on chromosome 12q13.13, represent a novel risk locus. The genes overlapping in both migraine types were enriched for functions related to inflammation, the cardiovascular system and connective tissue.
Our results provide novel insight into the likely genes and biological mechanisms that underlie both MA and MO, and when combined with previous data, highlight the neuropeptide FF-amide peptide encoding gene (NPFF) as a novel candidate risk gene for both types of migraine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To quantify genetic overlap between migraine and ischemic stroke (IS) with respect to common genetic variation.
We applied 4 different approaches to large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide data on migraine (23,285 cases and 95,425 controls) and IS (12,389 cases and 62,004 controls). First, we queried known genome-wide significant loci for both disorders, looking for potential overlap of signals. We then analyzed the overall shared genetic load using polygenic scores and estimated the genetic correlation between disease subtypes using data derived from these models. We further interrogated genomic regions of shared risk using analysis of covariance patterns between the 2 phenotypes using cross-phenotype spatial mapping.
We found substantial genetic overlap between migraine and IS using all 4 approaches. Migraine without aura (MO) showed much stronger overlap with IS and its subtypes than migraine with aura (MA). The strongest overlap existed between MO and large artery stroke (LAS; p = 6.4 × 10(-28) for the LAS polygenic score in MO) and between MO and cardioembolic stroke (CE; p = 2.7 × 10(-20) for the CE score in MO).
Our findings indicate shared genetic susceptibility to migraine and IS, with a particularly strong overlap between MO and both LAS and CE pointing towards shared mechanisms. Our observations on MA are consistent with a limited role of common genetic variants in this subtype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this prospective study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of the two methods most frequently used for evaluation of carotid plaque characteristics: Multi-detector Computed Tomography Angiography (MDCTA) and black-blood 3 T-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (bb-CMR) with respect to their ability to identify symptomatic carotid plaques.
METHODS: 22 stroke unit patients with unilateral symptomatic carotid disease and >50% stenosis by duplex ultrasound underwent MDCTA and bb-CMR (TOF, pre- and post-contrast fsT1w-, and fsT2w- sequences) within 15 days of symptom onset. Both symptomatic and contralateral asymptomatic sides were evaluated. By bb-CMR, plaque morphology, composition and prevalence of complicated AHA type VI lesions (AHA-LT6) were evaluated. By MDCTA, plaque type (non-calcified, mixed, calcified), plaque density in HU and presence of ulceration and/or thrombus were evaluated. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) were calculated using a 2-by-2-table.
RESULTS: To distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques AHA-LT6 was the best CMR variable and presence / absence of plaque ulceration was the best CT variable, resulting in a SE, SP, PPV and NPV of 80%, 80%, 80% and 80% for AHA-LT6 as assessed by bb-CMR and 40%, 95%, 89% and 61% for plaque ulceration as assessed by MDCTA. The combined SE, SP, PPV and NPV of bb-CMR and MDCTA was 85%, 75%, 77% and 83%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Bb-CMR is superior to MDCTA at identifying symptomatic carotid plaques, while MDCTA offers high specificity at the cost of low sensitivity. Results were only slightly improved over bb-CMR alone when combining both techniques.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There has been intensive debate whether migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) should be considered distinct subtypes or part of the same disease spectrum. There is also discussion to what extent migraine cases collected in specialised headache clinics differ from cases from population cohorts, and how female cases differ from male cases with respect to their migraine. To assess the genetic overlap between these migraine subgroups, we examined genome-wide association (GWA) results from analysis of 23,285 migraine cases and 95,425 population-matched controls.
Detailed heterogeneity analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects (odds ratios) between migraine subgroups was performed for the 12 independent SNP loci significantly associated (p < 5 × 10(-8); thus surpassing the threshold for genome-wide significance) with migraine susceptibility. Overall genetic overlap was assessed using SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) at over 23,000 independent SNPs.
Significant heterogeneity of SNP effects (p het < 1.4 × 10(-3)) was observed between the MA and MO subgroups (for SNP rs9349379), and between the clinic- and population-based subgroups (for SNPs rs10915437, rs6790925 and rs6478241). However, for all 12 SNPs the risk-increasing allele was the same, and SECA found the majority of genome-wide SNP effects to be in the same direction across the subgroups.
Any differences in common genetic risk across these subgroups are outweighed by the similarities. Meta-analysis of additional migraine GWA datasets, regardless of their major subgroup composition, will identify new susceptibility loci for migraine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine has an important genetic component. The prototypic monogenic form of migraine is hemiplegic migraine, a rare subtype of migraine with aura, for which three causative genes have been identified. Studies of transgenic animal models have substantially improved our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of this monogenic model disease as well as of migraine in general. Beyond this, there are other (rarer) monogenic forms of migraine, e.g., in the context of hereditary mostly vascular syndromes such as CADASIL. By contrast, the common types of migraine with and without aura are genetically complex. With the identification of the first robust genetic risk variants in large genome-wide association studies, our knowledge in this still dynamically expanding field has substantially increased. This review summarizes the current status of migraine genetics, with a special focus on hemiplegic migraine as well as the most recent findings in complex migraine genetics. In addition, the first preliminary findings on the genetics of other types of primary headache disorders (cluster headache, tension-type headache) are briefly reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragestellung: Alle weltweit verfügbaren Datensätze genomweiter Assoziationsstudien (GWAS) wurden im Rahmen einer Metaanalyse analysiert.Hintergrund: Durch die Arbeiten des International Headache Genetics Consortium hat die komplexe Genetik der häufigen Migräneformen in den letzten Jahren einen enormen Aufschwung erlebt; es wurden Risikovarianten für Migräne mit Aura (MA; n = 1) , ohne Aura (MO; n = 4)  und für Migräne allgemein (n = 3)  identifiziert. In einem nächsten Schritt wurden nun im Rahmen einer Metaanalyse alle zurzeit verfügbaren Datensätze genomweiter Assoziationsstudien (GWAS) untersucht.Patienten und Methodik: Zusätzlich zu den bereits publizierten Kohorten wurden weitere Datensätze berücksichtigt (29 Studien zu 23.285 Migränepatienten versus 95.245 Kontrollprobanden). Zudem erfolgten Subgruppenanalysen (MA, MO, klinikbasierte Fälle) und sekundäre Analysen wie Untersuchung von Expression und transkriptioneller Aktivität.Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 142 SNPs an zw ...
