- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although accumulating evidence suggests that a malfunction of the CSF system in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) may give rise to olfactory dysfunction, little objective knowledge is available at present about the olfactory capacity of patients with this condition. Seventeen patients with IIH and 17 age- and sex-matched controls were included. The extended Sniffin' Sticks procedure was used to test odor threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI). Median (interquartile range) values of the composite TDI score (29 [26.5-35.5] vs 35 [34-37], p = 0.003) were reduced in patients with IIH. Furthermore, Spearman correlation revealed reduced TDI values in patients with a recent clinical deterioration of IIH (r = 0.66, p = 0.004). Our pilot study provides new evidence that olfaction is impaired in patients with IIH, especially in those who have been newly diagnosed or who have experienced a recent clinical deterioration.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed at validating established imaging features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) by using state-of-the-art MR imaging together with advanced post-processing techniques and correlated imaging findings to clinical scores. Methods: Twenty-five IIH patients as well as age-, sex- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls underwent high-resolution T1w and T2w MR imaging in a 1.5 T scanner, followed by assessment of optic nerve sheaths, pituitary gland, ventricles and Meckel's cave. Imaging findings were correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressures and clinical symptom scores of visual disturbances (visual field defects or enlarged blind spot), headache, tinnitus (pulsatile and non-pulsatile) and vertigo. CSF as well as ventricle volumes were determined by using an automated MRI volumetry algorithm. Results: So-called 'empty sella' and optic nerve sheath distension were identified as reliable imaging signs in IIH. Posterior globe flattening turned out as a highly specific but not very sensitive sign. No abnormalities of the lateral ventricles were observed. These morphometric results could be confirmed using MR volumetry (VBM). Clinical symptoms did not correlate with an increase in lumbar opening pressure. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that lateral ventricle size is not affected in IIH. In contrast, abnormalities of the pituitary gland and optic nerve sheath were reliable diagnostic signs for IIH.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) volume scans as a tool for quantification of optic nerve head (ONH) volume as a potential marker for treatment effectiveness and disease progression in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Cross-sectional pilot trial comparing 19 IIH patients and controls matched for gender, age and body mass index. Each participant underwent SDOCT. A custom segmentation algorithm was developed to quantify ONH volume (ONHV) and height (ONHH) in 3D volume scans. Whereas peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness did not show differences between controls and IIH patients, the newly developed 3D parameters ONHV and ONHH were able to discriminate between controls, treated and untreated patients. Both ONHV and ONHH measures were related to levels of intracranial pressure (ICP). Our findings suggest 3D ONH measures as assessed by SDOCT as potential diagnostic and progression markers in IIH and other disorders with increased ICP. SDOCT may promise a fast and easy diagnostic alternative to repeated lumbar punctures and could therefore ease monitoring of treatment or disease progression.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complications of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) are usually caused by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). In a similar way as in the optic nerve, elevated ICP could also compromise the olfactory nerve system. On the other side, there is growing evidence that an extensive lymphatic network system around the olfactory nerves could be disturbed in cerebrospinal fluid disorders like IIH. The hypothesis that patients with IIH suffer from hyposmia has been suggested in the past. However, this has not been proven in clinical studies yet. This pilot study investigates whether structural changes of the olfactory nerve system can be detected in patients with IIH. Twenty-three patients with IIH and 23 matched controls were included. Olfactory bulb volume (OBV) and sulcus olfactorius (OS) depth were calculated by magnetic resonance techniques. While mean values of total OBV (128.7±38.4 vs. 130.0±32.6 mm(3), p=0.90) and mean OS depth (8.5±1.2 vs. 8.6±1.1 mm, p=0.91) were similar in both groups, Pearson correlation showed that patients with a shorter medical history IIH revealed a smaller OBV (r=0.53, p<0.01). In untreated symptomatic patients (n=7), the effect was greater (r=0.76, p<0.05). Patients who suffered from IIH for less than one year (n=8), total OBV was significantly smaller than in matched controls (116.6±24.3 vs. 149.3±22.2 mm(3), p=0.01). IIH patients with visual disturbances (n=21) revealed a lower OS depth than patients without (8.3±0.9 vs. 10.8±1.0 mm, p<0.01). The results suggest that morphological changes of the olfactory nerve system could be present in IIH patients at an early stage of disease.