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare subtype of migraine with transient hemiplegic aura.
We describe three unrelated families with familial hemiplegic migraine type II (FHM2). Retrospectively, information on 47 family members could be obtained, 15 by personal examination and 32 by indirect anamnesis from relatives. Genetic analyses were performed in 13 patients.
One family had a novel missense mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (c.659C>T, p.Ser220Leu) that segregated with the phenotype in three generations. Two further unrelated families with different ethnic backgrounds (one from Germany and one from Russia) had a missense mutation that has not been described as yet in FHM, but occurred in only a single patient with sporadic hemiplegic migraine (c.2723G>A, p.Arg908Gln). Clinically the patients had severe attacks lasting up to several weeks as well as epileptic seizures. Three patients with a proven mutation in the ATP1A2 gene clinically presented without hemiparesis. Furthermore, there was a possible relation of FHM2 to mental retardation in another two patients.
Clinical symptoms may last for several weeks in some patients. Patients with FHM2 may also present without hemiplegia. Therefore, the full family history has to be taken into account to establish the diagnosis of FHM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Migraine is the most common brain disorder, affecting approximately 14% of the adult population, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We report the results of a meta-analysis across 29 genome-wide association studies, including a total of 23,285 individuals with migraine (cases) and 95,425 population-matched controls. We identified 12 loci associated with migraine susceptibility (P < 5 x 10(-8)). Five loci are new: near AJAP1 at 1p36, near TSPAN2 at 1p13, within FHL5 at 6q16, within C7orf10 at 7p14 and near MMP16 at 8q21. Three of these loci were identified in disease subgroup analyses. Brain tissue expression quantitative trait locus analysis suggests potential functional candidate genes at four loci: APOA1BP, TBC1D7, FUT9, STAT6 and ATP5B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
To determine if black-blood 3 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (bb-CMR) can depict differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques in acute ischemic stroke patients.
In this prospective monocentric observational study 34 patients (24 males; 70 ±9.3 years) with symptomatic carotid disease defined as ischemic brain lesions in one internal carotid artery territory on diffusion weighted images underwent a carotid bb-CMR at 3 T with fat-saturated pre- and post-contrast T1w-, PDw-, T2w- and TOF images using surface coils and Parallel Imaging techniques (PAT factor = 2) within 10 days after symptom onset. All patients underwent extensive clinical workup (lab, brain MR, duplex sonography, 24-hour ECG, transesophageal echocardiography) to exclude other causes of ischemic stroke. Prevalence of American Heart Association lesion type VI (AHA-LT6), status of the fibrous cap, presence of hemorrhage/thrombus and area measurements of calcification, necrotic core and hemorrhage were determined in both carotid arteries in consensus by two reviewers who were blinded to clinical information. McNemar and Wilcoxon's signed rank tests were use for statistical comparison. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Symptomatic plaques showed a higher prevalence of AHA-LT6 (67.7% vs. 11.8%; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 12.5), ruptured fibrous caps (44.1% vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 15.0), juxtaluminal thrombus (26.5 vs. 0%; p < 0.01; odds ratio = 7.3) and intraplaque hemorrhage (58.6% vs. 11.8%; p = 0.01; odds ratio = 3.8). Necrotic core and hemorrhage areas were greater in symptomatic plaques (14.1 mm2 vs. 5.5 mm2 and 13.6 mm2 vs. 5.3 mm2; p < 0.01, respectively).
3 T bb-CMR is able to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaques, demonstrating the potential of bb-CMR to differentiate between stable and vulnerable lesions and ultimately to identify patients with low versus high risk for cardiovascular complications. Best predictors of the symptomatic side were a ruptured fibrous cap, AHA-LT 6, juxtaluminal hemorrhage/thrombus, and intraplaque hemorrhage.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important genetic component of migraine was systematically established by epidemiological studies in the 1990s. Over the past 15 years, significant progress has been made in unraveling the genetic basis and pathophysiological mechanisms of familial hemiplegic migraine, a rare and severe autosomal-dominant subtype of migraine with aura. Three different causative genes (CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A), all of which are involved in cerebral ion translocation, have been identified. Functional studies and mouse models have shown that mutations in these genes, by different mechanisms, cause a disturbed cerebral glutamate homeostasis and, thus, increase susceptibility to cortical spreading depression, the likely correlate of migraine aura. More recently, genome-wide association studies have, for the first time, detected robust risk variants associated with the more common, genetically complex types of migraine, which has generated new perspectives for genetic research in migraine. This review summarizes the current knowledge about migraine genetics, with a focus on both familial hemiplegic migraine and recent results of genome-wide association studies.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Future Neurology